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SENOPHON 
CYROPAEDIA 

WITH ^ ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
WALTER MILLER 



IN TWO VOLUMES 

I 




LONDON : WILLIAM HEINEMANN 
NEW YORK : THE MACMILLAN CO. 

MOMXIV 



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CONTENTS 



PAGE 
BOOK I. — THE BOYHOOD OF CYRUS 1 

BOOK II. — THE REORGANIZATION OF THK ARMY .... 133 

BOOK III.— THE CONQUEST OF ARMENIA AND SCYTHIA . 215 

BOOK IV. — ^THE CAPTURE OF THE FIRST AND SECOND 

CAMPS OF THE ASSYRIANS 307 



''■^ 



05265 

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INTRODUCTION 



Xenophon^ the son of a knightly family of Athens — 
general, historian, philosopher, essayist — was bom 
probably about 429 B.C. But there is a story, not 
very well authenticated, that his life was saved by 
Socrates in the battle of Delium (424 b.c), and that 
this marked the beginning of his attachment to his 
great master. If this story be true, the date of his 
birth can hardly be placed later than 444 b.c 

Our chief interest in his career centres about his ■ 
participation in the Expedition of the Younger 
Cyrus (401 b.c); the Anabasis, his own account of• 
that brilliant failure, gives him his chief claim to a 
high place among the great names in historical 
literature ; and his successful conduct of the Retreat 
of the Ten Thousand gives him his high rank among 
the world's great generals and tacticians. 

When he arrived once more in a land of Hellenic 
civilization, he found that his revered master Socrates 
had been put to death by his purblind countrymen, 
that the knights, to whose order he belonged, were 
in great disfavour, that there was no tie left to bind 
him to his home ; and so, with the remnant of the 

vii 



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INTRODUCTION 

troops that he had brought safe back to Hellas, he 
joined the Spartan king Agesilaus as he was starting 
for the conquest of the East, and with him fought 
against his own native city at Coronea (394 b.c.) 
From that date he lived, an exile from Athens, at 
Scillus, among the hills beyond the Alpheus from 
Olympia. And there he wrote the Anabasis, the 
Cyropaeditty the Essays on Agesihus, The Spartan 
Co7istitution, Horsemanship, Hunting, and most of 
his other books. He died at Corinth some time 
after 357 b.c. 

Xenophon's works have been roughly classified 
under three categories : history, philosophy, and 
miscellaneous essays. The Cyropaedia, however, 
can scarcely be made to fit into any one of these 
three groups. It is historical, but not history; it 
has much Socratic dialogue, but it is not philosophy ; 
it has discussions of many questions of education, 
ethics, politics, tactics, etc., but it is not an essay. 
It is biographical, but it is not biography ; it contains 
also, in the episode of Panthea and Abradatas, one of 
the most charming love stories in literature. We 
may best call it an historical romance — the western 
pioneer in that field of literature. 

Like all his followers in the realm of historical 
fiction, Xenophon allows himself many liberties with 
the facts of history. The constitution of Persia, as 
set forth in the Cyropaedia, is no oriental reality ; it 
is the constitution of Sparta, which, in his admiration 

viii 



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INTRODUCTION 

for Agesilaus and Clearchus and the Spartan disci- 
pline^ he has transfigured and set up as the model of 
his idealized constitutional monarchy. His Persians 
worship heroes^ go crowned with garlands into battle^ 
send a watchword up and down the lines as they 
prepare for battle^ sing a paean as they enter the 
fight^ and do many other things that real Persians 
never, Spartans always, did. The simple fare and 
dress of the Persians smack much more of the 
austere life of the Eurotas Valley than of the 
luxurious £ast. Even the education of the Persian 
youth is identically the education of young Spartans ; 
and in the teacher of Tigranes no one can fail to 
recognize Socrates himself. So, too, Cyrus's in- 
vincible battle lines are not the wavering, unwieldy 
hordes of orientals, easily swept away by the Grecian 
phalanx like chaff before the strong south-wind, but 
the heavy, solid masses of Sparta ; and his tactics on 
the march and in the fury of battle are not the 
tactics of a ^^ barbarian" king, but those of the 
consummate tactician who led the famous Ten 
Thousand Greeks from Asia back to Hellas. 

Actual violence to historical facts is sometimes 
committed. For example. Media was subdued by 
force (and treachery) in the lifetime of Astyages 
(550 B.C.), not voluntarily ceded to Cyrus by Cyaxares 
as the dowry of his daughter ; Cyaxares himself, 
the son of Astyages, is unknown, save through 
Xenophon's story ; it seems most probable that he is 



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INTRODUCTION 

wholly unhistorioal. The conquest of Egypt, ascribed 
to Cyrus, was in reality accomplished by his son 
and successor, Cambyses. The beautiful account 
of the peaceful passing of Cyrus is wholly out of 
accord with the well-established record of his violent 
death in the battle against the Massagetae (529 b.c.). 

This exhausts the tale of serious divergences from 
historical accuracy. There is much, on the other 
hand, that has been overlooked by the critics, though 
it is of prime importance for the history and the 
conditions of the orient in Xenophon's own times. 
The account he gives us of the Armenians and 
Chaldaeans, for example, affords us information, more 
full and more valuable than we have from any other 
source. Xenophon knew his Herodotus and Ctesias, 
of course, and probably other earlier historians whom 
we cannot identify ; and he drew at will from those 
sources such facts as he needed for the earlier history 
of the East. But of far more value to us is the 
wealth of material gathered by him on his memorable 
march through Asia and the flood of light that in the 
Cyropaedia he throws on contemporary peoples and 
manners and customs in the orient. 

As a work of art, the Cyropaedia brings together 
and sums up the results of nearly all of Xenophon' s 
literary activity. The Anabasis and the events that 
led to its composition furnish the background of 
geography^ history, and custom ; the Memorabilia 
and the discipleship to Socrates contribute the 



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INTRODUCTION 

Socratic method in the discussions of ethics^ tactics^ 
generalship^ and statesmanship ; the Agesilaus and 
The Spartan Constitution afford the basis for the 
ideal state that might have been constructed on 
Greek soil after the pattern of the kingdom of 
Cyrus ; the essays on Horsemanship and Hunting 
find full illustration in every book of the Cyropaedia ; 
the views set forth in the Oeconomicus on the social 
status of women and the ideal relations of married life 
and the home have their practical realization again 

\ in the story of Panthea and Abradatas. 

The title of the Cyropaedia {The Education of Cyrus) 
is misleading. In its scope it includes the whole 
life and career of the great conqueror. The first 
book covers the period of his boyhood and youth, 
and only one chapter of that has to do strictly with 
his education. In the remaining seven books the 
theme is not his own education but his campaigns of 
conquest and his training of others as soldiers and 

.' citizens in his new empire. But the first book, in 
dealing with the education of Cyrus, really answers 
the supreme questions of government — how to rule^ 
and how to be ruled — and therefore gives its name 

j to the whole ; for that problem is the real theme 

[^ of the work. 

The spirit of the book is Hellenic throughout — a 
picture of the East with a dash of local colour, but 
dominated by the civilization in which Xenophon was 
reared and the ideals that he had learned to cherish. 



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INTRODUCTION 

The corner-stone of his idealized Persian constitution, 
^^ equality of rights before the law" (I. iii. 18), and 
the " boasted equal freedom of speech " (I. iii. 10) 
are transferred bodily from the democracy of Athens 
to the uncongenial environment of an oriental des- 
potism. And yet his chief purpose in writing the 
story of Cyrus was to give his people a picture of an 
ideal monarchy with an ideal monarch, guided by 
Socratic principles and carrying out the author's 
political and philosophibal ideals. In the Cyropaedia 
the didactic element dominates both the history and 
the fiction; and the hero is an ide^SUstic composite 
^ portrait of Socrates, the younger Cjrrus, Clearchus, 
Agesilaus, and Xenophon himself. However it may 
have been received at Athens, it is only natural that 
such a book should have been extremely popular 
among the Romans, and that Cato and Cicero should 
have found in it teachings that appealed strongly to 
them for the upbuilding of an empire founded on 
the majesty of the lAw and on justice and righteous- 
ness, and that the younger Scipio should have had it 
'^always in his hands " as his vade mecum. 

In point of Hterary merit, it stands first among the 
writings of Xenophon. His hero, though he has 
been criticised as being a little too good, has the 
same qualities of greatness, goodness, gentleness, and 
justice that are given to him by the great prophets 
of Israel. "The Lord God of heaven" has given 
him "all the kingdoms of the earth" (II. Chron. 



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INTRODUCTION 

xxxVi. 23 ; Ezra^ i. 1-2) ; and the greatest of 
Messianic seers finds in Xenophon's hero " the Lord's 
anointed " (the Messiah), and makes Jehovah say of 
him (Is. xliv. 28 ; xlv. 1) : ^^ He is my shepherd and 
shall perform all my pleasure . . . whose right hand 
I hAve holden, to subdue nations before him." 



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XENOPHON'S CYROPAEDIA 

BOOK I 

THE BOYHOOD OF CYRUS 



VOL. Ϊ. 



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ΗΕΝΟΦΩΝΤΟΣ ΚΥΡΟΥ ΠΑΙΔΕΙΑ 



1. 'Έννοια ποθ* ήμΐν iyevcTO δσαι Βημοκρατίαι 
κατέλύθησαν ύπο των αΧΧως πως βονλομένων 
πόλιτενβσθαι μαλΧον η iv Βημοκρατία, δσαι τ' 
αν μοναρχίαι, δσαι τβ οΧιηαργιαι άντιρηνται rjSrf 
νπο Βημων, καΐ δσοι τυραννείν ίττιχειρήσαντε^ 
οί phf αντων καΐ ταχύ ττάμτταν κατεΧνθησαν, 
οί δέ κ&ν όποσονοΰν χρόνον άρχοντες Βια^ενωνται, 
θαυμάζονται ώς σοφοί τε καΐ ευτυχείς ανΒρβς 
^ε^ενημενοι, ττοΧΚούς δ' εΒοκουμ^ν καταμεμα- 
θηκέναι καΐ εν ΙΒίοις οϊκοις τους μεν έχοντας καϊ 
πΧείονας οΐκέτας, τους δέ καϊ πάνυ ^ oXiyov^i, 
καϊ δμως ούΒε τοις οΧί^οις τούτοις πάνυ τι Βυνα- 
μένους χρήσθαι πειθομενοις ^ τους Βεσπότας, 

* χάνυ Edd. ; χάνυ τι yG ; χάντη χΔΗΚ. , 

* χ9ΐθομ4νοί5 found only in FG ; [ΊΓ€ΐθομ4νοΐ5] Sauppe, Din- 
dorf, Hertlein ; χ(ΐθομ4νοΐ5 [robs 9€<nr6Tas] Hirschig, GemoU. 



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ι 



XENOPHON'S CYROPAEDIA 
BOOK I , 

I 

1. The thought once occurred to us how many preface : 
republics have been overthrown by people who bmty^o^ 
preferred to live under any form of government «ovemment 
other than a republican, and again, how many mon- 
archies and how many oligarchies in times past have 
been abolished by the people. We reflected, 
moreover, how many of those individuals who have 
aspired to absolute power have either been deposed 
once for alFand that right quickly ; or if they have 
continued in power, no matter for how short a 
time, they are objects of wonder as having proved 
to be wise and happy men. Then, too, we had 
observed, we thought, that even in private homes 
some people who had rather more than the usual 
number of servants^ and some also who had only 
a very few were nevertheless, though nominally 
masters, quite unable to assert their authority over 
even those few. 

3 
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XENOPHON 

2. "Ετι Be προς τούτοις ένβνοονμεν δτι άρχοντφ; 
μέρ βίσι καΐ οι βουκοΚοι των βοών καί οι ίττπο- 
φορβοί των ίππων, καί πάντες Sk οι καλούμενοι 
νομείς ων &ν έπιστατωσι ξφων είκοτως &ν άρ- 
χοντες τούτων νομίζοιντο' πάσας τοίνυν ταύτας 
τίΐς ά^έΚας εΒοκονμεν οράν μαΚΚον εθεΧούσας 
πείθεσθαι τοις νοι£ενσιν η τους ανθρώπους τοις 
αρχουσι, πορεύονται τε yap αί &^έΚαι y &ν 
αύτάς εύθύνωσιν οι νομείς, νέμονται τε χωρία 
εή> οποία αν αύτά,ς επάτγωσιν, απέχονταί τε &ν 
&ν αύτίις άπείρηωσΐ' καΐ τοις καρποΐς τοίνυν τοις 
'γιγνομένοις εξ αύτων εωσι τους νομέας γρησθαι 
ούτως όπως άν αύτοΙ βούΧωνται, ετι τοίνυν 
ούΒεμίαν πώποτε ατ/έΚην τ^σθημεθα συστασαν επϊ 
τον νομέα ούτε ως μη πείθεσθαι ούτε ως μη 
επιτρέπειν τφ καρπφ χρησθαι, αλλά καΐ χαΧε- 
πώτεραί είσιν αί ajiXai πάσι τοις άΧΧοφύΧοις 
ή τοις αρχουσί τε καΐ ώ'φέλουμένοις απ* αύτων 
άνθρωποι Bk επ* ούΒένας μαΧΚον συνίστανται 
η επϊ τούτους ούς άν αϊσθωνται αρχειν εαυτών 
επιχειροΰντας» 

3. 'Ότβ μεν Βη ταύτα ενεθυμούμεθα, ούτως iyi- 
^γνώσκομ^ν περί αυτών, ως άνθρώπψπεφυκοτι πάν- 
των των αΧΚων ραον εϊη ζωών ή ανθρώπων αρχειν, 
επειΒη δέ ένενοησαμεν οτι Κύρος &γενετο ΐΐέρσης, 
hς παμποΚΚους μεν ανθρώπους εκτησατο πειθο- 
μένους έαυτφ, παμποΚΚας Βε ποΚεις, πάμποΧΧα 
Bk έθνη, εκ τούτου Βη ηνα^καζομεθα μετανοεΐν 
μ^ ούτε των αδυνάτων ούτε των χαΧεπων ερ^ων 
^ το ανθρώπων αρχειν, ην' τις επισταμένως τούτο 
πράττη, Κύρφ yoOv ϊσμεν εθεΧήσαντας πείθεσθαι 

4 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. i. 2-3 

2. And in addition to this, we reflected that Animaie 
cowherds are the rulers of their cattle, that grooms tractable 
are the rulers of their horses, and that all who are ****" ™*'* 
called herdsmen might properly be regarded as the 

rulers of the animals over which they are placed in 
charge. Now we noticed, as we thought, that all 
these herds obeyed their keepers more readily than 
men obey their rulers. . For the herds go wherever 
their keeper directs them and graze in those places 
to which he leads them and keep out of those from 
which he excludes them. They allow their keeper, 
moreover, to enjoy, just as he will, the profits that 
accrue from them. An4 then again, we have never 
known of a herd conspiring against its keeper, either 
to refuse obedience to him or to deny him the 
privilege of enjoying the profits that accrue. At the 
same time, herds are more intractable to strangers 
than to their rulers and those who derive profit from 
them. Men, however, conspire against none sooner 
than against those whom they see attempting to rule 
over them. 

3. Thus, as we meditated on this analogy, we were Cyrus a 
inclined to conclude that for man, as he is constituted, ^*"^ ®^ ™®° 
it is easier to rule over any and all other creatures 

than to rule over men. But when we reflected that 
there was one Cjnrus, the Persian, who reduced to 
obedience a vast munber of men and cities and 
nations, we were then compelled to change our 
opinion and decide that to rule men might be a task 
neither impossible nor even difficult, if one should 
only go about it in an intelligent manner. At all 
events, we know that people obeyed Cyrus willingly, 
although some of them were distant from him a 



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XENOPHON 

T0V9 μ^ άτΓβχοι/τα? παμπόΧΧων ήμερων 6S6v, 
τους δέ καΐ μην&ν, του? δέ ούδ' έωρακότας ττώττοτ' 
αυτόν, τους δέ /cal βδ €Αδότα9 οτ^ ούδ' Αν lSoicv, 
καί όμως ηθεΚον αύτφ νπακούβιν. 

4. ΚαΙ γα/) rot τοσούτον Snjveyfce των αΧΧων 
βασιΧέων, καΐ των πατρίους αρχάς παρειΧη- 
φότων καϊ των hi βαυτων κτησαμένων, ωσθ^ 6 
μ€ν %κύθης Kaiirep πάμπολλων ^ όντων %κυθων 
άλλου μ^ν ούΒενος Βύναιτ αν βθνους ίπάρξαι, 
αψιτίφη δ' ίίν el του έαυτοΰ έθνους άρχων Βια- 
yevoiTO, καϊ 6 ®ραξ &ρακων καΐ 6 ^ΐλλυρώς 
^Ιλλυριών, καΐ ταλλα δε ωσαύτως ίθνη άκούομβν 
Tci yoOv iv τχι Έύρώπτ) €τι καϊ νυν αυτόνομα 
elvai λέγεται ^ καϊ λελύσθαί ^ττ' αλλήλων Κνρος 
δέ παραλαβών ωσαύτως ούτω καϊ τα iv ττ} *Ασία 
. ^νη αυτόνομα οντά ορμηθείς συν ολίγα ΤΙερσων 
στρατιά ίκόντων phf ήγήσατο ΜήΒων, έκόντων δέ 
^Ύρκανίων, κατβστρέψατο δε Χύρους, ^Ασσυρίους, 
^Αραβίους, ΚαππαΒόκας, Φρύγας αμφότερους, 
ΑνΒούς, ίίάρας, Φοίνικας, βαβυλώνιους,^ ή ρξε δέ 
Έακτρίων καϊ ^ΙνΒών καϊ Κιλίκων, ωσαύτως δέ 
%ακων καϊ ΤΙαφΤ^ιγόνων καϊ MayaBiS&v, καϊ 
άλλων δέ πάμπολλων έθνων, &ν ούΒ* &ν τά 
ονόματα βχοι τις εΙπεΐν, βπήρξβ δέ καϊ 'Ελλήνων 
των iv τ^ *Ασία, καταβάς δ' iπϊ θαΧατταν καϊ 
Κυπρίων καϊ Αιγυπτίων. 

^ Ίταμιτόλλων DFG ; χολλών xAHR. 

2 \4y€rat MSS. ; [λ^γ€το<] Dindorf, Hug, Marchant, omitting 
the colon after ίίκουομ€¥. 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. J. 3-4 

journey of many days, and others of many months; 
others, although they had never seen him, and still 
others who knew well that they never should see 
him. Nevertheless they were all willing to be his 
subjects. 

4. But all this is not so smprising after all, so very 
different was he from all other kings, both those who 
have inherited their thrones from their fathers and 
those who have gained their crowns by their own 
efforts ; the Scjrthian king, for instance, would never 
be able to extend his rule over any other nation 
besides his own, although the Scjrthians are very 
numerous, but he would be well content if he could 
maintain himself in power over his own people ; so 
the Thracian king with his Thracians, the Illyrian 
with his Illyrians, and so also all other nations, we 
are told. Those in Europe, at any rate, are said to 
be free and independent of one another even to this 
day. But Cjnrus, finding the nations in Asia also 
independent in exactly the same way, started out 
with a little band of Persians and became the leader of 
the Medes by their full consent and of the Hyrcanians The extent 
by theirs ; he then conquered Syria, Assyria, Arabia, mugdom 
Cappadocia, both Phrygias, Lydia, Caria, Phoenicia, 
and Babylonia ; he ruled also over Bactria, India, and 
Cilicia ; and he was likewise king oT the Sacians, 
Paphlagonians, Magadidae, and very many other, 
nations, of which one could not even tell the names ; 
he brought under his sway the Asiatic Greeks also ; 
and, descending to the sea, he added both C3^prus 
and Egypt to his empire. 



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XENOPHON 

5. Καϊ Ίοίνυν τούτων των ίθνων fjp^ev ούτε 
αντφ ομο^Κωττων όντων οΰτε άΧΧηΚοί^, καΧ ομω^ 
βΒννάσθη^ ίφικίσθαι μ^ν €πΙ τοσαντην yrjv τφ 
αή> iavTov φοβφ, ώστε καταπΧήξαι ιτάντα^ 
καί μηΒένα έττιχβφεΐν αύτφ, βΒννάσθη^ δέ iiri- 
θυμίαν ίμβαΧύν τοσαντην του ^ αύτφ χαρίζβσθαι 
ωστ€ ael τ^ αύτον ^νωμχι άξιονν κνββρνάσθαι, 
άνηρτησατο δέ τοσαντα φν\α δσα καΐ SieX- 
θύν ipyov ίστίν, διτοι hv αρξηταί τις πορεύε- 
σθαι άτΓΟ των βασιλείων, ην τε 7γ/)09 δ» ην τε 
7Γ/)09 εσπέραν ην τε προς αρκτον ην τε προς 
μεσημβρίαν. 

6. Ήμεΐς μ^ν 8η ώς άξιον 6ντα θαυμάζεσθαι 
τούτον τον avSpa εσκεψάμεθα τις ποτ ων ^ενεά,ν 
καΐ ποίαν τινά, φύσιν έχων καΧ ποία τινί παιΖεία 
παι8ενθεΙς τοσούτον Ζιηνετ^κεν εΙς το αργειν 
ανθρώπων, οσα oiv καΐ επυθομεθα καϊ τ^σθήσθαι 
8οκοΰμεν περί αύτοΰ, ταντα πειρασομεθα Βιηγη- 
σασθαι• 



II 

1. Πατ/009 μ^ν 8η 6 Κνρος Χέζεται ^γενέσθαι 
Καμβύσον ΤΙερσων βασιΧεως* 6 Βε Καμβύσης 
ούτος τον ΤΙερσειΒων ^ένόνς Tfv οι 8ε ΤΙερσεΐ- 
8αι άπο ΐίερσέως κΧτιζονταΐ' μ/ητρος 8ε ομοΧο- 
'γεΐται ΜανΒάνης ^γενέσθαι* η δέ ΐΛανΒάνη αντη 

ϊ ηυνάσθη MSS., except yR^, which have 4Ζυν4ιθη. 
2 του icavras MSS. , except D, which omits irayras ; [τάντα j] 
Gemoll, Marchant. 

8 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. i. 5-ii. i 

5. He ruled over these nations^ even though they Thei 
did not speak the same language as he, nor one ° po^er 
nation the same as another ; for all that, h e was able 
to^cQypr BO va st a region w ith .the fear w hich he 
i nspired ^ that he strud L_all men witl^ ter ror and no 

one tried to withstand him; and he was able to 
a waEen in_ alLgo_li^ly a (Jpsire to^ ease hiqa> that 
t hey alw^ s wishe d^to be guidedlS^nis w ilT More- 
over, the tribes that he brought into subjection to 
himself were so many that it is a difficult matter 
even to travel to them all, in whatever direction one 
begin one's journey from the palace, whether toward 
the east or the west, toward the north or the south. 

6. Believing this man to be deserving of all 
admiration, we have therefore investigated who he 
was in his origin, what natural endowments he 
possessed, and what sort of education he had enjoyed, 
that he so greatly excelled in governing men. Ac- 
cordingly, what we have found out or think we know 
concerning him we shall now endeavour to present. 



II 

1. The father of Cyrus is said to have been Hie 
Cambyses, king of the Persians : this Cambyses p**^***•*® 
belonged to the stock of the Persidae, and the 
Persidae derive their name from Perseus. His 
mother, it is generally agreed, was Mandane ; and 



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XENOPHON 

^AaTvayov^ TfV θυ^άτηρ του ^ίηίων yevo^evov^ 
βασιΧέως, φυναι δέ 6 K0/)O9 Xeyerai καΐ aherai 
ίτι καί νυν υπ ο των βαρβάρων elSo^ μ^ν κάΧ- 
XiaTos, ψνχην δέ φιΧανθρωπότατο^ καΐ φιλομαθ€- 
στατο^ καί φιλοτιμοτατο^, ώστε πάντα μεν ττόνον 
άνατΧήναι, πάντα δέ klvSvvov ύπομεΐναι τον 
ίπαίνεΐσθαι evexa. 

2. Φύσιν μεν Βη τή^ μορφής καΐ τή<ζ ψυχη^; 
τοίαύτην έχων Βίαμνημονευεται* επαώενση γβ 
μην εν ΤΙερσων νομοις* ούτοι δέ hoKOvatv οΐ νόμοι 
άργεσθαι του κοινού αγαθού επιμεΧόμενοι ουκ 
ενθενπερ εν^ ταΐς πΧείσταις ποΧεσιν αργρνται. 
αί phf yap πΧεΐσται ποΧεις άφεΐσαι παιΖεύειν 
όπως τις εθέΧει τους εαυτού παΐ8ας, καΐ αυτούς 
τους πρεσβυτέρους όπως εθεΧουσι Βιά^ειν, έπειτα 
προστάττονσιν αύτοΐς μη κΧέπτειν μη8ε άρπάξειν, 
μη βία εις οΐκίαν παριέναί, μη παίειν hv μη 
SUaiov, μη μοιχεύειν, μη άπειθεΐν αρχοντι, καΐ 
ταΧΧα τά τοιαύτα ωσαύτως- ην 8έ τις τούτων 
τι παραβαίντ), ξημίαν αύτοΐς επέθεσαν, 3. οι 8ε 
ΤΙερσικοΙ νόμοι προΧαβόντες επιμίΧονται δπως 
την άρχην μη τοιούτοι έσονται οι ποΧΐται οίοι 
πονηρού τίνος ή αίσγρού ερ^ου εφίεσθαι. επιμέ- 
Χονται δέ ώδβ. 

Έστιν αύτοίς εΧευθέρα a/yopci καΧουμένη^ ίνθα 
τά τε βασίΧεια καΐ ταΧΧα αργεία πεποίη- 
τ αι. εντεύθεν τά, μεν ωνια καΐ οι ayopaioi καΐ 
αί τούτων φωναί καΐ άπειροκαΧίαι άπεΧήΧανται 

^ Ύ€νομ4νου xAHR, Hug, Marchant ;"not in other MSS., 
Gemoll, Breitenbach. J 

^ ουκ Mtyirfp iv Hertlein, Edd.; ουκ Mtv S0fvirep (S0cv F) 
yG ; ούχ 6μοΙω$ yhp xAHRD*. 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. ii. 1-3 

this Mandane was the daughter of Astyages, some- 
time king of the Medes. And even to this day the 
barbarians tell in story and in song that Cyrus was 
most handsome in person, most generous of heart, 
most devoted to learning, and most ambitious, so 

that he f^nHnrpid fill ,sO^S.J2fl^^'ir a^Tid faned all 

sorts of danger iorJthesake^praiser 

2. Such then were the natural endowment s, 
physical and spiritual, that he is reputed to have 
had ; but he was educated in conformity with the 
laws of the Persians ; and these laws appear in their 
care for the common weal not to start from the same 
point as they do in most states. For most states 
permit every one to train hjs own children just as he 
will, and the older people themselves to live as they 
please ; and then they command them not to steal 
and not to rob, not to break into anybody's house, 
not to strike a person whom they have no right to 
strike, not to commit adultery, not to disobey an 
officer, and so forth ; and if a man transgress any 
one of these laws, they punish him. 3. The Persian The Persian 
laws, however, begin at the beginning and take care edu^ion 
that from the first their citizens shall not be of such 
a character as ever to desire anjrthing improper or 
immoral ; and the measures they take are as follows. 
They have their so-called "Free Square,** where 
the royal palace and other government buildings 
are located. The hucksters with their wares, their 
cries, and their vulgarities are excluded from this 
and relegated to another part of the city, in order 



n 



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XENOPHON 

€t9 aXXov roTTov, ώς μ^ μιγρνηται ή τούτων τνρβη 
TJj των ireiraiSev μένων €νκοσμία. 4. Βί'ρρηται Se 
αντη η ayopa ή irepl τά αρχεία τέτταρα μέρη' 
τούτων δ* βστίν Ιζ/ μβν ττανσίν, ^ν δέ έφήβοις, 
"αΧΚ,ο τέΚβίοις άνΒράσιν, αΧΚο τοις virep τίλ 
στρατεύσιμα €τη ^€τγον6σι,. νομφ δ' eU τά? 
έαυτων χώρας ίκαστοι τούτων ττάρεισιν, οί μ^ν 
7Γαίδ€9 αμα TJj ημέρα καΐ οί τέΧβιοι ανΒρβς, οί δέ 
yepaiTepoi ήνίκ &ν ίκάστφ ττροχωρ^, ττΧ^ν iv ταΐς 
τβτα^μέναι,ς ήμέραϊς, iv ah αυτούς Sel τταρβΐναι. 
οί δέ βφηβοι καΧ κοιμ&νται irepl τα αρχεία συν 
τοις ^υμνητίκοΐς δττΧοις ττΧην των ^ε^αμηκοτων* 
ούτοι δέ ούτε επιζητούνται, ήν μη ττρορρηθ^ 
τταρείναι, ούτε ττοΧΚάκις άττεΐναι καΧον» 

5. 'Άρχοντες δ' έφ* έκάστφ τούτων των μέρων είσι 
8ώ8εκα' οώίεκα γά/ο καΐ ΤΙερσων φυΧαΙ Βΐ'ρρηνται, 
καΐ έττΐ μ^ν τοις πταισϊν i/c των ^εραιτέρων τ^ρη- 
μένοι είσΐν οΐ &ν Βοκωσι τους τταΐΒας βεΧτίστους 
άποΒεικνύναί' επΙ δέ τοΐς εφηβοις εκ των 
τεΧείων άνΒρων ot &ν αν τους έφηβους βεΧτίστους 
8οκώσι παρέχειν εττΐ Βε τοΐς τεΧείοις άνΒράσιν 
ot άν Βοκωσι παρέχειν αυτούς μαΧιστα τά τεταγ- 
μένα ποιούντας καΐ τα παρα^γ^γεΧΧόμενα ύπο τη^ 
μεγίστης αρχής' είσϊ δέ /cal των ^εραιτέρων 
προστάται τ^ρημένοι, οΐ προστατεύουσιν,^ όπως 
κ<ά ούτοι τα καθήκοντα άποτεΧωσιν. h Sk εκάστη 
ήΧικία προστέτακται ποιεΐν Ζιη^ησομεθα, ως 
μάΧΧον SrjXov ^ένηται ff έπιμέΧονται ως &ν 
βέΧτιστοι εΐεν οί ποΧΐται. 

?•* οί τροστατ(ύονσιν MSS.; [οί Ίτροστατ^ύουσιψ] Dindorf, Hug, 
Sauppe, et al. 

12 



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CYROPAEDIA^ I. ii. 3-5 

that their tumult may not intrude upon the orderly 
life of the cultured. 4. This square, enclosing the 
government bmldings, is divided into four parts; 
one of these belongs to the boys, one to the youths, 
another to the men of mature years, and another 
to those who are past the age for military service. 
And the laws require them to come daily to their 
several quarters — the boys and the full-grown men 
at daybreak ; but the elders may come at whatever 
time it suits each one's convenience, except that they 
must present themselves on certain specified days. 
But the youths pass the night also in light armour 
about the government buildings — ^all except those 
who are married ; no inquiry is made for such, unless 
they be especially ordered in advance to be there, 
but it is not proper for them to be absent too often. 

5. Over each of these divisions there are twelve ite 
officers, for the Persians are divided into twelve '''«*'^*^**° 
tribes. To have charge of the boys, such are chosen . 

from the ranks of the elders as seem likely to make 
out of the boys the best men ; to have charge of the 
youths, such are chosen from the ranks of the mature 
men as seem most likely on their part to develop 
the youths best; to preside over the mature men, 
those are selected who seem most likely to fit 
them best to execute the orders and requirements 
of the highest authorities ^ ; and of the elders also 
chiefs are selected who act as overseers to see that 
those of this class also do their duty. And what 
duties are assigned to each age to perform we shall 
now set forth, that it may be better understood what 
pains the Persians take that their citizens may prove 
to be the very best. 

^ /.e. a Coimcil of Elders, under the presidency of the king. 

13 



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XENOPHON 

y 6. Oi μ^ν Βη 7Γα?δ€9 eh τά ΒώασκαΚβΐα φοιτωρτβ^ 
1/ Βίώγονσι μανθάνοντες Βίκαωσννην καΙ Xeyovaiv 
ΟΤΙ έπΙ τοντο βρχονται ωσπ€ρ τταρ ήμΐν οτι^ 
γράμματα μαθησομβνοι» οΐ δ' ap'xpvres ^ύτων 
ΒιατβΚούσί το ττΧεΐσΎον της ημέρας Βικάζοντβς 
αντοΐς. yiyverai ycip Βη καϊ τταισΧ προς άΧΧηλονς 
ωσπβρ άνΒράσιν iyKXripura καϊ κΧοττής καΧ 
^ ' άρτταγης καϊ βίας καΧ αττάτης καϊ κaκόXoyίaς καΐ 
'^ αΧΧων οίων Βη βΙκός. ους δ' άν yv&ai τούτων τί 
άΒικονντας, τιμωρούνται, 7. κοΧάζουσι Be καΧ hv &ν 
άΒίκως iy/caXovvTa βύρίσκωσι. Βικάζονσι Βέ καΧ 
iyκXημaτoς ο δ evexa ανθρωττοι μισουσι μεν άλλτ;- 
Χους μάΧιστα, Βικάζονται Be ήκιστα,^ αχαριστίας, 
καΧ ον &ν yv&ai Βννάμ€νον μεν χάριν αττοΒιΒόναι, 
μη άτΓοΒιΒόντα Be, κόΧάζουσι και τούτον Ισχυρώς, 
οϊονται yhp τους αχάριστους καΧ irepX θεούς αν 
μάΧιστα άμ€Χώς €χ€ΐν καΧ irepX yoveaς καΧ 
ΊτατρίΒα καΧ φίΧους, €πεσθαι δέ Βοκ€Ϊ μάΧιστα 
T7J αχαριστία η άναισχυντία' καΧ ya,p αύτη 
μ&^ίστη BoKei elvai eirX ττάντα τά αισχρά ηyeμώv» 
8. ΑιΒάσχουσι δέ τους παιΒας καΧ σωφροσύνην 
μέηα Be συμβάΧΧεται εις το μανθάνειν σωφρονεΐν 
αυτούς δτι καΧ τους ττρεσβυτίρους ορωσιν ανά 
ττασαν ημίραν σωώρόνως Βιάτ/οντας. ΒιΒάσκουσι 
Be αυτούς καΧ ττειθβσθαι τοις άρχουσι* pAya Be 
fcaX εις τούτο συμβάΧΧεται οτι ορωσι τους πρεσ- 
βυτέρους ττειθομένους τοις άρχουσιν ισχυρώς,^ 
ΒιΒάσκουσι δέ καΧ iyκpάτειav yaστpoς καΧ ποτού' 
μεηα δέ κοΧ εις τούτο συμβάΧΧεται οτι ορωσι 

1 ίτί Cobet, Edd.; oi rh MSS. 

2 ii Ι^κίστα MSS., except xDGR which have ie ούχ ^κιστα, 
' ΙΛάσκουσι . . . Ισχυρωί not in xAHR. 

14 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. ii. 6-^ 

6» The boys ga„to .sghod^j^ spend theiiLtimg in lu method 
learmng justice ; and they say that they go there curriculum 
for this purpose, just as in our country they say that ^' ®**^' 
they go to learn to read and write. And their officers 
spend the greater part of the day in deciding cases 
for them. For, as a matter of course, boys also 
prefer charges against one another, just as men do, 
of theft, robbery, assault, cheating, slander, and other 
things that naturally come up; and when they 
discover any one committing any of these crimes, 
they punish him ; 7. and they punish also any one 
whom they find accusing another falsely. And they 
bring one another to trial also charged with an offence 
for which people hate one another most but go to 
law least, namely, that of ingratitude ; and if they 
know that any one is able to return a favour and 
faOs to do so, they punish him also severely. For 
they think that the ungrateful are likely to be most 
neglectful of their duty toward their gods, their 
parents, their country, and their friends; for it 
seems that shamelessness goes hand in hand with 
ingratitude ; and it is that, we know, which leads 
the way to every moral wrong. 

^• " rti^y teach "the boys self-contja aLalso ; and it 
greatly' conduces to their learning self-control that 
they see their elders also living temperately day by 
day. And they teach them likewise to obey the 
o fficers ; and it greatly conduces to this also'ihaf 
they see their elders implicitly obeying their officers. 
And besides, they teach them self-restraint in eating 
and drinking ; and it greatly cwiuuces to this also 
that they see that their elders do not leave their 



15 



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XENOPHON 

τους πρεσβυτέρους ου irpoadev άπώντας yaarpo^ 
ίνβκα ττρΧν &ν αφωσιν οί άρχοντες, καΐ δτι ου 
iraph μητρί αιτούνται οΐ τταΐΒες, αλλά wapci τφ 
8ι8ασκαΚφ, Βταν οΐ άρχοντες σημηνωσι. φέρον- 
ται δέ οίκοθεν σΐτον μεν αρτον, οψον δέ κάρΒαμον, 
ΤΓίεΐν Βέ, ην τις Βιψτ}, κωθωνα, ως άττο του ττοταμοΰ 
άρύσασθαι, προς δέ τούτοις^ μανθάνουσι καΧ 
τοξεύειν καΧ άκοντίζειν, 

Μ.έχρι μ^ν 8η εξ ή ετττακαίΒεκα ετών άττο 
^γενεάς οί τταΐΒες ταύτα ττράττουσιν, εκ τούτου 
δέ εις τους εφ'ήβους εξέρχονται. 

9. Οΐηοι δ' αυ οΐ έφηβοι Βιά^γουσιν ώδε. Βεκα 
ίτη αφ* ου &ν εκ τταίΒων εξεΚθωσι κοιμωνται μ^ν 
ττερΧ τά αρχεία, ωσττερ ττροειρήκαμεν, καΧ φνΧακής 
ίνεκα της ιτοΧεως καΧ σωφροσύνης* Βοκεϊ yap 
αΰτη ή ηΚικία μάΧιστα εττιμεΧείας Βεϊσθαι• παρ- 
έχουσι δέ καΧ την ήμέραν εαυτούς τοις αρχουσι 
χρήσθαι fjv τι Βέωνται hirip του κοινού, καΧ 
οταν pkv Birj, πάντες μένουσι περΧ Th αρχεία• 
δταν Bk εξίχι βασιΧεύς επΧ θηραν, εξά/γει την 
ήμίσειαν της φυ\ακής' ^ ποιεί Βε τούτο πο7\Χάκις 
τού μηνός, ίχειν δέ Βεΐ τους εξιοντας τόξα καΐ 
παρ^ την φαρέτραν εν κοΧεφ κοπίΒα ή σάτγαριν, 
^τι δέ yippov καΧ τταλτά Βύο, ώστε το μ^ν άφεΐναι, 
τφ δ', ictv Birj, εκ χειρός χρήσθαι. 10. δ*ά τούτο 

* vphs 5i Toorots DFGV», Edd.; vph 5i τούτων xAHR. 
^ i^aytt . . . φυλακηε xAHR ; τάε ημκτ^Ιαε φυλακ^ε κατά- 
λ€ί»€ΐ DFGV. 

ι6 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. ii. 8-10 

posts to satisfy their hunger until the officers dismiss 
them ; and the same end is promoted by the fact 
that the boys do not eat with their mothers but with 
their teachers, from the time the officers so direct. 
Furthermore, they bring from home bread for their 
food, cress for a relish, and for drinking, if any one 
is thirsty, a cup to draw water from the river. 
Besides this, they learn ifc shoot and to throw the 
spear. ''^ 

This, then, is what the boys do until they are 
sixteen or seventeen years of age, and after this 
they are promoted from the class of boys and 
enrolled among the young men. 

9. Now the young men in their turn live as follows : b. Youths 
for ten years after they are promoted from the class of 
boys they pass the nights, as we said before, about the 
government buildings. This they do for the sake of 
guarding ^the city and of developing their powers of 
sel f-control ; for this time of. life, it seems, demands 
tfie most watchful care. And during the day, too, 
they put themselves at the disposal of the authori- 
ties, if they are needed for any service to the state. 
Whenever it is necessary, they all remain about the 
public buildings. But when the king goes out 
hunting, he takes out half the garrison ; and this he 
does many times a month. Those who go must take 
bow and arrows and, in addition to the quiver, a 
sabre or bill ^ in its scabbard ; they carry along also 
a light shield and two spears, one to throw, the 
other to use in case of necessity in a hand-to-hand 
encounter. 10. They provide for such hunting out 

^ The oriental bill was a tool or weapon with a curved 
blade, shorter than a sabre and corresponding very closely 
to the Spanish- American machete. 

17 

VOL. I. C 



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XENOPHON 

^' Be δημοσία TQVt^T:^QLP JirLjiekayrai, teal βασιλ€ν<% 
ωστΓβρ καΐ iv ττόλέμφ ι^γβ/χώΐ' βστίν αύτοί<ξ καϊ 
αύτ09 τ€ θήρα καΧ των άΧΚων βτημέλεται^ 6πως 
αν θηρωσίν, δτι άΧηθεστάτη αντοΐς 8οκ€Ϊ elvai 
αντη ή μεΧέτη των 7Γ/οο9 τον ιτόΧεμον. καϊ ycbp 
πρφ άνίστασθαι έθίζεί καϊ ψύχη καϊ θάΧττη 
άνέχ^εσθαι, ^^υμνάζβι he καϊ οΒοιττορίαις καϊ Spo- 
μοις, άνώγκη 8k καΧ τοξενσαί θηρίον καϊ ακοντίσαι 
δτΓον &ν τταραττίτΓΤΤ), καϊ την ψνχην Bk ττοΧ- 
Χάκις άνάτγκη θψ/εσθαι δταν τι των άΧκίμων 
θηρίων άνθιστηται* iraieiv μβν yap Βηττον Βεΐ το 
6μ6σ€ ^ι^νομενον, φυΧάξασθαι δέ το ίτηφερομβνον* 
/ ώστ€ ου ράΒιον evpeiv τι iv τ§ θήρα αττεστι των 
^^ iv ΐΓοΧέμφ παρόντων. 

11. ^Εξέρχονται δέ, iwi την θηραν άριστον 
^χοντ€<ζ irXelov μεν» ώ9 το είκο^, των τταίΒων, 
τάλλα Be δμοιον, καϊ θηρωντ€<ξ μλν ουκ &ν αρι- 
στησειαν, ην Be τι Βεηστι η θηρίου evexa iiri- 
καταμειναι ή αλλω9 iθeXr|σωσι Βιατρΐψαι irepl 
την θηραν, το ουν άριστον τούτο Βεητνήσαντε^ 
την υστεραίαν αυ θηρωσι μέχρι Βείττνου, καϊ μίαν 
αμφω τούτω τω ήμερα Χο^ίζονται, δτι μιας 
ημέρας σΐτον Βαττανωσι, τούτο Bk ττοιοΰσι του 
iθίζeσθaι ένεκα, ΐν idv τι καΐ iv ττοΧέμφ Βεήστι, 
Βύνωνται τούτο ττοιεΐν, καϊ οψον Βε τούτο εχου- 

1 ίΊημ4\€ται Dindorf, Hug ; ^ί/ΐ€λ«Γτοι MSS., most Edd. 
ΐ8 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. ii. lo-ii 

of the public treasury ; and as the king is their 
leader in war, so he not only takes 'part in the hunt 
himself but sees to it that the others hunt, too. 
/The state bears the expense of the hunting for the The chase a 
[ reason that the training it gives seems to be the ^^^ '**' 
\best preparation for war itself. For it accustoms 
them to rise early in the morning and to endure 
both heat and cold, aiid it gives them practice in 
taking long tramps and runs, and they have to shoot 
or spear a wild beast whenever it comes in their way. 
And they must often whet their courage when one of 
the fierce beasts shows fight; for, of course, they 
must strike down the animal that comes to close 
quarters with them, and they must be on their 
guard against the one that threatens to attack them. 
In a word, it is not easy to find any quality required 
in war that is not required also in the chase. 

11. When they go out hunting they carry along a 
lunch,^ more in quantity than that of the boys, as is 
proper, but in other respects the same; but they 
would never think of lunching while they are busy 
with the chase. If, however, for some reason it is ne- 
cessary to stay longer on account of the game or if for 
some other reason they wish to continue longer on the 
chase, then they make their dinner of this luncheon 
and hunt again on the folloMOng day until dinner 
time ; and these two days they count as one, because 
they consume but one day*s provisions. This they do 
to harden themselves, in order that, if ever it is 
necessary in war, they may be able to do the same. 
Those of this age have for relish the game that they kill ; 

^ The Greeks ate but two meals a day : the first (άριστον^ 
d^euner) toward midday, the other (Sctvyov, dtner) toward 
sun-down. 

19 



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XENOPHON 

σιν oi τηΚικουτοι ο τι αν θηράσωσιν el δέ μη, το 
κάρ8αμον, el Se τις αυτούς oterai ή iaOieiv 
άηΒώ'ί, δταν καρΒαμον μόνον βχωσιν iirX τω σίτφ, 
ή iriveiv άη8ω<ζ, όταν ν8ωρ ττίνωσιν, άναμνησθητω 
. 7Γώ9 μίν ήΒν βίαζα καΐ αρτο^ ττείνώντι φαγβίι/, 
7Γώ9 Be ήΒν ΰΒωρ inelv Βιψωντι. 

12. ΑΙ δ' αΰ μένουσαι φνλαΐ Βιατρίβονσί /xeXe- 
τωσαί τά Τ€ άλλα α TralBe^ οι/τ€9 €μαθον καΐ 
τoξ€veιv καΐ άκοντίζβίν, καϊ Βια/γωνίζόμβνοι ταΰτα 
Ίτρος άλλ77λοι;9 ΒιατβΧονσιν. elal Be καϊ ΒημοσίΟί 
τούτων wy&ve^ καϊ αθΚα ττροτίθβται* έν rj δ' αν 
των φνΧων ττΧβΐστοι ωσι Βαημονέστατοι και αν- 
Βρικώτατοί καϊ eviriaTOTaTOL, iiraivovaiv oi ττοΧΐ- 
ταί καΧ τιμωσιν ου μόνον τον νυν άρχοντα αυτών , 
αλλά κα\ δστις αυτούς τταΐΒας οντάς eiraiBevae, 
χρωνται Be τοις μένονσι των ίφήβων αϊ άρχαί, ην 
Tt if φρονρήσαι Bei^ay ή κακούργους epeuvijaai η 
Χ^στίίς ύ7ΓθΒραμ€Ϊν ή καϊ άλλο τι οσα ισχύος ή 
τάχους epya ^ €στί. 

' Ύαυτα μ€ν Βη οΐ ίφηβοι ιτράττουσιν, eiretBav 
Be τά Βίκα €τη Βιατ€Χ€σωσίν, εξέρχονται eh τους 
τ€Xeίoυς ανΒρας. 13. αφ* ου S* αν έξίΧθωσι 
χρόνου ^ ουτοί αΰ irevTe καϊ elKoaiv €τη Βιώ^ουσιν 
S)Be. Ίτρωτον μ^ν &a7rep οί €φηβοί ιταρέχουσιν 
εαυτούς ταΐς άρχαΐς χρήσθαι, ην τι δβι; iirep τον 
κοινού, οσα φρονούντων τ€ ήΒη epya εστί καϊ €τι 
Βυναμένων, ην Be iroi^ Bey στpaτeύeσθaι, τόξα 

^ Before lipya xAHR have άλλα. 

2 After χρόνου yG add 4κ ray t 

3 irot Dindorf ; νου MSS. 

20 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. ii. 11-13 

if they fail to kill any, then cresses. Now, if any one 
thinks that they do not enjoy eating, when they 
have only cresses with their bread, or that they do not 
enjoy drinking when they drink only water, let him 
remember how sweet barley bread and wheaten 
bread taste when one is hungry, and how sweet water 
is to drink when one is thirsty. 

12. The divisions remaining at home, in their turn, 
pass their time shooting with the bow and hurling 
the spear and practising all the other arts that they 
learned when they were boys, and they continually 
engage in contests of this kind with one another. 
And there are also public contests of this sort, 
for which prizes are offered ; and whatever division 
' has the greatest number of the most expert, the 
most manly, and the best disciplined young men, 
the citizens praise and honour not only its present 
chief officer but also the one who trained them when 
they were boys. And of the youths who remain 
behind, the authorities employ any that they may 
need, whether for garrison duty or for arresting 
criminals or for hunting down robbers, or for any 
other service that demands strength or dispatch. 

Such, then, is the occupation of the youths. And 
when they have completed their ten years, they are 
promoted and enrolled in the class of the mature 
men. 13. And these, in turn, for twenty-five years c. Mature 
affcer the time they are there enrolled, are occupied °^®^ 
as follows. In the first place, like the youths, they 
are at the disposal of the authorities, 'if they are 
needed in the interest of the commonwealth in any 
service that requires men who have already attained 
discretion and are still strong in body. But if it is 



21 



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XENOPHON 

μλν oi οΰτω πβτταιΒβνμένοι ονκέτι εχρντβς ovSk 
τταλτά στρατεύονται, τα δ' ο^χβμαχα 6π\α 
κα\ονμ€να, θώρακα τ€ ττβρί τοις στέρνο ίς καΐ 
yippov iv τχι αριστερά, οίονττερ γράφονται oi 
ΤΙέρσαι έχοντες, εν Sk τ§ 8εξιφ μάγαιραν tj 
Koiriha, καΧ ai αργαΧ δε πασαι εκ τούτων καθί- 
στανται ττΧην οι των τταΙΒων ΒιΒάσκαΧοι, 

^ΕπειΒάν δέ τά πέντε καΐ εϊκοσιν ετη ΒιατεΧέ- 
σωσιν, εϊησαν μ^ν civ ούτοι irXelov τι ^ετ^ονοτες η 
τά πεντήκοντα ίτη άττο γενεάς' εξέρχονται δέ 
τηνικαΰτα εΙς τους ^εραιτέρους 6ντας τε κα\ 
καΧονμένους. 

14. Ο/ δ' αΰ ^εραίτεροι ούτοι στρατεύονται μλν 
ονκέτι εξω της εαυτών, οϊκοι δέ μένοντες Βικάζουσι 
τά τε KOivh καϊ τά ϊΒια ττάντα. καϊ θανάτου Βε 
ούτοι κρίνουσι, καϊ τά? άρχίίς ούτοι πάσας 

4 αίροΰνται' καϊ rjv τις ή iv έφήβοις ή iv τεΧείοις 
άνΒράσιν ελΧίπτ) τι των νομίμων, φαίνουσι μλν οι 
φύΧαρχοι έκαστοι καΐ των αΧΧων 6 βουΧόμενος, 
οι δε. ^εραίτεροι ακούσαντες iκκpίvoυσιv' ο δέ 
iκκpιθεlς άτιμος ΒιατεΧεϊ τον Χοιπον βίον. 

15. ^^Ινα δέ σαφέστερον ΒηΧωθ^ πάσα ή ΤΙερσων 
ποΧιτεία^ μικρόν iτΓάvειμι' νυν ycip iv βραχυτάτφ 
&ν ΒηΧωθείη Bih τά προειρημένα. ^ Χέζονται μ^ν 
yhp ΤΙέρσαι άμφΧ τά? ΒώΒεκα μνριάΒας είναι• 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. ii. 13-15 

necessary to make a military expedition anywhere, 
those who have been thus educated take the field, 
no longer with bow and arrows, nor yet with spears, 
but with what are termed '^ weapons for close con- 
flict" — a corselet about their breast, a round shield 
upon their left arm (such as Persians are represented 
with in art), and in their right hands a sabre or bill. 
From this division also all the magistrates are 
selected, except the teachers of the boys. 

And when they have completed the fife-and- 
twenty years, they are, as one would expect, some- 
what more than fifty years of age ; and then they 
come out and take their places among those who 
really are, as they are called, the "elders." 

(, 14. Now these elders, in their turn, no longer per- d. Eiders 
form military service outside their own country, but 
they remain at home and try all sorts of cases, both 
public and private. They try people indicted for 
capital offences also, and they elect all the officers. 
And if any one, either among the youths or among 
the mature men, fail in any one of the duties pre- 
scribed by law, the respective officers of that division, 
or any one else who will, may enter complaint, and 
the elders, when they have heard the case, expel the 
guilty party; and the one who has been expelled 
spends the rest of his life degraded and disfranchised. 

15. Now, that the whole constitutional policy The consti- 
of the Persians may be more clearly set forth, I ^ficy of 
will go back a little ; for now, in the light of what PertiA 
has already been said, it can be given in a very 
few words. It is said that the Persians number 
about one hundred and twenty thousand men ^ ; 

^ This number is meant to include the nobility only, the 
so-called "peers" (όμό^ψοι)^ and npt the total population of 
Peraiar 

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XENOPHON 

τούτων δ' ovheU άττέΚηλατα^ι νόμφ τιμών καΐ 

άρχων, αλλ' εξβστι ττασι ΤΙέρσαις ττέμτΓβιν τον^ 

ίαυτων iraiha^ εις τά κοινά της Βικαιοσύνης SiSa- 

σκαΧεΐα, αλλ' οι μλν Βννάμβνοι τρέφβιν τους 

J ττα^δας apyovvTa^ ττέμιτουσιν, οΐ he μη δυνάμενοι 

ου ΊτίμΊΓουσιν} ot δ' hv τταιΒβυθωσι iraph τοις 

Βημοσίοίς Βι8ασκαΚοι<ζ, βξβστιν αύτοίς iv τοις 

ίφηβοις ν€ανίσκ€ν€σθαι, τοις δε μη ΒιατταιΒεν- 

θβίσιν όντως ουκ ίξβστιν. οΐ δ* &ν αΰ iv τοις εφή- 

βοις ΒίατβΧέσωσν τα νόμιμα ιτοιοΰντβς, βξβστι 

τούτοις βίς τους τέλβίονς άνδρας συναΧίζβσθαι^ 

κάΙ άρχων καΐ τιμών μβτβχειν, ot δ' &ν μη Sia- 

^γένωνται ^ iv τοις iφήβoις, ουκ εισέρχονται εις 

τους τβΧείους. οι δ* &ν αΰ iv τοις τέλείοις Sia- 

^ένωνται άνβττίΧητττοι, ούτοι των 'γεραιτέρων 

yiyvovTai, ούτω μεν Βη οι yepaWepoi hia πάντων 

των κάλων βληΧυθότβς καθίστανται* καϊ η ττοΧι- 

V reia αΰτη, y οϊονται χρώμβνοι βέΧτιστοι αν elvat• 

16. ΚαΙ νυν δέ €τι iμμev€l μαρτύρια καΐ της 

μετρίας διαίτης αυτών καΐ του iκΊΓOveισθaι την 

Βίαιταν, αίσχρον μεν yhp ετι και νυν iστι ΤΙερ- 

σαις καϊ το ιττύειν^ καϊ το άττομύττεσθαι καϊ το 

φύσης μεστούς φαίνεσθαι, αίσχρον 8ε iστι και το 

ιόντα τΓοι ^ φανερον γενέσθαι η του ούρησαι ενεκίι 

η καϊ αΚΚου τίνος τοιούτου, ταύτα 8ε ουκ αν 

iSύvavτo ιτοιειν^ ει μη καϊ Βιαίττ} μετρία ixpcuVTo 

^ οι ^€ . . . ΊτάμΊτουσιν not in CF. 

* συναΧίζ^σθαι y'RY \ σ•νναυ\ίζ€σθαι {to aesociate with) nAGK. 
' hy μ^ ϋια-γ^νωνται yEGV ; hv aZ iv rots «αχσΐ μ^ {μ^ is not 

in C) ^ιατ€\ίσωσιν % iy CAHR. 

* trrviiv Cobet, Edd.; άιτοιττί^ίχν MSS. 
» irot Heindorf, Edd.; irow MSS. 

24 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. ii. 15-16 

and no one of these is by law excluded from holding 

offices and positions of honour, but all the Persians 

may send their children to the common schools 

of justice. Still, only those do send them who 

are in a position to maintain their children without 

work ; and those who are not so situated do not. 

And only to such as are educated by the public Bach class a 

teachers is it permitted to pass their young manhood site to the 

in the class of the youths, while to those who ^^'^^ *^^® ** 

have not completed this course of training it is 

not so permitted. And only to such among the 

youths as complete the course required by law 

is it permitted to join the class of mature men and 

to fill offices and places of distinction, while those 

who do not finish their course among the young 

men are not promoted to the class of the mature 

men. And again, those who finish tHeir course among 

the mature men without blame become members of 

the class of elders. So, we see, the elders are made 

up of those who have enjoyed all honaur and 

distinction. This is the policy by the observance 

of which they think that their citizens may become 

the best. 

16. There remains even unto this day evidence 
of their moderate fare and of their working off 
by exercise what they eat : for even to the present 
time it is a breach of decorum for a Persian to 
spit or to blow his nose or to appear afflicted 
with flatulence ; it is a breach of decorum also to 
be seen going apart either to make water or for 
anything else of that kind. And this would |iot 
be possible for them, if they did not lead an 



25 



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XENOPHON 

καΐ το vypov €κπονοΰντ€^ άνήΧισκον^ ώστε aWrj 
TTTj άτΓοχωρεΐν, 

Ύαντα μ^ν 8η xarh 'πάντων ΤΙερσων εχομβν 
\έγ€νν• οδ δ' Svexa 6 λόγο^ ωρμήθη, νυν Χέξομβν 
τα^ Κνρον πράξβίς άρξάμενοι, άττο waiSo^. 



Ill 

1. Κύρος yhp μέχρι μλν ΒώΒβκα ir&v ^ οΚί^φ 
TrXeiov ταύττ) τ§ iraiSeia βτταώβύθη^ καΐ ιτάντων 
των ηΧίκων Βιαφίρων ίφαίνβτο /ecu εις το ταχύ 
μανθάναν α 8έοι καΐ eh το καΧως καϊ άνΒρβίω^ 
ζκαστα ττοιβΐν. i/c Be τούτου του χρόνου /α€Τ€- 
ττέμψατο ^Αστυςι/γης την ίαυτοΰ θυγατέρα καΧ τον 
τταΐΒα αυτής' IBelv yhp €7Γ€θύμ€ΐ, δτι ηκουεν 
αύτον καΧον xayadov elvat, βρχβται δ' αύτη Τ€ η 
ΜανΒάνη προς τον ιτατέρα καϊ τον Κΰρον τον 
υίον ίχουσα, 

2. *£1ς Bk άφίκ€το τάχιστα καϊ βγι/ω ό Κΰρος τον 
^Α,στυάγην της μητρός ττατέρα δντα, βύθύς οΙα Βη 
τταΐς φύσβι φιΧόστοργος &ν ήσ'Π'άζβτό τβ αύτον 
ωστΓβρ &ν €Ϊ τις τταΚαι συντ^θ ραμμένος και ττάΧαι 
φιΧών άσττάζοιτο, καϊ ορών Βη αύτον κβκοσμη- 
μένον /cal οφθαΧμων iwoypa^y κ(ά χρώματος 
έντρίψβι και κομαις ττροσθέτοις^ h Βη νόμιμα ήν 
iv ΜηΒοις' ταύτα yhp ττάντα ΜηΒικά έστι, και οι 
ΤΓορφυροΐ χιτ&νβς καϊ οι κάνΒυβς καϊ οι στ/οβτττοί 
οι irepl τ§ Bipff καΐ τα ψέΧια τα ^ π€ρΧ ταΐς χερσίν^ 

^ τ& E,,Edd.; not in any other MS. 
a6 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. ii. i6-iii. 2 

abstemious life and throw off the moisture by 
hard work, so that it passes off in some other way. 

This, then, is what we liave to say in regard to 
the Persians in general. Now, to fulfil the purpose 
with which our narrative was begun, we shall proceed 
to relate the history of Cyrus from his childhood on. 



Ill 

1. Such was the education that Cyrus received 
until he was twelve years old or a little more; 
and he showed himself superior to all the other 
boys of his age both in mastering his tasks quickly 
and in doing everything in a thorough and manly 
fashion. It was at this period of his life that Cyme goes 
Astyages sent for his daughter and her son; for^?^father 
he was eager to see him, as he had heard n*om 

time to time that the child was a handsome boy 
of rare promise. Accordingly, Mandane herself 
went to her father and took her son Cyrus with 
her. 

2. As soon as she arrived and Cyrus had re- 
cognized in Astyages his mother's father, being 
naturally an affectionate boy he at once kissed him, 
just as a person who had long lived with another 
and long loved him would do. Then he noticed 
that his grandfather was adorned with pencillings 
beneath his eyes, with rouge rubbed on his face, 
and with a wig of false hair — the common Median 
fashion. For all this is Median, and so are their 
purple tunics, and their mantles, the necklaces 
about their necks, and the bracelets on their wrists, 



27 



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XENOPHON 

iv ΤΙέρσαίς Sk τοΐ^ ottcot καϊ νυν en ττοΧύ καϊ 
€σθήτ€ς φαν\6τ€ραί καϊ Sicurai €ύτ€λέστ€ραΐ' 
ορών Βη τον κόσμον του irdinrov^ βμβΧέττων αύτφ 
eXeryev, *ί1 μήτερ^ ώς καΧό^ μοι 6 irairmO^, ερω- 
τώσης δέ αντον της μητρός ττότερος καΧΧίων αύτφ 
8οκ€Ϊ elvai, 6 πατήρ η οντος, άττεκρίνατο αρα 6 
Κΰρος, Ώ μήτ€ρ, ΤΙβρσών μβν ιτοΧύ κάΧΧιστος 6 
ίμος Ίτατηρ, Μη^ων μίντοι όσων βώρακα €γώ κα\ 
^ iv ταΐς οΒοΐς καϊ iirX ταΐς θύραις ιτοΧύ ούτος 6 
€μος ττώπΊΓος καΧΧιστος. 

3. ^Ανταστταζομενος Se 6 ττάτητος αύτον κα\ 
στοΧην καΧην €νέΒυσ€ καϊ στρβτττοΐς καΐ ψβΧίοις 
€τίμα καΐ €κ6σμ€ΐ, καϊ €Ϊ ττοι ίξέΧαύνοι, ίή> ΐτητου 
γρνσοχάΧίνου ireptrjyev, ωαττβρ καΧ αύτος εΐώθβι 
τΓορεύβσθαι. 6 8k Κύρος ατ€ παις £>ν καΐ φιΧό- 

^ καΧος καϊ φιΧοτιμος ήΒβτο Tjj στολ§, καΐ ίππεύβιν 
μανθάνων ύτΓβρίχαφεν* iv ΤΙέρσαις ycip Sih το 
γαΧβτΓον elvat καΐ τρέφβιν ΐττιτους καϊ ίτητεύειν iv 

^ opetvfj οΰστ) TJj χώρα καϊ iheiv ΐτητον πάνυ 

\ σττάνιον ην. 

4. Αβίττνών δέ Βη 6 ^Αστυάτ/ης συν Trj θυηατρί 
καϊ τω Κύρω, βουΧόμενος τον iraiSa ως ήΒιστα 
SeiTTveiv, ίνα fJTTOV τά otfcaBe ττοθοίη, ττροσψ/βν 
αύτφ καϊ παροψίΒας καϊ iravTohairh iμβάμμaτa 
καΐ βρώματα. τον Sk Κΰρον εφασαν Xiyeiv^ 'ί1 
ττατΓΤΓβ, οσα πράγματα ίχεις iv τω Βείττνφ^ el 
ανάγκη σοι iiri πάντα τίί Xe/capia ταύτα Βιατβί- 
ν€ΐν τά? χείρας και άπο^εύεσθαι τούτων των 
παντοΒαπων βρωμάτων, 

28 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. iii. 2-4 

while the Persians at home even to this day have 
much plainer clothing and a more frugal way of 
life. So, observing his grandfathers adornment 
and staring at him, he said: '^Oh mother, how 
handsome my grandfather . is ! " And when his 
mother asked him which he thought more hand- 
some, his father or his grandfather, Cyrus answered 
at once : ^^ Of the Persians, mother, my father is 
much the handsomest ; but of the Medes, as far as I 
have seen them either on the streets or at court, 
my grandfather here is the handsomest by far/* 

3. Then his grandfather kissed him in return 
and gave him a beautiful dress to wear and, as a 
mark of royal favour, adorned him with necklaces 
and bracelets; and if he went out for a ride 
anywrhere, he took the boy along upon a horse 
with a gold-studded bridle, just as he himself was 
accustomed to go. And as Cyrus was a boy fond 
of beautiful things and eager for distinction, he 
was pleased with his dress and greatly delighted 
at learning to ride ; for in Persia, on account of 
its being difficult to breed horses and to practise 
horsemanship because it is a mountainous country, 
it was a very rare thing even to see a horse. 

4. And then again, when Astyages dined with a Median 
his daughter and Cyrus, he set before him dainty ^^^^^^ 
side-dishes and all sorts of sauces and meats, for 

he wished the boy to enjoy his dinner as much 
as possible, in order that he might be less likely 
to feel homesick. And C3nnis, they say, observed : 
" How much trouble you have at your dinner, 
grandfather, if you have to reach out your hands 
to all these dishes and taste of all these different 

kinds of food ! " 

Φ 

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XENOPHON 

Tt 8έ, φάροΛ τον ^Αστνά'γην^ ον yhp ττόΚν 
σοι 8οκ€Ϊ elvai κάΧΚιορ roSe το hehrvov του iv 
ΊΙέρσαι<; ; 

Ύον Bi Κυρορ ττρος ταύτα αττοκρίνασθαί \\eye- 

* τολ]} Ουκ, ω Tramre, άΧΧΛ ττοΧύ άττΧουστέρα 
καϊ €ύθυτέρα ιταρ ημΖν η οδός ίστιν €ΤγΪ το ίμπτΚη- 
σθηναι ή τταρ υμΖν ημάς phf yap αρτος καϊ κρέα 
eh τούτο arfet, ύμ€Ϊς δέ €ΐς μεν το αύτο ήμΐν 
<Γ7Γ€υ8€Τ€, ΤΓοΧΚούς 8έ τινα^ €λ4>γμούς ανω καϊ 
κάτω ττΚανώμενοι μοΚις άφικνεΐσθβ oirot ήμ€Ϊς 
ττάλαι ηκομεν. 

5. *Αλλ', ω τταΐ, φάναν τον ^Αστυάγην, ουκ 
άχθόμενοί ταΰτα τΓερητΧανώμεθα* Ύευόμενος Se 
καϊ συ, ίφη, γνώσει οτι η8έα εστίν, 

'Αλλά καϊ σέ, φάναν τον ίίΰρον, ορώ, ω ττάΐΓίτε, 
μυσαττομενον ταύτα τα β ρω ματ α. 

ΚαΙ τον ^Αστυώγην εττερεσθαί, ΚαΙ τίνι 8η συ 
τεκμαιρόμενος, & τταΐ, Χέγεις ; 

Οτι σε, φάναι^ ορώ, όταν μεν του άρτου α•^, 
εις ούΒεν τί}ν χείρα άττοψώμενον, όταν 8ε τούτων 
τίνος θίγ[)ς, ευθύς άττοκαθαίρει την χ€Ϊρα εις τά 

• χειρόμακτρα,. ώς ττάνυ άχθόμενος οτι ττλεα σοι 
άτΓ αυτών εγενετο, 

6. ΐΐρος ταΰτα δέ τον ^Αστυώγην ειττεΐν, Έ,ί 
τοίνυν οΰτω γιγνώσκεις, ω παΐ, άλλα κρέα ye 
εύωχοΰ, ίνα νεανίας οϊκαΒε άττέ'Χβ'ης, αμα 8ε 
ταΰτα \4τ/οντα πολλά αύτφ παραφέρειν και 
θηρεια ^ καϊ των ημίρων, 

ΚαΙ τον Κΰρον, €7ΓεΙ εώρα ττολλά τά κρέα, 
ειττεΐν, *Η καϊ 8ί8ως, φάναι, & ττάτητε, πάντα 



3ο 



1 [\4y€rai\ Cobet, Edd.; K^ycrai MSS. 
3 eiiptia (β, Edd.; θηρία all other MSS. 



yGooQle 



gl 



CYROPAEDIA, I. iii. 4-6 

^^Why so?" said Astyages. '^Really now, don't 
you think this dinner much finer than your Persian 
dinners ? ** 

^^No, grandfather/* Gyrus rephed to this; "but 
the road to satiety is much more simple and direct 
in our country than with you ; for bread and meat 
take us there ; but you, though you make for 
the same goal as we, go wandering through many 
a maze, up and down, and only arrive at last at 
the point that we long since have reached." 

5. ^^But, my boy," said Astyages, "we do not 
object to this wandering about; and you also," 
he added, "if you taste, vrill see that it is 
pleasant." 

" But, grandfather," said Cjnrus, " I observe that 
even you are disgusted with these viands." 

"And by what, pray, do you judge, my boy," 
asked Astyages, ^^ that you say this ? " 

'^ Because," said he, " 1 observe that when you 
touch bread, you do not wipe your hand on any- 
thing ; but when you touch any of these other 
things you at once cleanse your hand upon your 
napkin, as if you were exceedingly displeased that 
it had become soiled with them." 

6. " Well then, my boy," Astyages replied to this, 
"if that is your judgment, at least regale yourself 
with meat, that you may go back home a strong 
young man." And as he said this, he placed 
before him an abundance of meat of both wild and 
domesftic animals. 

And when Cjrrus saw that there was a great 
quantity of meat, he said : " And do you really 



31 



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XENOPHON 

ταντά 'μοι τά Kpia 6 τι αν βούΧωμαι αντοΐς 
χρήσθαι; 

Ν^ Αία, φάναι, ω τταΐ, εγωγε σοί. 

7. ^Έ^νταΰθα Sif top Κΰρορ Χαβόντα των ^κρεων 
StaSiSovac τοΐ<; άμφΐ τον ττάτητον θεραπευταΐς, 
i'TTiXiyovTa ίκάστω, 'ϊ,οΐ μεν τούτο οτί ττροθνμως 
με ίτητενειν ΒιΒάσκεις, σοΙ δ' οτ* μοι τταΧτον 
εΒωκα^' νυν yap τοντ εχω' σοΙ δ' otc τον ττάτητον 
καΧω^ θεραττεύει^ζ, σοΙ δ' οτί μου την μητέρα 
τιμφς' τοιαύτα εττοίεί, εως ΒίεΒίΒου ττάντα α εΧαβε 
κρέα. 

8. 'Ζάκα Se, φάναι τον *Αστυάτ/ην, τφ οίνογρφ, 
ον βγω μάΧιστα τιμώ, ούΒεν 8ί8ως; ό 8ε Ζάκα<; 
αρα καΧ6<ζ τε^ &ν ετύγχανε καΙ τιμήν έχων 
ττροσά^ειν του? Βεομενους Άστι;αγου9 fcal άττοκω- 
Χύειν οί>ς μη καιροί αύτφ Βοκοίη είναι ττροσότ^ειν, 

Κ,αΙ τον Κΰρον εττερέσθαι ττροττετως ώς &ν 
τταΖς μηΒέττω υττοτττησσων, Αιά τι 8ή, ω ττάτητε, 
τούτον οΰτω τιμα^;; 

ΚαΙ τόϊ^ *Αστυάτ/ην σκώψαντα είττβΐν, Ούχ 
6ρα<;, φάναι, ώ? καΧώς οίνοχοεί καΧ εύσχημόνω^; 
οι Βε των βασιΧέων τούτων οινοχόοι κομψω<ζ τε 
οίνοχοοΰσι καΧ καθαρείω<; έ^χέουσι καΐ οιΒόασι 
τοΓ9 τρισΐ ΒακτύΧοις οχοΰντε^ την φιάΧην και 
ττροσφερουσιν ώ? hv ενΒοΐεν το εκττωμα εύΧητττό- 
τατα τ φ μέΧΧοντι ττίνειν, 

9. ΚέΧευσον 8η, φάναι, & ττάττττε, τον %άκαν 
καΐ εμοί Βοΰναι το εκττωμα, ίνα Λτάγώ καΧω<ζ 
σοι ΤΓίεΐν εγχέας ανακτήσω μαί σε, ην Βύνωμαι, 

1 τ€ y, Edd.; 76 xzR. 
32 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. iii. 6-9 

mean to give me all this meat, grandfather, to 
dispose of as I please ? " 
" Yes, by Zeus," said he, '^ I do." 

7. Thereupon Cjrrus took some of the meat and 
proceeded to distribute it among his grandfather's 
servants, saying to them in turn : '^ 1 give this 
to you, because you take so much pains to teach I 
me to ride ; to you, because you gave me a spear, f 
for at present this is all I have to give ; to you, I 
because you serve my grandfather so well ; and to \ 
you, because you are respectfiil to my mother." \ 
He kept on thus, while he was distributing all the J 
meat that he had Received. 

8. ^^But," said Astyages, "are you not going to Cyrus and 
give any to Sacas, my cupbearer, whom I like best j^arer^ 
of all } " Now Sacas, it seems, chanced to be a 
handsome fellow who had the office of introducing 

to Astyages those who had business with him and of 
keeping out those whom he thought it not expedient 
to admit. 

And Cyrus asked pertly, as a boy might do who 
was not yet at all shy, '^ Pray, grandfather, why do 
you like this fellow so much } " 

And Astyages replied with a jest : " Do you not 
see," said he, ^^how nicely and gracefully he pours 
the wine ? " Now the cupbearers of those kings 
perform their office with fine airs ; they pour in the 
wine with neatness and then present the goblet, con- 
veying it with three fingers, and offer it in such a 
way as to place it most conveniently in the grasp of 
the one who is to drink. 

9. " Well, grandfather," said he, " bid Sacas give 
me the cup, that I also may deftly pour for you to 
drink and thus win your favour, if I can." 

33 

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XENOPHON 

ΚαΙ τον fceXevaat Bovvat. Χαβόντα δέ τον 
Κΰρον οΰτω μεν Sif e5 κκύσαι ίο €κπωμα ωσττβρ 
τον ^άκαν έώρα, οΰτω δε στησαντα το ττροσ- 
ωτΓον σ'ΤΓου8αίω<ζ καΐ €νσ'χ7}μ6νω<ζ ττως ττροσ- 
eveyfcetv καΐ ivhovvai την φίάΚην τω ττάτητφ 
ωστ€ TTj μητρί καΐ τφ ^Αστυώγβί ττοΧύν γβλωτα 
τταρασχβΐν. καΐ αύτον δέ τον Κνρον ixyeXa- 
σαντα άναττηΒήσαν ττρος τον ττάπττον καϊ φι- 
Χονντα αμα eiireiv, ^ί1 %άκα, άττόλωλας• ίκβαΧω 
σ€ €κ τή(ζ τιμη^' τά τβ yhp αΧΧα, φάναί, σον 
κάΧΧίον οίνοχοησω καν ουκ έκττίομαί αύτο9 τον 
οΐνον. 

Οι δ' αρα των βασιΧέων οίνογροι, ίττεώαν 
8ι8ωσί την φίάΧην, άρνσαντ€<ζ απ αυτής τφ 
κυάθψ eh την άρι,στεραν %eipa ί'γχεάμενον κα- 
ταρροφονσι, τον Βη el φάρμακα iyxeocev^ μη 
XvaiTeXeiv αντοΐς, 

10. 'E/c τούτον Βη 6 ^Α.στνά^η<; έτησκώτττων^ 
ΚαΙ τι hifj, €φη, ω Kvpe, ταΧΧα μιμούμενος τον 
^άκαν ουκ άττερρόφησας τον οϊνον; 

'Ότί, €φη, νη Αία eSeSoLKecv μη iv τφ κρατήρι 
φάρμακα μεμιτγμένα €Ϊη, καϊ ycip OTe είστίασας 
σν τονς φίΧονς iv τοις yeveOxLoi^, σαφώς 
κατ€μαθον φάρμακα νμΐν αντον εγχέαντα, 

ΚαΙ ιτως 8η σν τούτο, βφη, & παΐ, κατέγνως; 

^Ότι νη ΔΓ νμας εώρων καϊ ταΐς γνώμαις 
καΐ τοϊς σώμασι σφαΧΧομένονς. ττρωτον μεν 
yhp h ονκ ίατε ημάς τονς τταΐΒας ττοιείν, ταντα 
αντον €7Γ0ί€ΪΤ€. ττάντβς μεν yap αμα έκβκρά- 
y€iT€, ίμανθάνετε he ovhkv άΧΧηΧων, jjSeTe 

^ iyx4oi€v yER ; 4κχ4οΐ€ν zC. 

34 



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cyropaedia; I. m. 9-10 

And he bade him give it. And Cyrus took the 
cup and rinsed it out well^ exactly as he had often 
seeu Sacas do^ and then he brought and presented 
the goblet to his grandfather, assuming an expression 
somehow so grave and important, that he made his 
mother and Astyages laugh heartily. And Cyrus 
himself also with a laugh sprang up into his grand- 
father's lap and kissing him said : " Ah, Sacas, you 
are done for ; I shall turn you out of your office ; for 
in other ways," said he, " I shall play the cupbearer 
better than you and besides I shall not drink up the 
wine myself." 

Now, it is a well known fact that the kings' cup- 
bearers, when they proffer the cup, draw off some of 
it with the ladle, pour it into their left hand, and 
swallow it down — so that, if they should put poison 
in, they may not profit by it. 

10. Thereupon Astyages said in jest: '^ And why, Cyrus's 
pray, Cyrus, did you imitate Sacas in everything else i^tSre*"*'^ 
but did not sip any of the wine ? " 

*' Because, by Zeus," said he, " I was airaid that 
poison had been mixed in the bowl. And I had 
reason to be afraid ; for when you entertained your 
friends on your birthday, I discovered beyond a doubt 
that he had poured poison into your company's 
drink." 

^' And how, pray," said he, '^ did you discover that, 
my son? " 

^' Because, by Zeus," said he, ^^ I saw that you were 
unsteady both in mind and in body. For in the first 
place you yourselves kept doing what you never allow 
us boys to do ; for instance, you kept shouting, all at the 
same time^ and none of you heard anything that the 



35 
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XENOPHON 

δε καΐ μαΚα γβλοίως, ουκ ακροώμβνοι δέ του 
αΒοντος ωμνυτβ άριστα aheiv* \έηων he βκαστος 
υμών την ίαυτοΰ ρω μην, €7Γ€ΙΤ el άνασταίητ€ 
ορχησόμ€νοι, μη δττω? οργα,σθαι ev ρυθμφ, 
αλλ' ούδ' ορθούσθαι iSwaade, e'Π'e\4\ησθe δέ 
τταντάττασι συ re οτι βaσL•\eύ^ ^σθα, οι Τ€ αΧΧοί 
δτί συ άρχων, τότε ycip 8η ^γωγβ καΐ ττρωτον 
κατέμαθον οτι τοντ αρ fjv ή Ισηγορία ο ύμεΐς 
τότ eiroieiTe* oiheiroTe yodv εσ^ωττάτβ. 

11. ΚαΙ 6 ^Αστυώ/ης \eyei, *0 δέ σος ττατηρ, 
& παΐ, ττίνων ου μeθύσκeτaι; 

Ου μΛ ΔΓ, €φη. 

Άλλα ττως iroiel; 

Αιψων 7Γaύeτaι, ά\\ο δε κακόν oiSkv ττάσγει• 
ου ycLp, οΐμαι, ω τταττττε, ^άκας αύτφ οΙνοχο€Ϊ, 

ΚαΙ ή μ^ήτηρ elirev, 'Αλλά τί iroTe συ, ω τταΐ, 
τφ Χάκα οΰτω πo'λ€μeΐς; 

Ύον δέ Κΰρον eiireiv, '^Οτι νη Αία, φάναι, 
μισώ αυτόν ττοΧΚάκις ydp με ττρος τον ττάτητον 
ίτΓίθυμουντα ττροσΒραμεΐν οΰτος 6 μιαρώτατος 
αίΓΟκωΧύει, αλλ' Ικετεύω, φάναι, ω ττάτητε, 86<ζ 
μοι τρεις ημέρας αρξαι αύτοΰ, 

ΚαΙ τον ^Αστυ<νγην είττεΐν. Και ττως αν αρξαις 
αυτού; 

ΚαΙ τον Κνρον φάναι, Χτίΐς αν ωσττερ ούτος 
εττΐ ττ) εΙσοΖφ, εττειτα όττοτε βούλοιτο τταριεναι 
εττ' άριστον, Χε^οιμί! &ν οτι οΰττω δυνατόν τφ 
άρίστφ εντυχεΐν* σττουΒάζει γά/ο ττρός τινας' 
είθ* οτΓοτε ήκοι εττΐ το Seitrvov, Χέ^γοιμ &ν οτι 

36 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. iii. lo-ii 

others were saying ; and you fell to singings and in a 
most ridiculous manner at that^ and though you did 
not hear the singer, you swore that he sang most excel- 
lently; and though each one of you kept telling stories 
of his own strength, yet if you stood up to dance, 
to sayfnothing of dancing in time, why, you could * 
not even stand up straight. And all of you quite 
forgot — you, that you were king ; and the rest, that 
you were their sovereign. It was then that I also 
for my part discovered, and for the first time, that 
what you were -practising was your boasted ^ equal 
freedom of speech ' ; at any rate, never were any of 
you silent." 

11. '^ But, my boy," Astyages said, ^^does not your 
father get drunk, when he drinks ? '* 

" No, by Zeus," said he. 

" Well, how does he manage it ? " 

" He just quenches his thirst and thus suffers no 
further harm; for he has, I trow, grandfather, no 
Sacas to pour wine for him." 

'^ But why in the world, my son," said his mother. His anti- 
" are you so set against Sacas ? " to^ti 

^'Because, by Zeus," Cyrus replied, "I don't like Sacas 
him ; for oftentimes, when I am eager to run in to see 
my grandfather, this miserable scoundrel keeps me 
out. But," he added, '' I beg of you, grandfather, 
allow me for just three days to rule over him." 

" And how would you rule over him ? '^ said 
Astyages. 

" I would stand at the door," Cyrus replied, ^^ just 
as he does, and then when he wished to come in to 
luncheon, I would say, ' You cannot interview the 
luncheon yet ; for it is engaged with certain persons.* ' 
And then when he came to dinner, I would say, ^ It 

37 



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XENOPHON 

Χοΰταν* el he ττάνυ σιτουίάζοι ^a'ielVi eliroiy! 
αν OTC τταρα ταΐς ^υναιζίν eariv* €ως TrapareL- 
ναιμί τούτον &airep οΰτος έμβ Trapareivet άττο 
σου κώΧύων. 

12. Ύοσαντας μ€ν αντοΐς evdvpia^i Trapecxev 
iirl τω Seί^Γvφ* τα? δ' ημέρας, ec τίνος αϊσθοιτο 
8€Ομ€νον ή τον ττάτητον ή τον της μητρός άδελφόν, 
'XaXeirov fjv aXKov φθάσαί τοντο ττοιησαντα' δ 
TL ycLp hvvaiTo 6 Κύρος virepexaipev αύτοίς 
χαριξόμενος. 

13. ΈτΓβΙ δε ή ΜανΒάνη ^Γapeσκeυάζeτo ως 
άτΓίονσα ττάΧιν ττρος τον avSpa, iBelro αυτής 
6 Άστυαγτ/ς fcaTaXciretv τον Κΰρον. ή δέ άττε- 
κρίνατο ΟΤΙ βούΧοίτο μ€ν ατταντα τφ ττατρί 
'Υαρίξ€σθαι, άκοντα μέντοι τον iralha χα\€7Γον 
etvai νομίζ€ΐν KaTaXnrelv, 

14. "EtvOa 8η 6 ^Αστυάγης \eyet ττρος τον 
Κΰρον, ^ί1 παΐ, ην υΑν^ς τταρ Ιμοί, ττρωτον 
μ€ν της τταρ Ιμ\ elaoSoy σοι ου Χάκας apξeι, 
αλλ* οτΓΟταν βούΧτι eiatevat ως €μέ, iirl σοϊ 
€σταΐ' καΐ χάριν σοι eiaopMC οσφ αν ττΧβονάκις 
elσίr}ς ως ίμ€, eireiTa Be ϊτητοις τοις έμοΐς 
χρησβι καΐ άΧΧοις οττόσοις αν βούΧτι, καΧ οττοταν 
άττίτ^ς, €χων απ€ΐ ο&9 αν αύτος €θέΧτ}ς. eireiTa 
δέ ev τφ Seί^Γvφ έπΙ το μετρίως σοι 8οκοΰν 
exeiv οίΓοίαν βούΧ€ΐ 686ν iropeoaei, erreiTa τά 
τ€ νυν ev τφ 'π^apaieίσφ θηρία 8ί8ωμί σοι καϊ 
αΧΧα iravTohaTTCL συΧΧέξω, ίι συ iireiSav τάχιστα 
iirireieiv μάθης^ 8ιώξ€ΐ, καΐ τοξ€ύων καϊ άκοντίζων 
κaτaβaXeΐς ωσ7Γ€ρ οΐ μ€^αΧοι avhpeς. καϊ τταΐΖας 
δε σοι εγώ συμτταίστορας τταρέξω, καΐ αΧΧα 
οττόσα αν βούΧτ) Χσγων προς ε/^έ ουκ άτυχησ€ΐς, 

3δ 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. iii. 11-14 

is at the bath/ And if he were very eager to eat, I 
would say, ' It is with the ladies.' And I would keep 
that up until I tormented him, just* as he torments 
me by keeping me away from you." 

1 2. Such amusement he furnished them at dinner ; 
and during the day, if he saw that his grandfather or 
his uncle needed anjrthing, it was difficult for any 
one else to get ahead of him in supplying the need ; 
for Cyrus was most happy to do them any service 
that he could. 

13. But when Mandane was making preparations Mandane 
to go back to her husband, Astyages asked her to leave (^^us iu 
C3nrus behind. And she answered that she desired Media 
to do her father's pleasure in everything, but she 
thought it hard to leave the boy behind against his 

will. 

14. Then Astyages said to Cyrus : '^ My boy, if you 
will stay with me, in the first place Sacas shall not 
control your admission to me, but it shall be in your 
power to come in to see me whenever you please, 
and I shall be the more obliged to you the oftener 
you come to me. And in the second place you shall 
use my horses and everything else you will ; and 
when you go back home, you shall take with you any 
of them that you desire. And besides, at dinner 
you shall go whatever way you please to what seems 
to you to be temperance. And then, I present to 
you the animals that are now in the park and I will 
collect others of every description, and as soon as 
you learn to ride, you shaill hunt and slay them with 
bow and spear, just as grown-up men do. I will also 
find some children to be your playfellows; and if 
you wish an3rthing else, just mention it to me, and 
you shall not fail to receive it.*' 

39 



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XENOPHON 

15. ΈττεΙ ταΰτα etirev ο ^Αστνό^γης, ή μητηρ 
Βίηρώτα τον Κνρον irorepov βούΧοιτο μένβίΡ 
rj άτηέναί, 6 δέ ουκ έμέΧΚησβν, αλλά ταχύ 
elirev οτί μένβιν βούΧοιτο, βπβρωτηθβΐ^ Be ττάΧιν 
υίΓΟ τη^ξ μητρός Bih τι βίττύν XeyeTUi, 'Ότι οϊκοι 
pkv των ηΚίκων καϊ βΐμΐ καΧ Βοκω κράτιστος 
elvaiy ω μήτβρ, . καϊ άκοντίζων καΧ τοξ€ύων, 
ενταύθα δέ olS* otl ίτητβνων ήττων βΐμΐ των 
ηλίκων* καϊ τοντο el• ϊσθι, ω μήτep, €φη, otl 
€μ€ ττάνυ άνια, ην Be μ€ καταΧίττΎΐ^; evOaBe 
κα\ μάθω lirirevetv, όταν μ€ν iv ΤΙέρσαις ω, 
οΐμαί σοι e/ceivov^ τού^ ayaeov^ τα 7Γeζικcί ραΒίω<ζ 
viKTiaeiv, όταν δ' eU Mr?Sof 9 €\θω, evBoBe ireipa- 
σομαι τφ ττάτητφ αηαθων Ιτητέων κράτιστος &ν 
/τΓΤΓβύ? σvμμaχeΐv αντφ, 

16. Ύην Be μητέρα elirelv, Ύην Be Βικαιοσννην, 
& τταΐ, ττως pjaOrjaei evOaZe ixel όντων σοι 
των ΒιΒασκάΧων; 

ΚαΙ τον Κνρον φάναι. Αλλ', & μήτep, ακρι- 
βώς ταϋτά ye οΐΒα. 

ΤΙως συ οίσθα; την ΜανΒάνην elirelv, 
'Ότι, φάναι, 6 ΒίΒάσκαΧός μ€ ώς ήΒη άκρι- 
βονντα την Βικαιοσύνην κα\ αΧΚοις καθιστή 
Bικάζeιv, καϊ τοίννν, φάναι, εττΐ μια iroTe 
ΒίκΎΐ ττλτ/γά? €\αβον ως ουκ ορθώς Βικάσας. 
17. ήν Be η Βίκη τοιαύτη, τταΐς μΑ^ας μικρόν 
€χων χιτώνα τταΐΒα μικρόν μέ^αν €χοντα χιτώνα 
€κΒύσας αντον τον μ^ν ίαντον €Κ€Ϊνον ήμφί€σ€, 
τον δ' eKeivov αύτος eveBv, iyo) οΰν τούτοις 
Βικάζων €^νων βέΧτιον elvai άμφοτίροις τον 
άρμόττοντα eKaTepov χιτώνα €χ€ΐν, iv Be τοντφ 
4θ 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. iii. 15-17 

15. When Astyages had said this, his mother asked why ho 
Cyrus whether he wished to stay or go. And he did ^j ^ 
not hesitate but said at once that he wished to stay. 

And when he was asked again by his mother why 
he wished to stay, he is said to have answered : 
" Because at home, mother, I am and have the repu- ,^ 
tation of being the best of those of my years both 
in throwing the spear and in shooting with the bow ; 
but here I know that I am inferior to my fellows in 
horsemanship. And let me tell you, mother," said y 
he, ^' this vexes me exceedingly. But if you leave me / 
here and I learn to ride, I think you will find, when 
I come back to Persia, that I shall easily surpass the 
boys over there who are good at exercises on foot, 
and when I come again to Media, I shall try to be a 
help to my grandfather by being the best of good 
horsemen." 

16. '^iut, my boy," said his mother, "how will Λ 
you learn justice here, while your teachers are over/ 
there ? " 

"Why, mother," Cyrus answered, "that is one j 
thing that I understand thoroughly." 

" How so ? " said Mandane. 

" Because," said he, " my teacher appointed me. His train- 
on the ground that I was already thoroughly versed juftice 
in justice, to decide cases for others also. And so, 
in one case," said he, " I once got a flogging for not 
deciding correctly. 17. The case was like this : a big 
boy with a little tunic, finding a little boy with a 
big tunic on, took it off him and put his own tunic 
on him, while he himself put on the other's. So, 
when I tried their case, I decided that it was better 
for them both that each should keep the tunic that 
fitted him. And thereupon the master flogged me, 

41 



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XENOPHON 

/A€ erraiaev 6 ΒιΒάσκαΧος, Χέξας ^ otl οπότε μ€Ρ 
τον αρμοττοντο^ €Ϊην κρντης, οντω Seoc iroietv, 
OTTOTe Be fcptvac Seoi ττοτέρον 6 χι,των €Ϊη, τοντ, 
€φη, σκβτττέον elvai τις κτησις Βικαία €στί, 
τΓΟΤβρα τον βία άφέλομενορ ίχβιν ή τον ΐΓΟίη- 
σάμβνον ή ττριάμ^νον κ^κτησθαν eVel δ', ^φη, 
το μλν νόμιμον Βίκαων elvai, το δέ ανομον 
βίαων, συν τφ νομφ ifceXeveu ael τον Βικαστην 
την ψηώον τίθβσθαι, οΰτω<ζ βγω σοι, ω μήτ€ρ, 
τά ye οίκαια ΐΓαντάττασίν ήΒη άκρφώ* ήν Be 
τι αρα ττροσΒέωμαι, 6 τταττττο? με, εφη, ουτο<ζ 
ετΓΐΒιΒάξει, 
.18. 'Αλλ' ον ταύτα, εφη, ω τταϊ, τταρα τφ 
πάτητω καΐ εν Τ1ερσαι<; Βίκαια όμοΚο^εΐται* οντος 
μ^ν yap των εν ΜηΒοις ττάντων εαυτόν Βεσττότην 
ΊτετΓοίηκεν, εν Ώέρσαις δέ το ίσον εχειν Βίκαιον 
νομίζεται, καΐ ό σος ττατηρ ττρώτος^ τά τβταγ- 
μένα μεν ττοιεΐ Tjj ττολει, τά τετayμέva Βε 
Χαμβάνει, μέτρον Βε αύτω ούχ ή ψυχή αλλ' ό 
νόμος εστίν, οττως οΰν μη αποΧεΙ μaστιy ου μένος, 
επ€ΐΒάν οϊ /eoi ^9,^ &ν τταρα τούτου μαθών ήκ^ς 
αντί του βασιΧικου το τυραννικόν, εν φ €στ6 
το ΊτΧεΐον οϊεσθαι χρήναι ττάντων εχειν, 

'Αλλ' δ γε σος ττατηρ, είττεν ο Κύρος, Βεινό- 
τερός εστίν, ω μήτερ, ΒιΒάσκειν μεΐον η ττλ^Ιον 
εχειν η ούχ όρ^ς, εφη, δτι καΐ ΜήΒους άτταντας 
ΒεΒίΒαχεν αυτού μεΐον εχειν; * ώστε θάρρει, ως 

* λ€|οϊ zER ; Kfywv γ(β, 

^ & σ)>5 ττατηρ trpcoros Schneider, Hug ; 6 Ίτρωτο^ Ίτατ-ίιρΟ ; f 
ahs irpwTos •ηατ4ιρ yzER, Marchant ; trpanos δ σ^ϊ trar-fip GemoU. 
' fs Heindorf ; iris or efiyt MSS. 

* fl ούχ , . . ίχβίν not in xz, 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. iii. 17-18 

saying that when I was a judge of a good fit^ I 
should do as I had*) done ; but when it was my duty 
to decide whose tunic it was, I had this question, he 
said, to consider — whose title was the rightful one ; 
whether it was right that he who took it away by force 
should keep it, or that he who had had it made for 
himself or had bought it should own it. And since, 
he said, what is lawful is right and what is unlawful 
is wrong, be bade the judge always render his 
verdict on the side of the law. It is in this way, 
mother, you see, that I already have a thorough 
understanding of justice in all its bearings ; and," he 
added, " if I do require anything more, my grand- 
father here will teach me that." 

18. " Yes, my son," said she ; " but at your grand AMedian 
father's court they do not recognize the same E'Jje'of*" 
principles of justice as they do in Persia. For he ««**<» 
has made himself master of everything in Media, but 
in_ Persia equality ofrightsjia^considered justic 
And your father is the first one to do what is ordered 
by the State and to accept what is decreed, and his 
standar d is not his will but the law. M ind, therefore, 
that you be not flogged within an ihc hoTyOur life, 
whe'ri jgou come home, if you re turn with a knowledge 
acqui red from your grand tatlier h ere of the'principfes 
not of^inj ghip b ut of tyrann y, one prmciple of which 
is that it is right for one to have more than all." 

" But your father, at least," said Cyrus, ^^is more 
shrewd at teaching people to have less than to have 
more, mother. Why, do you not see," he went on, 
" that he has taught all the Medes to have less than 
himself? So never fear that your father, at any rate, 



43 



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XENOPHON 

Ο ye σο9 ττατηρ οντ αλΧον ovoeva οντ €μ€ 
ir\€OV€KT€iv μοθοντα άττοττέμψβί. 



IV 

1. Ύοιαΰτα μβν 8η ττολλά ελαλβί ό Κί}/)09• 
τ^λθ9 δέ ή μ€Ρ μητηρ άπήΧθβ, Κΰρος S^ κατ€μ€ν€ 
καΐ αύτον έτρέφβτο. καΧ ταχύ μλν τοΙ<; ηΧικιωται^ 
σνν€/€€κρατο ώστε οίκείως Βιακβΐσθαί, ταχύ he 
T0U9 ττατέρας αντων άνηρτητο, ττροσιων και €ν8η- 
λθ9 ώρ ΟΤΙ ησττάζετο αυτών τους νίβΐς, ωστ€ €Ϊ τι 
του βασιλέως SeoivTo, τους τταΐΒας βκέΧβυον τον 
Ιίύρου Ββΐσθαι ^ιατράξασθαι σφίσιν, 6 Se Κύρος, 
δ TL• Βέοιντο αυτού οΐ τταϊΒβς, 8ca την φιΚανθρωττίαν 
καί φιΚοτιμίαν Trepl τταντος iiroieiTO Βίαττράττβ- 
σθαι, 2. καϊ 6 * Α,στυά^ης he ο τι Βέοιτο αύτον 6 
Κνρος ovSev ehvvaTO avTexetv μη ού χαρίξ€σθαι. 
καϊ yap άσθ€νησαντος αύτον ούΒέττοτβ άττελε^ττε 
τον ΊτώπτΓον ουδέ κΚαίων ττοτέ ετταιίετο, αλλά 
δ^λθ9 ην ττάσιν οτι v'πepeφoβeL•τo μη οι ό ττάτητος 
άτΓοθάντ)' καΐ yap ifc ννκτος el τίνος Βέοιτο 
^Kστvάyης, ττρωτος yaOdveTO Κύρος καΐ ττάντων 
άοκνοτατα aveirriha ύlΓηpeτησωv ο τι οϊοιτο 
yapielaOai, άστε τταντώττασιν άν€κτησατο τον 
Kστvάyηv, 

3. ΚαΙ fjv μλν ΐσως ^Γo\ύ\oyώτ€poς,^ αμα μλν 
iih την iraiheLav, οτι ηvayκάζeτo ύττο τού hiha- 
σκάλου καϊ ■ SiSSvai \6yov ων inoiei καΐ λαμβά- 
veiv Trap* α}<Χων: όττότε Βικάζοι, €τι δε καϊ δ^ά 

^ 'ΐΓθΚυ\ογώτ€ρο5 xzR ; ». ^ ναιδίσκοε Κτι &vti$os &ρ γ. 
44 



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CYROPARDIA, 1. iii. i8-iv. 3 

will turn either me or anybody else out trained under 
him to have too much.** 



IV 

1. In this way Cyrus often chattered on. At Cyrus's 
last, however, his mother went away, but Cyrus SSon^the 
remained behind and grew up in Media. Soon he Medes 
had become so intimately associated with other boys 
of his own years that he was on easy terms with 
them. And soon he had won their fathers* hearts 
by visiting them and showing that he loved their 
sons ; so that, if they desired any favour of the king, 
they bade their sons ask C3rrus to secure it for them. 
And Cyrus, because of his kindness of heart and his 
desire for popularity, made every effort to secure for 
the boys whatever they asked. 2. And Astyages 
could not refuse any favour that C3rrus asked of 
him. And this was natural ; for, when his grandfather 
fell sick, Cjnnis never left him nor ceased to weep 
but plainly showed to all that he greatly feared that 
his grandSfather might die. For even at night, if | 
Astyages wanted anjrthing, Cyrus was the first to I 
discover it and with greater alacrity than any one j 
else he would jump up to perform whatever service t 
he thought would give him pleasure, so that he won "^ 
Astyages's heart completely. 

3. He was, perhaps, too talkative, partly on account His 
of his education, because he had always been ίΐ^**^®" 
required by his teacher to render an account of what 
he was doing and to obtain an account from others 
whenever he was judge ; and partly also because of 



45 



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XENOPHON 

το φ^Κομαθί/ς elvai ττολλά μβν αντος ael τους 
τταροντας άρηρώτα ττως Ιχοι/τα τνγχάνοι, καΐ 
οσα αύτος νττ* α\\ων έρωτφτο, iik το άγχίνου^ 
elvai ταχύ άητ€κρίν€το, ωστ €κ ητάντων τούτων 
η TToXvXoyia avveXeycTO αύτφ* αλλ' ώσπερ yap 
iv σώματί, όσοι νιοι δντ€ς pAyeOo^ ίΧαβον, όμως 
€μφαίν€ται το veapov αύτοΐς δ κατιγγορβΐ την 
οΚι^ο€τίαν, οΰτω καΧ Κνρον €κ της TroXvXoyia^ 
ου θράσος 8ΐ€φα£ν€το, αλλ' άττΧότης καΐ φιΧο- 
aTQpyia, ωστ έπεθυμβι, αν τις en ττΧείω αύτοΰ 
άκον€ΐν ή σιωττωντι τταρβΐναι, 

4. 'ίΐς δέ irporjyev αύτον ο χρόνος συν τφ 
p^eyiOet εις ωραν του ττρόσηβον y€vέσθaι, iv 
τούτφ 8η τοις μ€ν \6yoις μανοτέροις ίχρητο 
καΐ τγι φωντ) ήσυχαιτέρα, α18οΰς δ' ένεττίμιτλατο, 
ώστε καΧ ίρυθραίνεσθαι οττοτε συvτυyχάvoι τοις 
ττρεσβυτέροις, καΧ το σκυΧακω^βς το ττασιν 
ομοίως τΓροστΓίτΓΤβιν ούκέθ* ομοίως ττροττβτ^ς^ 
€ΐχ€ν, οΰτω 8η ησυχαίτερος μ^ν fjv, iv 8k ταΐς 
συνουσίαις ττάμιταν ^πΊχαρις, καΧ yhp οσα 8ια- 
yωvίζovτaι ττοΧΚάκις ηΚικες ττρος άΧΚηΚους, ούχ 
α κρείττων ^8€ΐ ων, ταΰτα ητρουκα\εΐτο τους 
συνόντας, αλλ' αττερ εΰ 'ρ8ει εαυτόν ηττονα οντά, 
^ζνΡΧ^>^ φό^κων κάΧΚων αύτων ητοιήσειν, καΧ 
κατήρχεν ή8η άναττηΒων iirX τους ϊτητους ή 
8ιατοξευσόμενος ή Βιακοντιούμενος άττό των Σττ- 

* irpoirtr4s xAHR ; irpoirerus yG^ ; [irpoirrrf s] Cobet, Hug. 
^ HvpX^ yR ; ravra ^ξηρχκ xz, Gemoll. 

46 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. iv. 3-4 

his natural curiosity^ he was habitually putting many 
questions to those about him why things were thus 
and so ; and because of his alertness of mind he 
readily answered questions that others put to him ; 
so that from all these causes his talkativeness grew 
upon him. But it was not unpleasant ; for just as in 
the body, in the case of those who have attained 
their growth although they are still young, there yet 
appears that freshness which betrays their lack- of 
years, so also in Cyrus's case his talkativeness disclosed 
not impertinence but nai'veto and an affectionate 
disposition, so that one would be better pleased to 
hear still more from his lips than to sit by and have 
him keep silent. 

4. But as he advanced in stature and in years to 
the time of attaining youth's estate, he then came to 
use fewer words, his voice was more subdued, and he 
became so bashfril that he actually blushed whenever 
he met his elders; and that puppy-like manner of 
breaking in upon anybody and everybody alike he no 
longer exhibited with so much forwardness. So he 
became more quiet, to be sure, but in social inter- 
course altogether charming. The boys liked him,\ me spirit of 
too ; for in all the contests in which those of the same 
age are wont often to engage with one another he 
did not challenge his mates to those in which he 
knew he was superior, but he proposed precisely 
those exercises in which he knew he was not their 
equal, saying that he would do better than they; 
and he would at once take the lead, jumping up upon 
the horses to contend on horseback either in archery 
or in throwing the spear, although he was not yet a 



47 



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XENOPHON 

ττων ουττω ττάνυ εττοχος ων, ήττώμβνο^ δε αύτο? 
εφ* ίαυτφ μαΚιστα iyiXa. 

5, ίΐ9 δ' ουκ aireZLhpaaKev €κ του ηττασθαι 
el^ το μη TToieiv ο ηττφτο, άΧλ,' έκαΧιν^εΙτο 
ev τφ 7Γ€φάσθαί ανθι^ βέΧτιον ττοιεΐν, ταχύ 
μ^ν eh το ίσον άφίκβτο ττ} ίτητικτ} τοΐ^ ηΧιζι, 
ταχύ Bk Trapjiei hia το epav του epyov, ταχύ 
Se τά iv τφ τταραΒβίσφ θηρία άνηΧωκ€ΐ Βυωκων 
καΧ βάλΧων καϊ κατακαίνων, ωστ€ 6 * Kστυάyη^ 
ονκέτ βΐχβν αύτφ avWeyetv θηρία, καΐ 6 Κ.ϋρος 
αίσθομ^νο^ οτι βουΧομενο^ ου Βύναιτο οι ζωντα 
ΤΓολΧά τταρέχβιν, eXeye ττρο^ αυτόν, *ί1 Trairire, 
τί σ€ Bel θηρία ζητοΰντα irpaypuT εχαν; αλλ' 
iav iμk εκιτίμπτι^ζ eirl θηραν σύν τφ θβίφ, 
νομίω οσα αν ϊΒω θηρία, €μοϊ ταΰτα τρέφεσθαι. 
6. έτΓίθυμων δέ σφοΒρα i^ievai iirl την θηραν 
ούκέθ* ομοίως Xtirapeiv εΒύνατο ωσττερ τταΐ^ ων, 
αλλ' οκνηροτβρον ττροσ'ρει, καϊ α ττρόσθεν τω 
%άκα €μ€μφ€Τ0 οτι ου τταρίβι αύτον ττ/οό? τον 
ττάτητον, αύτος ήΒη ^άκα<; ίαυτφ iyiyveTO' ου 
yap irpoayei, el μη ϊΒοι el καιροί εϊη, και του 
Έ,άκα eBeiTO ττάντω? σημαίνειν αύτφ οττότβ eyχω- 
ροίη [καΐ onroTe καιρο<ζ εϊη^^ ώστε 6 Χάκα<; 
υττερεφιΚει ηΒη καΧ οι αΧΚοι ττάντε^;, 

7. ΈττεΙ δ' οΰν €yvω 6 * Αστυάγης; σφοΒρα 

αύτον έτΓίθυμοΰντα €ξω θηραν, έκττέμτΓει αύτον 

σύν τφ θείφ καϊ φύλακας συμττέμπει βφ' ΐττττων 

^ κα\ , . . *:1η bracketed by Zeune, Hug, Gemoll, Marchant. 

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CYROPAEDIA, I. iv. 4-7 

good rider, and when he was beaten he laughed at \ 
himself most heartily. ' 

5. And as he did not shirk being beaten and 
take refuge in refusing to do that in which he was 
beaten, but persevered in attempting to do better 
next time, he speedily became the equal of his 
fellows in horsemanship and soon on account of his 
love for the sport he surpassed them; and before 
long he had exhausted the supply of animals in the 
park by hunting and shooting and killing them, so 
that Astyages was no longer able to collect animals 
for him. And when Cyrus saw that notwithstanding 
his desire to do so, the king was unable to provide 
him with many animals alive, he said to him : 
" Why should you take the trouble, grandfather, to 
get animals for me ? If you will only send me out 
with my uncle to hunt, I shall consider that all the 
animals I see were bred for me.** 6. But though he 
was exceedingly eager to go out hunting, he could no 
longer coax for it as he used to do when he was a 
boy, but he became more diffidetit in his approaches. 
And in the very matter for which he found fault 
with Sacas before, namely that he would not admit 
him to his grandfather — he himself now became a 
Sacas unto himself; for he would not go in unless 
he saw that it was a proper time, and he asked Sacas 
by all means to let him know when it was convenient. 
And so Sacas now came to love him dearly, as did all 
the rest. 

7. However, when Astyages realized that he was He goes 
exceedingly eager to hunt out in the wijds, he let ^"*^'"^if 
him go out with his uncle and he sent along some 
older men on horseback to look after him, to keep 



49 

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XENOPHON 

ΊΓρβσβυτέρον^, δττω^; άττο των Βυσχωριών φνλάτ- 
T016V αύτον καΐ ei των ά'γρίων τυ φανβίη θηρίων. 
6 οΐ>ν Κί}ρο9 των έτΓομένων ττροθνμω^ βττννθάνετο 
τΓοίοί^ ου χρη θηρίοι^ ττβλάζβιν καϊ ττοΐα γρη 
θαρροΰντα ουώκβιν, οι δ' eXeyov δτι άρκτου τ€ 
τΓοΧΚού^ ήΒη ιτΧησίάσαντα^ Βιέφθβφαν καϊ κά- 
Ίτροί καΧ λ60ΐ/τ€9 καΧ iraphaXeL^, αϊ δέ βλαφοί 
καϊ 8ορκάΒ€<; καϊ οι dyptoi ole? καϊ οί όνοι οι 
aypioi aaiveh είσιν» ekeyov Se καϊ τούτο, τα? 
8υσχωρία<; οτι Βέοι φυΧάττεσθαι ovSev ^ττον 
ή τα θηρία* ττοΧΚού^ζ yap η8η αύτοΙ<; το?9 ΐιτιτοί^ 
κατακρημνισθηναι. 

8. Καϊ 6 Κνρο^ ττάντα ταύτα εμάνθανε er/>o- 
θνμω^' ώς Se elSev βΧαφον €Κ7Γη8ησασαν, πάν- 
των έτΓίΧαθομενο^ ων ήκονσβν βΒίωκεν ovSev 
άΧΧο ορών ή oirrj 6φeυy€. και ττω^ζ ΒιαττηΒών 
αντφ 6 ?7Γ7Γ09 ττίτττβί βίς yovaTa, καϊ μικρόν 
κακύνον ίξ€τραγτ}Χισ€ν* ου μην a)OC €7Γ€μ€ΐν€ν 
ο Κύρος μόΧις ττως, καϊ 6 ϊττττος έξανέστη, ώς 
S' 6t9 το irehiov ^Χθεν, ακόντισα^; καταβάΧΧβι 
την ΐΧαφον, καΧόν τι χρήμα καϊ μeya, καϊ 
6 μεν 8η υττερέχαιρεν οί Be φύΧακ€<; ττροσεΧά- 
σαντες iXoiBopovv αύτον καϊ eXeyov^ els οίον 
κίνΒννον βΧθοι, καϊ βφασαν κατερείν αύτοΰ, 6 
οΖν Κύρος είστ'ήκει καταβεβηκώς, καϊ άκονων 
ταύτα ήνιατο, ώς δ' ησθετο κραυγής, άνεττη- 
Βησεν επϊ τον Χτητον ωσττερ ενθουσιών, καϊ ως 
ειΒεν εκ του άντίου κάιτρον ττροσφερομενον, 
άντίος εΧαύνει καϊ Βιατεινάμενος εύστόχως ^ βάΧ- 
Χει εΙς το μετωττον καϊ κατέσχε τον κάιτρον. 



* καϊ ολίγον bracketed by Cobet, Hug, Marchant. 
2 €ύστόχω5 yR ; ^υτυχω$ (successftilly) xz. 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. iv. 7-8 

him away from dangerous places and guard him 
against wild beasts, in case any should appear. 
Cyrus, therefpre, eagerly inquired of those who 
attended him what animals one ought not to 
approach and what animals one might pursue 
without fear. And they told him that bears and 
boars and lions and leopards had killed many who 
came close to them, but that deer and gazelles and 
wild sheep and wild asses were harmless.^ And they 
said this also, that one must be on one's guard 
against dangerous places no less than against wild 
beasts ; for many riders had been thrown over 
precipices, horses and all. 

8. All these lessons Cyrus eagerly learned. But 
when Tie saw'"irdeS• spring out from under cover, he 
forgot ever3i;hing that he had heard and gave chase, 
seeing nothing but the direction in which it was i 
making. And somehow his horse in taking a leap 
fell upon its knees and almost threw him over/ 
its head. However, Cyrus managed, with some( 
difficulty, to keep his seat, and his horse got up.J 
And when he came to level ground, he threw his 
spear and brought down the deer — a fine, large 
quarry. And he, of course, was greatly delighted ; 
but the guards rode up and scolded him and told 
him into what danger he had gone and declared 
that they would tell of him. Now Cyrus stood 
there, for he had dismounted, and was vexed at 
being spoken to in this way. But when he heard a 
halloo, he spirang upon his horse like one possessed 
and when he saw a boar rushing straight toward 
him, he rode to meet him and aiming well he struck 
the boar between the eyes and brought him down. 



51 
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XENOPHON 

9. €ρτανθα μέντοι ήΒη /cat 6 deio^ αύτφ iXoi- 
SopCLTO, την θρασύτητα ορών, ό δ' αύτον XotSo- 
ρουμάνου δμω^ β^βΐτο οσα αύτο<; eXaySe, ταύτα 
έάσαι είσκομίσαντα Βοϋναι τφ ττάτΓττφ, τον δβ 
θβίον eiireiv φασιν, Άλλ' ην αϊσθηταν οτι εΒίωκβς, 
ου σοΙ μόνον \θί8ορησ€ται, άΧλΛ και €μοί, οτι 
σε €Ϊων, 

ΚαΙ fjv βούΧηται, φάναι αύτον, μαστι^ωσάτω, 
€7Γ€ίόαν ye βγω οω αυτφ, κολ συγβ, ο τι ρουλ,βι, 
βφη, ω θ€Ϊ€, τιμωρησάμενο^ ταύτα ομω<ζ χάρισαί 
μοι, 

ΚαΙ ο Κυαξάρη^; μέντοι τέΚβυτων elire, Tloiei 
ΟΊτω^ βούΧβι* συ yelp νυν ye ημών βοικα^ βασιλεύς 
eivai, 

10. Οΰτω Βη 6 Ιίύρος €ΐσκομίσα<; τα θηρία eStSov 
τ€ τφ ττάτητω καΐ eX^yev οτι αύτο<; ταύτα θηρά- 
σ€ΐ€ν εκείνφ, και τά ακόντια εττε^είκνυ pkv ου, 
κατέθηκβ Se ηματωμένα οττου φετο τον ττάτητον 
δψεσθαι, 6 Se ^Aστυάyης αρα είττεν, Άλλ', ώ 
τταΐ, λέγομαι μεν εγωγβ ήΒέω<; οσα συ ΒίΒως, ού 
μέντοι οέομαί yε τούτων ούΒενό<;, ώστε σε κιν- 
Βυνεύειν, 

ΚαΙ ο Κί}/θθ9 εφη, Έ1 τοίνυν μη συ Βέει, 
Ικετεύω, ω ττάτητε, εμοί Βος αυτά, διτως τοις 
ήΧικιώταις βγω ΒιαΒώ, 

Άλλ', ω τταΐ, εφη 6 ^ Pi.στυάyης, καΐ ταύτα 
Χαβών ΒιαΒίΒου οτφ συ βούΧει και των αΧΧων 
οττόσα εθέΧεις, 

.11. ΚαΙ ο Κυ/309 Χαβων εΒίΒου τε αρας^ τοις 

^ 8 τ* βού\€ΐ Hug, Marchant ; ei βού\€ί MSS. ; but yRC^ 
nave 8 τι βού\(ΐ after τιμο»ρησάμ€νο5. 
2 &pas xzR, ipa y {accordingly). 

52 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. iv. 9-1 1 

9. This time, however, his uncle also reproved him, 
for he had witnessed his foolhardiness. But for all 
his scolding, Cyrus nevertheless asked his permission 
to carry home and present to his grandfather all the 
game that he had taken himself. And his uncle, 
they say, replied : ^^ But if he finds out that you 
have been giving chase, he will chide not only you 
but me also for allowing you to do so." 

" And if he choose," said Cyrus, ^^ let him flog me, 
provided only I may give him the game. And you^ 
uncle," said he, ^^may punish me in any way you 
please — only grant me this favour." 

And finally Cyaxares said, though with reluctance : 
^' Do as you wish ; for now it looks as if it were you 
who are our king." 

10. So Cyrus carried the animals in and gave ' 
them to his grandfather, saying that he had himself 
taken this game for him. As for the hunting spears, 
though he did not show them to him, he laid them 
down all blood-stained where he thought his grand- 
father would see them. And then Astyages said : 
" Well, my boy, I am glad to accept what you offer 
me ; however, I do not need any of these things 
enough for you to risk your life for them." 

' Well then, grandfather," said Cyrus, '^ if you do He 



distributee 



game 



not need them, please give them to me, that I may ^^^ 

divide them amiong my boy friends." among his 

'^All right, my boy," said Astyages, "take both ^^■^^"*''*^ 
this and of the rest of the game as much as you wish 
and give it to whom you will." 

11. So Cyrus received it and took it away and 



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XENOPHON 

ηταισΐ καί άμα ^keyev, *ί1 τταΖδβ?, ώ? αρα βψλυα- 
ροΰμ€ν ore τά iv τ φ τταραΒβίσφ θηρία βθηρωμβν' 
ομοιον ^μοί^€ ΖοκεΙ elvai olovirep €Ϊ Τί9 ΒεΒβμένα 
ζφα θηρωη. ττρωτον μβν ycip iv μικρφ χο>ρίφ 
^ν, €7Γ€ΐτα λβτΓτά και ψωραΧέα, καΐ το μ€ν 
αυτών χωΧον ^ν, το δέ κοΧοβόν τά δ' iv τοις 
6ρ€σι καΧ Χείμωσι θηρία ώ9 μβν καΚά, ώ? δέ 
μετ^άΧα^ ως δε Χίτταρα iφaίv€τo. καΧ αΐ μεν εΧαφοι 
ωσιτερ τττηναΧ ήΧΧοντο ττρος τον ονρανον, οι δέ 
κώπροι ωσττερ τους άνδρας φασΧ τους άνΒρείονς 
ομοσβ iφ€povτo' υττο δέ της ττΧατύτητος ουδέ 
άμαρτεΐν οίον τ Tjv αύτων καΧΧίω 8ή, εφη, 
βμοΐ'γε 8οκ€Ϊ καΧ τεθνηκότα elvat ταΰτα η ξωντα 
i/celva τά πβριφκοΒομημένα. αλλ' ipa αν, εφη, 
άφ€Ϊ€ν καΧ υμάς οί ττατέρες iin θ ήραν; 

ΚαΙ ραΒίως γ* αν, βφασαν, el ^Αστυατ/ης κεΧεύοι, 

12. ΚαΙ ο Κνρος elire, Ύίς οΰν αν ήμΐν Ά- 
στυάηει μνησθείη; 

Ύίς yctp αν, βφασαν, σου ye ίκανώτερος ττεΐσαι; 

*Αλλά μα τον Αία,^ εφη, iyo) μεν ουκ οΣδ* δστις 
ανθρωττος yεyεvημar ούΒε ykp οΙός τ εΙμΧ Χ&γειν 
εγωγβ οόδ' άναβΧέττειν προς τον πάτητον ix τον 
ϊσσυ ετί 8ύναμαι, ην 8έ τοσούτον εττ^δ^δώ, δβ- 
SoLKa, εφη, μη τταντάττασι βΧάξ ρ-ι,ς καΧ ήΧίθιος 
yεvωμar τταιΒάριον δ' ων ΒεΐΡοτατος^ ΧαΧεΐν 
εΖοκουν είναι* 

ΚαΧ οί τταΐΒες είπον, ΐΐονηρον Xέyεtς το ητρατ/μα, 
el μηΒ' υττ^ρ ημών αν τι Bit) Βυνησει ττράττειν, 

* rhu Δία xzR : tV "Hpayy (the weakling swears 6y Hera). 
'^ ^ivoraros Leonclavius, Edd» ; ^fivojajov 14^S, 

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CYROPAEDIA, I. iv. 11-12 

proceeded to distribute it among the boys, saying as 
he did so : " What tomfoolery it was, fellows, when 
we used to hunt the animals in the park. To me at 
leasts it seems just like hunting animals that were• 
tied up. For, in the first place, they were in a small 
space ; besides, they were lean and mangy ; and one 
of them was lame and another maimed. But the 
animals out on the mountains and the plains — ^how 
fine they looked, and large and sleek ! And the 
deer leaped up skjrward as if on wings, and the 
boars came charging at one, as they say brave men 
do in battle. And by reason of their bulk it was 
quite impossible to miss them. And to me at least," 
said he, ^' these seem really more beautiful, when 
dead, than those pent up creatures, when ahve. 
But say," said he, " would not your fathers let you 
go out hunting, too ? " 

" Aye, and readily, ** they said, " if Astyages should 
give the word." 

12. ^^Whom, then, could we find to speak about it The boys 
to Astyages ? " said Cyrus. to^g^^*^'"''* 

^' Why," said they, "who would be better able to hunting 
to gain his consent than you yourself? " 

" No, by Zeus," said he, " not I ; I do not know 
what sort of fellow I have become ; for I cannot 
speak to my grandfather or even look up at him 
any more, as I used to do. And if I keep on at this 
rate," said he, " I fear I shall become a mere dolt 
and ninny. But when I was a little fellow, I was 
thought ready enough to chatter." 

*^ That's bad news you're giving us," answered the 
boys, " if you are not going to be abl^ to act for us 



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XENOPHON 

αλλ' aWov Τίνος το έττϊ σε ^ άνά'^κη βσται Ββΐσθαι 
ημάς. 

^ 13. ^Ακουσας δέ ταύτα ό Κυράς βΒηχθη, καΐ cnyf) 
ατΓβΚθων Βιακέλβυσάμβνος ίαντφ τόΧμάν είσηλθβν, 
€7ηβονΧ€νσας οττως αν αλυττότατα εϊττοι ττρος τον 
ττάτητον καϊ Βί-αττράξβίεν αυτψ τ€ καΐ τοις παισίν 
&ν iBiovTO. ηρξατο ονν ώδε. ΕΖττ^ pboi, βφη, ω 
τΓατΓΤΓβ, ην τις άττοΒρα σβ των οίκβτων καΧ Χάβχις 
αυτόν, τι αυτψ χρησ€ΐ; 

Ύί oiXKoy €φη, ή Βησας βρ^άζβσθοΛ άνα'γκάσω; 

*Ήν Be αυτόματος ττάΚιν €λθτ), ΐΓ<ύς ττοιησεις; 

Ύί Βέ, βφη, el μη μαστί'γώσας ye, ΐνα μη αύθις 
τούτο iroifj, έξ αρχής χρησομαν; 

'^Άρα αν, βφη ο Κ.ΰρος, σοΙ 7Γαρασκ€υάζ€σθαί 
€Ϊη οτφ μαστι^ώσ€ΐς μ€, ώς βου\€ύομαί ye οττως 
ae άτΓοΒρω Χαβων τους ηΧυκιωτας έττΙ θηραν, 

ΚαΙ ό ^Αστυώγης, Καλώ9, €φη, έττοίησας ττρο- 
eiTrmv evBoOev yap, ίφη, a'πayopeύω σου μη 
Kivelaeai, ^apiev yap, €φη, el eve/ca icpeaBimv 
TJj θυyaτp\ τον τταϊΒα άττοβουκοΧησαιμι, 

14. Άκουσας ταύτα ό Κύρος eTreiOeTO μ€ν καϊ 
ep^evev,^ ανιαρός^ Be καϊ σκυθρωπός ων σιωττ^ Βιή- 
yev, ό μέντοι ^ Aστυάyης iirel eyvω αύτον Χυττού- 
μevov Ισχυρώς, βουΧόμ€νος αυτψ χapίζeσθaι i^ayet, 



^ ivl σ^ χ^, Edd.; 4πϊ σοΙ yRC^ {in your power), 
2 ίμ^ν^ν F, Edd. ; ^/t€iv«i/ all MSS. except F. 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. iv. 12-14 

in case of need^ and we shall have to ask somebody 
else to do your part." 

13. And Cyrus was nettled at hearing this and 
went away without a word ; and when he had 
summoned up his courage to make the venture, he 
went in, after he had laid his plans how he might 
with the least annoyance broach the subject to his 
grandfather and accomplish for himself and the 
other boys what they desired. Accordingly, he 
began as follows : '^ Tell me, grandfather," said he, 
^^if one of your servants runs away and you catch 
him again, what will you do to him ? '* 

^' What else," said he, " but put him in chains and 
make him work ? " 

*' But if he comes back again of his own accord, 
what will you do ? " 

*^What," said he, ^^but flog him to prevent his 
doing it again, and then treat him as before ? " 

" It may be high time, then," said Cyrus, " for you 
to be making ready to flog me ; for I am planning to 
run away from you and take my comrades out 
hunting." 

^' You have done well to tell me in advance," said 
Astyages ; " for now," he went on, '* I forbid you to 
stir from the palace. For it would be a nice thing, 
if, for the sake of a few morsels of me§t, I should 
play the careless herdsman and lose my daughter her 
son." 

14. When Cyrus heard this, he obeyed and stayed They have 
at home ; he said nothing, but continued downcast ι^^ίΤ^ 
and sulky. However, when Astyages saw that he 

was exceedingly disappointed, wishing to give him 
pleasure, he took him out to hunt ; he had got the 



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XENOPHON 

€7γΙ θήραν, καί ττβξούς ττόλΧονς και Ιττιτία^; 
συναΧίσα^ κ αϊ τους τταΓδαν fcal σννβΚάσα^ζ eh τά 
ίττπάσιμα χοαρία rci θηρία βττοίησβ μ,β^αΚην θηραν, 
καΧ βασϊΚικω^ Βη τταρων αύτος αττη'^όρβνε μητέρα 
βάΧΧειν, ΊτρΙν Κνρος εμ^ιτΧησθείη θηρών, 6 δέ 
ΚΟρο? ουκ €Ϊα κωΧύβιν, άΧΧ\ ΕΖ βονΧει, βφη, 
& ττατΓττε, ήΒέω^; μέ θηραν, αφβ^; τού? κατ €μ€ 
Ίτάντα^ 8ιώκ€ΐν καΐ Βία'γωνίζβσθαί οττω^ βκαστο^ 
κράτίστα Βνναιτο, 

15. ^Έ,ντανθα 8η ό Άστυάγτ;? άφίησί, καΐ στά? 
€θ€ατο άμιΧΧω μένους €7γΙ τά θηρία καΐ φιΧονικοΰν- 
τα<; καΐ Βιώκοντας καΐ ακοντίζονται;, καΐ Κύρφ 
ffScTo ου Βνναμένφ acyav υττο τ^9 η^ονη^, αλλ' 

V ωστΓβρ σκνΧακι ^ενναίψ ανακΧάζοντι, οττοτβ ττΧη- 
σιάζοί θηρίφ, καΐ τταρακαΧοΰντι ονομαστΧ €καστον. 
καΧ του μ€ν /ταταγελώι/τα αυτόν ορών ηύφραίνετο, 
τον δε TLva καΧ €7Γαινούντα [αύτον τΐσθάνβτο^ ^ ούδ' 
οττωστωϋν φθονερών. τέΧος δ' oiv ττολλά θηρία 
έχων 6 ^Αστυώγη<ζ άττρβι. καΧ το Χοιττον ούτως 
ήσθη Ty τότε θήρα ώστε aeX όττότε οίον τ €Ϊη 
συνβξι^βί, τφ Κύρφ καΧ αΧΧους Τ€ ττολλου^ irape- 
Χάμβανε καΧ τού<ζ τταΖδας, ίίύρου βνβκα. 

Τον μεν Βη ττΧεΙστον γρονον ούτω Siryyev ό 
Κύρος, ττασιν ήΒονής μεν καΧ ά/^αθού τίνος συν αί- 
τιος ων, κακού δε ούΒενος.^ 

16. ^ΑμφΧ δε τα ττεΐ'τε η βκκαίΒεκα βτη yevo- 
μένου αυτού 6 υίος του ^Ασσυρίων βασίΧέως 
^αμβΐν μέΧΧων ίττεθύμησεν αύτος θηράσαι βίς 
τούτον τον χρόνον. άκούων ούν iv τοις μβθορίοις 

^ avrhv γσβάν^το MSS. ; bracketed by Herwerdeo, Edd, 
2 ohltvos xzR, Marchant ; oftSevi y, Gemoll, 

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CYROPAEDIA, I. iv. 14-16 

boys together, and a large number of men both on 
foot and on horseback, and when he had driven the 
wild animals out into country where riding was 
practicable, he instituted a great hunt. And as he 
was present himself, he gave the royal command 
that no one should throw a spear before Cyrus had 
his fill of hunting. But Cyrus would not permit him 
to interfere, but said: "If you wish me to enjoy 
the hunt, grandfather, let all my comrades give 
chase and strive to outdo one another, and each do 
his very best." 

15. Thereupon, Astyages gave his consent and 
from his position he watched them rushing in rivalry 
upon the beasts and vying eagerly with one another 
in giving chase and in throwing the spear. And he 
was pleased to see that Cyrus was unable to keep 
silence for delight, but, like a well-bred hound, gave 
tongue whenever he came near an animal and urged 
on each of his companions "by name. And the king 
was delighted to see him laugh at one and praise 
another without the least bit of jealousy. At length, 
then, Astyages went home with a large amount of 
game ; and he was. so pleased with that chase, that 
thenceforth he always went out with Cyrus when it 
was possible, and he took along with him not only 
many others but, for Cyrus's sake, the boys as well. 

Thus Cyrus passed most of his time, contriving 
some pleasure and good for all, but responsible for 
nothing unpleasant to any one. 

16. But when Cyrus was about fifteen or sixteen 
years old, the son of the Assyrian king, on the eve 
of his marriage, desired in person to get the game 
for that occasion. Now, hearing that on the frontiers 



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XENOPHON 

τοις τ€ αυτών καΧ τοις ΤΑήΖων ττολλά θηρία 
elvai άβήρ€ντα Sea τον ττολβμον, ίντανθα iwe- 
θύμησεν βξβΧθβΐν. οττως oiv άσφαΧως θηρωτ), 
ίτητέας τ€ ττροσέλαββ ττοΧΧούς κα\ ττβΧταστάς, 
οΐτίνβς ίμεΧΧον αύτφ i/c των Χασίων τά θηρία 
βξέΧαν €49 τά €ρτγάσιμά τ€ καΐ βνήΧατα. άφικό- 
μένος Si οττον fjv αύτοίς Th φρούρια καΐ η 
φυΧακη^ 4νταΰθα iSeinvoiroieiTO, ώς ττρφ tjj 
ύστ€ραία θηράσων. 

17. ''lASη Se €σΐΓ€ρας '^ενομίνης η SiaSoxrj τρ 
πρόσθεν φρΧα /cfi βρχβται i/c ττόΧβως καΧ ίτητεΐς 
καΧ Ίτεζοί, €8οξ€ν oiv αύτω ποΧΧη στρατώ, 
τταρβΐναι,' Svo ycip ομού tfaav φυΧακαί, ττοΧΧονς 
τ€ αύτος fj/eev έχων ίττττέας καΧ ττβζονς. ifiovXev- 
σατο oiv κράτιστον elvai ΧεηΧατησαί i/c της 
M.ηSί/cής, /caX Χαμττρότβρόν τ &ν φανηναι το 
epyov της θήρας καΧ Ιερειών &ν ττοΧΧην άφθονίαν 
ivoμd,ζe γενέσθαι, οντω St) ττρφ αναστας ίι^ε 
το στράτευμα, καΐ τους μεν ττεζούς κατέΧιττεν 
αθρόους iv τοις μεθορίοίς^ αύτος δβ τοις ΐτητοις 
ΤΓΟοσεΧάσας 'προς τά των Μή8ων φρούρια, τους 
μλν βεΧτίστους καΧ ιτΧείστους έχων μεθ* εαυτού 
ivτaΰθa κατέμεινεν, ώς μη βοηθοΐεν οι φρουροί 
των ^ΛηSωv iirX τους καταθεοντας, τους S' i^nτη- 
Sείoυς άφηκε κατίί φυΧίΐς αΧΧους αΧΧοσε κατά- 
θεΐν, /caX i/ciXευε ττεριβαΧο μένους οτφ τις βττίτυγ- 
χάνοι εΧαύνειν ττρος εαυτόν. 

Οι μίν Srj ταύτα εττραττον. 18. σημανθέντων 
δέ τω Άστι/αγ€ί οτι ττοΧεμιοί είσιν iv ttj χωρά, 
ϋξεβοηθει καΧ αύτος ττρος τά δρια συν τοις περί 

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CYROPAEDIA, I. iv. 16-18 

of Assyria and Media there was plenty of game 
that because of the war had not been hunted, he 
desired to go out thither. Accordingly, that he 
might hunt without danger, he took along a large 
force of cavalry and targeteers, who were to drive 
the game out of the thickets for him into country that 
was open and suitable for riding. And when he 
arrived where their frontier-forts and the garrison 
were, there he dined, planning to hunt early on 
the following day. 

17. And now when evening had come, the relief- The 
corps for the former garrison came from the city, ^J^^!^^ 
both horse and foot. He thought, therefore, that Media 
he had a large army at hand ; for the two garrisons 
were there together and he himself had come with a 
large force of cavalry and infantry. Accordingly, he 
decided that it was best to make a foray into the 
Median territory and he thought that thus the 
exploit of the hunt would appear more brilliant and 
that the number of animals captured would be 
immense. And so, rising early, he led his army out ; 
the infantry he left together at the frontier, while he 
himself, riding up with the horse to the outposts of 
the Medes, took his stand there with most of his 
bravest men about him, to prevent the Median 
guards from coming to the rescue against those who 
were scouring the country; and he sent out the 
proper men in divisions, some in one direction, some 
in another, to scour the coimtry, with orders to 
capture whatever they came upon and bring it to 
him. 

So they were engaged in these operations. 18. But 
when word was brought to Astyages that there were 
enemies in the country, he himself sallied forth to 

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XENOPHON 

αύτον και 6 vio^ αύτοΰ ωσαύτως συν τοις τταρα- 
τυγρύσιν Ιτητόταις^ καΧ τοις αΧΚοις δέ €σημαιν€ 
ττάσον €κβοηθ€Ϊν, ως δέ elSov ΐΓοΧΚούς άνθρώττους 
των ^Ασσνρίων σνντ€τατγ μένους και τους ίττπβας 
ήσυχίαν ίχοντας, βστησαν καΐ οι Μ.ήΒοι, 

Ό δέ Κ,ΰρος όρων €κβοηθοΰντας καΧ τους 
αΧΚους ττασσι/δί, έκβοηθβΐ καΧ αύτος ιτρωτον 
τοτβ δττλα €νΒύς, οΰττοτε οΐόμβνος' οΰτως €7Γ€θύμ€ΐ 
αύτοΐς βξοττΧίσα,σθαΐ' μαΚα δέ κα\ίι ijv και 
άρμοττοντα αύτφ & ο Ίτάτητος irepi το σώμα 
€ΤΓ€ΊΓ(Η,ητο. ούτω hk βξοττΧισάμβνος ττροσηλασβ 
τβδ ΐτητφ. καΐ 6 * Αστυάγης βθαύβίασε μ^ν τίνος 
κέλεύσαντος ηκοι, όμως δέ elirev αύτφ μένβιν τταρ* 
€αυτόν. 

19. Ό δέ Κύρος ώς elSe ττοΧΧούς ίτητέας 
άντίους, ήρ€Τ0, ^Η ούτοι, ίφη, ω ττάττττβ, ττοΧίμιοί 
€ΐσιν, όΐ βφβστηκασι τοις ΐτητοις ήρεμα; 

ΠοΧέμιοι μέντοι, βφη, 

*Η καΐ €Κ€Ϊνοι, ^η, οι ΙΚαύνοντες; 

Κ.ακ€Ϊνοι μέντοι. 

Νη τον ΔΓ, Ιφη, ω ττάτΓΤΓβ, αλλ' ούν ττονηροί 
γ€ φαινόμενοι καΐ hrl ττονηρων ίτηταρίων α/γουσιν 
ήμων τά χρήματα' ούκούν χρη €Καύν€ΐν rti/a? 
ημών €7Γ αυτούς, 

'Αλλ' ούχ ορ^ς, €φη, ω τταΐ, όσον το στίφος 
των ίΐΓττέων €στηκ€ συντ€τα/γμ€νον; όΐ ήν βπ' 

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CYROPAEDIA, I. iv. iS-i$ 

the frontier in person with his body-guard, and 
likewise his son with the knights that happened to 
be at hand marched out, while he gave directions to 
all the others also to come out to his assistance. 
But when they saw a large number of Ass3rrian 
troops drawn up and their cavalry standing still, the 
Medes also came to a halt. 

When C3rrus saw the rest marching out Mdth Cyrue ^e 
all speed, he put on his armour then for the first 
time and started out, too; this was an opportunity 
, that he had thought would never come — so eager 
was he to don his arms ; and the armour that his 
grandfather had had made to order for him was 
very beautiful and fitted him well. Thus equipped 
he rode up on his horse. And though Astyages 
wondered at whose order he had come, he neverthe- 
less told the lad to come and stay by his side. 

19. And when Cyrus saw many horsemen over 
against them, he asked : " Say, grandfather," said 
he, ''are those men enemies who sit there quietly 
upon their horses } " 

*' Yes, indeed, they are,'* said he. 

*' Are those enemies, too," said Cyrus, " who are 
riding up and down ? " 

'' Yes, they are enemies, too." 

" Well then, by Zeus, grandfather," said he, " at 
any rate, they are a sorry looking lot on a sorry lot 
of nags who are raiding our belongings. Why, some 
of us ought to charge upon them." 

''But don't you see, my son," said the king, 
"what a dense array of cavalry is standing there in 

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XENOPHON 

€Κ€ίνον<ζ ήμ€Ϊ<ζ έΧαννωμβν, ντΓΟτβμοΰνταΰ Vfici<; 
ΊτάΚιν [iKelvoi]'^ ήμϊρ Be ονττω ή Ισχύ^ irdpeariv, 

'Αλλ' ήν συ μΑνχι^, εφη 6 ΚΟ/οο?, καΐ άναΧαμ- 
βάντ}^ του? ττροσ βοηθούνται, φοβησονταν ούτοι 
κάΙ ου κινησονται, οΐ δ' ayoPT€<; €ύθύ<ζ άφησουσν 
την \eLav, iirethav ϊΒωσί τινας i'lr* αυτούς 
€λαύνοντα<ζ. 

20. Ύαΰτ βίττόντο^ζ αυτού ίΒοξέ τι \eyeiv τω 
*Αστυώγ€ί, καϊ αμα θαυμάζων ώ? καϊ έφρονβι 
καΐ iypηy6p€lJ κέλβύει τον υίον Χαβοντα τάξιν 
ίτΓΤτέων €λαύν€ΐν iirl του? ayovTa^ την Χβίαν. 
^Ετ/ω Be, €φη, iirl τουσδε, ην iirl σέ κινωνται, 
6λώ,^ ώστ€ άναηκασθησονται ήμΐν ττροσέχβιν τον 
νουν. 

Οί5τα) Βη 6 Κυαξάοη<ζ Χαβων των έρρωμένων 
ΐτΐίττων^ Τ€ καΐ άνορων ττροσεΧαύνβι. καΐ 6 
Κ,ΰρος ώ? eiBev ορμώμενου^;, έξορμα, καϊ αυτο<; 
ττρωτος η^βίτο ταχέω^ζ, καϊ 6 Κυαξάρη^ζ μΜντοι 
€ώ€ί7Γ€Τ0, καϊ οι αΧΧοι Be ουκ άττέΧείττοντο. ώς 
Be elBov αυτούς ττεΧάζοντας οί ΧεηΧατοΰντες, 
€ύθύ<; αφέντες τα χρήματα εφευ^ον. 21. οί δ' 
άμφΐ τον Κυρον νττετέμνοντο, καϊ ου<; μεν κατε- 
Χάμβανον ευθύς ετταιον, ττρωτος Βε ο Κ,ϋρος, 
όσοι Βε ιταραΧΧάξαντες αυτών έφθασαν, κατοττιν 
τούτους εΒίωκον, καϊ ουκ ανίεσαν, αλλ' τιρουν 
τινίίς αύτων. 

"Ω,σΊτερ Βε κύων γενναίος αττειρος άττρονοητως 
φέρεται ττρος κήίτρΌν^ δυτω και ο Κύρος εφέρετο, 

* iKeivoi MSS., Dindorf, Sauppe ; bracketed by Hug, Mar- 
chant ; iye4v^€ Gemoll. 
^ ^λ» y, Edd.; 4\άσω xzR. 
3 ίΊΓΊτων F, Edd. ; ίττΗων xzDR. 

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CYROPAEDIA, Ι. iv. 19-21 

line ? If we charge upon those over there, these in 
turn will cut us off; while as for us, the main body 
of our forces has not yet come." 

"But if you stay here/* said C3nrus, ^'and take up 
the reinforcements that are coming to join us, these 
fellows will be afraid and Mdll not stir, while the 
raiders will drop their booty, just as soon as they see 
some of us charging on them." 

20. It seemed to Astyages that there was some- His plan for j 
thing in Cyrus's suggestion, when he said this. And ® ^'^ ^ 
while he wondered that the boy was so shrewd and 
wide-awake, he ordered his son to take a division of 
the cavalry and charge upon those who were carry- 
ing off the spoil. "And if," said he, "these others 
make a move against you, I will charge upon them, 
so that they will be forced to turn their attention to 
us." 

So then Cyaxares took some of the most powerful 
horses and men and advanced. And when Cyrus 
saw them starting, he rushed off and soon took the 
lead, while Cyaxares followed after, and the rest also 
were not left behind. And when the foragers saw 
them approaching, they straightway let go their 
booty and took to flight. 21. But Cjrrus and his 
followers tried to cut" them off, and those whom they 
caught they at once struck down, C3nrus taking the 
lead; and they pursued hard after those who suc- 
ceeded in getting past, and they did not give up but 
took some of them prisoners. 

As a well-bred but untrained hound rushes reck- His reckless Λ 
lessly upon a boar, so Cyrus rushed on, with regard ^'^^^^ J 

65 

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XENOPHON 

μόνον ορών το iraieLV τον άΧισκομβνον, αΧ\ο δ' 
ovSev ττρονοών. 

Οι 0€ ΤΓοΧέμιοί ώ? έώρων ττονοΰντα^ τους 
σφ€Τ€ρου<ζ, ΤΓ ρου κίνησαν το στϊφο<ζ, ώ<ζ Ίτανσο- 
μένους τον Βιω^μον, iirel σφα<; Ihoiev ίγ poo ρ μη- 
σαντα<;, 22, ο δέ ΚΟ/οο? ovhkv μαΧΚον ανίει,^ 
αλλ' ύτΓΟ τη<; χαρμονή<; άνακαΧων τον θύρν 
€Βίωκ€ καΧ Ισχυρών την ^vyrjv τοΐ^ξ ττοΧεμίοος 
κατέχων iiroieh καΐ 6 Κναξάρης μέντοι εφβίττβτο, 
ϊσω<ζ καΐ αίσχυνομενο^ τον πατέρα, καΐ οΐ αΧΚοι 
Se €Ϊ7Γοντο, ττροθυμότβροί 6ντ€^ iv τφ τοωντφ eh 
το ίιώκειν καΐ οι μη ττάνν ττ/^ος τους €ναντίον<ζ 
αΚκίμοί δντ€<ζ. 

Ό δέ ^Αστνώγης ώς ίώρα τον<ζ μ^ν άττρονοήτω^ 
Βίώκοντα<;, τού<ζ δέ ττοΧβμίον^; αθρόους τβ καΐ 
τεταγμένους υτταντωντας^ Βείσας ττβρί re τον νίον 
καΐ τον Κ,νρον μη eh τταρεσκενασμένον^; ατάκτως 
€/ι»7Γ€σόι/τ69 Ίτάθοίέν τι, η^εΐτο €νθν<ζ ττ/οο? τον^ 
ΊΓοΧεμίονς, 

23. Ot δ' αΰ ΊΓοΧέμιοι ώς elSov τους Μΐ7δου9 
7Γροκινηθέντα<;, Βιατ€ΐνάμ^νοι οι μβν τα ιταΧτεί 
01 be τα τόξα; ειστηκ€σαν, ω<; αν, επειοη ^ €49 
τόξενμα άφίκοιντό;^τησομένον<ζ, ωσιτερ τά ττλβ?- 
στα elddeaav iroieiv. μέχρι ycip τοσούτον^ οττοτβ 
εγγύτατα ^ένοιντο, ττροσηΚαννον άλλΐ7λθΑ9 καϊ 
ηκροβοΧίζοντο ΤΓοΧΧάκις μέχρι εσπέρας. eVel 
δέ ίώρων τον<ξ μεν σφετέρονς φν^γτ} eh εαυτούς• 
φεροαένονς, τονς δ' άμφΐ τον Κνρον hr αντον^ 
ομον ά^γομένονς, τον δέ ^Αστνώγην σύν τοις ΐττποι^ 

* iivUi y, Edd. ; iivitU xzR. 

^ &s al•, iiTfiJi^ Hug ; a>s Hj ^πβιδ)} Marchant, GemoU ; &s hv 
iirei^ yRG^ ; άλλ' xz. 

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CYROPAEDIA, I. iv. 21-23 

for nothing but to strike down every one he overtook 
and reckless of anything else. 

The enemy, however, when they saw their com- 
rades hard pressed, advanced their column in the 
hope that the Medes would give up the pursuit 
on seeing them push forward. 22. But none the 
more did Cyrus give over, but in his battle-joy he 
called to his uncle and continued the pursuit; and 
pressing on he put the enemy to headlong flight, 
and Cyaxares did not fail to follow, partly perhaps 
not to be shamed before his father ; and the rest like- 
wise followed, for under such circumstances they 
were more eager for the pursuit, even those who 
were not so very brave in the face of the enemy. 

But when Astyages saw them pursuing recklessly 
and the enemy advancing in good order to meet 
them, he was afraid that something might happen to 
his son and Cyrus, if they fell in disorder upon the 
enemy in readiness for battle, and straightway he 
advanced upon the foe. 

23. Now the enemy on their part, when they saw 
the Medes advance, halted, some with spears poised, 
others Mdth bows drawn, expecting that the other 
side would also halt, as soon as they came within 
bow-shot, just as they were accustomed generally to 
do; for it was their habit to advance only so far 
against each other, when they came into closest 
quarters, and to skirmish Mdth missiles, oftentimes 
till evening. But when they saw their comrades 
rushing in flight toward them, and C3rrus and his 
followers bearing down close upon them, and 
Astyages with his cavalry getting already within , 



67 



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XENOPHON 

€ΐ/τ09 ηιηνό^υ^νον ή8η τοξεύματο^^ ifcfckivovat /ecu 
φβύ^γουσνν ομόθβν Βοώκοντας avct κράτος, 

^Μφουν hk ττολλου?• καΧ τους μ^ν ά\ισκομένου<; 
eiratov κάΙ ΐτητονς καΐ avSpa^, τους Se ττίττΎοντας 
/cari/ccuvov καΧ ου irpoaOev έστησαν ττρίν ^ ιτρος 
τοϊ<ζ τΓβξοΖ? των *Ασσυρίων eyevovro. ενταύθα 
μΑντοι, heiaavre^ μη καΐ iviSpa τις μείζων ύιτείη, 
βττίσχον, 

24. 'Eic τούτου Βη avrjyev 6 ^Αστυά^γης, μάΧα χαί- 
ρων teal τη ίτητοκρατία, καΧ τον Κνρον ουκ ίχων ο 
τι γρη Xeyetv, αϊτών μλν 6ντα εΐοως του βρ^ου, 
μαινόμενον δέ ην^νωσκων Ty τόΧμτ), καΧ yctp τ6τ€ 
άτΓίοντων οϊκαΒβ μόνος των αΧΧων €Κ€Ϊνος ούΒ^ν 
αΧΧο η τους ΤΓβτττωκότας ττεριέΧαύνων iOeaTo, καΧ 
μόΧις αύτον άφβΧκύσαντβς οι iirX τούτο ταχθβντες 
Ίτροσψιαηον τφ ^Αστυώγβι, μάΧα βπίττροσθεν 
ΤΓοιούμενον τους ττροσώγοντας, οτι ίώρα το ττρόσ- 
ωτΓον του ττώπΊΓου η^ριωμίνον eirX Ty θέα Τ'ρ 
αυτού. 

25. *Εν μ^ν Stf ΙΛηΒοις ταύτα iyeyhrqTO, καΧ οι τ€ 
αΧΧοι Ίτάντβς τον Κύρον Sta στόματος elyov καΧ iv 
Χοηφ καΐ iv φΒαΐς, δ τ€ *Αστυάτ/ης καΧ ττρόσθεν 
τιμών αύτον tots ύπβρβξβΊΓσττΧηκτο iir αύτφ. 
Καμβύσης δέ 6 τού Κύρου ττατηρ ή^βτο μίν ττυν- 
θανόμβνος ταύτα, iireX ο ήκουσβν Ipya άνΒρος η&η 
Βιαχ€ΐριζ6μ€νον τον Κύρον, άττεκάΧει 8η, δττως τά 
iv ΊΙύρσαις εττιχώρια i^nτ€Xoίη. καΧ ο Κύρος hk 
ivτaύθa XiyeTai eiireiv οτι airiivai βούΧοιτο, μη 
ο Ίτατίίρ τι αχθοιτο καΧ η ττοΧις μέμφοιτο, καΧ τφ 

^ Ίτρίν Dindorf, Hug; xpXv ii MSS., GemoU, Marchant, 
Breitenbach, et al. 

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CYROPAEDIA, I. iv. 23-25 

bow-shot, they broke and fled with all their might \ 
from the Medes who followed hard after them. / 

The Medes caught up with many of them ; and \^ 
those whom they overtook they smote, both men | 
and horses ; and the fallen they slew. Nor did they ! 
stop, until they came up with the Assyrian infantry. 1 
Then, however, fearing lest some greater force might 
be lying in ambush, they came to a halt. 

24. Then Astyages marched back, greatly rejoic- The victory 
ing over the victory of his cavalry but not knowing ^"® ^ ^^* 
what to say of Cyrus ; for though he realized that 

his grandson was responsible for the outcome, yet he 
recognized also that he was f renzied w ith daring. 
And of this there was further evidence ; for, as the 
rest made their way homeward, he did nothing but 
ride around alone and gloat upon the slain, and only 
with difficulty did those who were detailed to do so 
succeed in dragging him away and taking him to 
Astyages; and as he came, he set his escort well 
before him, for he saw that his grandfather's face was 
angry because of his gloating upon them. 

25. Such was his life in Media ; and Cyrus was 
not only on the tongues of all the rest both in story 
and in song, but Astyages also, while he had es- 
teemed him before, was now highly delighted with 
him. And Cambyses, Cyrus's father, was pleased 
to learn this. But when he heard that C3rrus was 
already performing a man's deeds, he summoned 
him home to complete the regular curriculum in 
Persia. And Cjrrus also, we are told, said then that 
he wished to go home, in order that his father might 
not feel any displeasure nor the state be disposed to 

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XENOPHON 

Άστυάγβ* δέ iBo/cei elvai αναηκσίον airoTre^iretv 
αυτόν, 

"Ενθα 8η ΐτΓΤΓον^ re αντφ δου? ον<; αύτο<ζ hredv- 
μ€ΐ \αβ€Ϊν κα\ αΧΚα σνσκ€νάσας ττολλα Ιττβ/Αττβ 
καΐ Sici το φι\€Ϊν αυτόν καΐ αμα βλπ^δα? ίχων 
/^εγάλας iv αύτω avSpa βσβσθαι ίκανον καΐ 
φίλου<ζ ώφβΧεΐν καΐ €χθρούς άνίάν. ατηόντα he 
τον Ιίϋρον ττρούΐΓβμτΓον ατταντε^; καΐ τταίδε? [καΐ 
ήΧίκες] ^ καΐ άν8ρ€<ζ καΐ yepovTC^ βψ' ΐτητων καΐ 
Άστι/αγ^? αύτό<;, καΐ ούΒένα βφασαν οντιν ου δα- 
κρύοντ άτΓοστρέφβσθαί. 26. και Κΰρον δβ αύτον 
Xeyerai συν ττολλοίς Βακρύοις άττοχωρήσαο. ττολλά 
δέ 8ώρα ΒίαΒοΰναί φασνν αύτον τοί? ήΧίκιώταις ων 
'Αστυάγη? αύτφ iSeS(!>fC€i, τβλο? δέ καΐ fjv εΖχε 
στολ^ΐ' την Μη8νκην €κ8ύντα Βοΰναί τινι [Βηλον 
οτί τούτφ] ον^ μάΧίστα ήσττάζβτο. τού<; μίντοι 
Χαβόντα^ καΐ Βζξαμένον^ τα 8ωρα XeyeTai *Αστυά•- 
y€i airevey/ceiv, ^Αστυάγην δέ Ββξάμβνον Κύρφ 
άτΓΟΊΓεμψαί, τον δέ τταΧιν τ€ άττοττύμψαι, βίς 
ΜηΒους καΐ βίττεΐν, Et βούΧει, ω ττάτητε, €μ€ καΧ 
πάΧιν ίέναί ώ? σέ μη αίσχυνόμβνον, δχ βχβιν €Ϊ τω 
TL iya> δεδω/^α* ^Αστυώγην Be ταύτα άκούσαντα 
τΓοιήσαί ωσττβρ Κ,ΰρο^ εττέσταΧβν, 

27. Et δέ Set καΐ τταιΒίκοΰ Χο^ου έττιμνησθήναί, 
XiyeTat, οτ€ Κνρος airrjei καΧ άττηΧΧάττοντο άττ^ 
άΧΧηΧων, τού<; auyyevel^; φίΧοΰντα<ζ τφ στο ματ ι 
ά7Γ07Γ€μ7Γ€σθαι αύτον νόμφ Τΐ€ρσικω' καΐ ycLp νυν 
€τι τούτο ποιοΰσν Tlepaar άνΒρα Be τίνα των 

^ [καϊ 1}λικ€;] Hug ; καΐ fiXiKcs G^moU ; [καΙ ιταιδβ; ] Marchant. 

2 [δηλον 5τί τούτφ] %ν Hug, Holden ; δηλον ίτχ τούτφ tp y ; 
δηλών ίτχ τούτον xzR, Dindorf , Breitenbaoh, et al. ; δηΚουν^ 
5ri τούτον Η. J. Miiller, GemoU, Marchant, et al. 

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CYROPAEDIA, I. iv. 25-27 

criticise ; and Astyages^ too^ thought it expedient to 
send him home. 

So he let him go and not only gave him the Her return 
horses that he desired to take^ but he packed up ° ^ 
many other things for him because of his love for 
him and also because he cherished high hopes that 
his grandson would be a man able both to help his 
friends and to give trouble to his enemies. And 
everybody, both boys and men, young and old, and 
Astyages himself, escorted him on horseback as 
he went, and they say that there was no one who 
turned back Mdthout tears. 26. And Cyrus also, it is 
said, departed v^ry tearfully. And they say that he 
distributed as presents among his young friends 
many of the things that Astyages had given to him ; 
and finally he took off the Median robe which he had 
on and gave it to one whom he loved very dearly. It is 
said, however, that those who received and accepted 
his presents carried them to Astyages, and Astyages 
received them and returned them to Cyrus; but 
Cyrus sent them back again to Media with this 
message : *^ If you wish me ever to come back to you 
again, grandfather, without having to be ashamed, 
permit those to whom I have given anything to keep 
it." And when Astyages heard this, he did as 
Cyrus's letter bade. 

27. Now, if we may relate a sentimental story, we a 
are told that when C3a*us was going away and they s^ry *"**^ 
were taking leave of one another, his kinsmen bade 
him good-bye, after the Persian custom, with a kiss 
upon his lips. And that custom has survived, for so 
the Persians do even to this day. Now a certain 



71 



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XENOPHON 

ΜηΒων μάΚα καΧον κα/γαθ6ν οντά βκτΓ^ττΧηγθϋυι 
ττόλνν τίνα γρονον iirl τφ xaXKei, του Κύρον, 
ηνίκα Bk βώρα τού<; avyy€V€l<; φιΧονντα^ αυτόν, 
ύτΓοΧειφθήναΓ iirel S* οί αΧΚοι άττηλϋον, irpoaeX- 
θ€Ϊν τφ Κύρφ καΐ elwetv, Έ/α€ μόνον ου 7*7^ώ- 
σκ€ί^ των συγ^^νων, ω Τίΰρε; 

Ύί 8έ, elireiv τον Κΰρον, ^ καΐ συ συγ^βνη<ζ el; 

ΤΛάΧιστα, φάναι. 

Ύαϋτ αρα, elireiv τον Κ,ΰρον, καΐ ivewpa^ ^ μοο' 
ΤΓοΧΚάκι^ yap Βοκω σ€ yiyvaaxeiv τοΰτο ττοιοΰντα, 

Tlpoa€\j0€LV yap σοι, ^η, aei βου\6μ€νο<ζ ναΙ 
μα τον9 ^€0^9 'ρσχυνόμην, 

Άλλ' ουκ eSei, φάναι τον Κΰρον, συyy€vr| ye 
οντά* αμα δέ ττροσ€Κθόντα φιΧήσαι αύτον, 

28. ΚαΙ τον MrjSov φιΧηθέντα €ρ4σθαι, *Η καϊ 
iv Τ14ρσαι<; νομο^ €στΙν οίτο^ συyyev€i^ φίΚύν; 

'ΜίόΧιστα, φάναι, όταν ye ϊΒωσιν άΧΧτ^λου^ Sia 
γρονου η άττίωσί ττοι απ aXKrjhjcuv. 

^'£ίρα hv €Ϊη, ίφη ο Μήδθ9, μαΚα ττάΧιν σβ 
φι\€Ϊν €μ4* απέρχομαι yap, ώς opas, ή8η. 

Ούτω καϊ τον Κΰρον φιΧήσαντα πάΧιν άπο- 
πέμπ€ΐν καϊ άπιέναι, καΐ ohov re ούπω ποΧΧην 
Βιηνύσθαι ^ αύτοΐ<; καΐ τον ΙΛήΒον ηκβιν πάΧιν 

^ ivtapas y, Edd. ; ivop^s xzR. 

^ Ζιτινύσθαι R, Edd. ; ζι^ρύσθαι xz ; ζ^ληΚύσθαι y. 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. iv. 27-28 

Median gentleman, very noble, had for some con- 
siderable time been struck with Cjrrus's beauty, and 
when he saw the boy*s kinsmen kissing him, he 
hung back. But when the rest were gone, he came 
up to Cjrrus and said : " Am I the only one of your 
kinsmen, Cyrus, whom you do not recognize as 
such ? " 

*' What," s^id Cyrus, " do you mean to say that 
you, too, are a kinsman ? " 

*' Certainly," said he. 

" That is the reason, then, it seems," said Cyrus 
*'why you used to stare at me; for if I am not 
mistaken, I have often noticed you doing so." 

^^Yes," said he, ^^for though I was always 
desirous of coming to you, by the gods I was too 
bashful." 

" Well, you ought not to have been — at any rate, 
if you were my kinsman," said Cjrrus ; and at the 
same time he went up and kissed him. 

28. And when he had been given the kiss, the 
Mede asked: ^'Really, is it a custom in Persia to 
kiss one's kinsfolk ? " 

^' Certainly,*' said he ; "at least, when they see one 
another after a time of separation, or when they part 
from one another." 

"It may be time, then, for you to kiss me once 
again," said the Mede ; " for, as you see, I am parting 
from you now." 

And so Cjrrus kissed him good-bye again and 
went on his way. But they had not yet gone far, 
when the Mede came back with his horse in a 



73 



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XENOPHON 

ΙΒροΰντί teS ΐτΓττφ' και τον Ιίνρον 186ντα, ΆλΧ' Ij, 
φάναι, €7Γ€\άθου τι ων 4βον\ον eiireiv; 

Μ ^ Δ^α, φάναι, αλλ' ηκω Sia χρόνου. 

ΚαΙ τον Κνρον eiireiv, Ν^ ΔΓ, ώ avyyeve^, 8ι* 
oXiyov y€, 

ΤΙοίον oXiyov ; eiireiv τον ΜήΒον. ου κ οίσθα, 
φάναι, ω Κ.νρ€, δτι καΐ όσον σκαρΒαμνττω γρονον, 
ττάνυ 7Γο\ν<; μοι Sofcei elvai, οτι ονχ ορω σ€ τ6τ€ 
τοιούτον οντά; 

^Ενταύθα 8η τον Κνρον yeXaaai τ€ ifc τ&ν 
βμπτροσθεν δακρύων καΧ eiirelv αύτφ θαρρβΐν 
άΐΓίοντι, ΟΤΙ τταρέσται αντοΐ^ oXiyov χρόνου, ώστε 
οράν βξέσται κ&ν βονΧηται άσκαρΒαμυκτί, 



1. Ό μέν Βη Κνρο<; οντω<ζ άττβΧθών ev Tlepaai<: 
iviavTOv XeyeTai iv τοΪ9 τταισίν €τι yeveaOai, καΧ 
το μβν Ίτρώτον οι τταίδε? βσκωτττον αντον ω^ 
ήΒντΓαθεΐν iv 1Λη8οι<ζ μβμαθηκως ήκοι* inel δβ καΐ 
βσθίοντα αντον έώρων ωσττβρ καΙ αντοϊ ήΒέω^ καΐ 
πίνοντα, καΐ βϊ ττοτ iv kopTfi βνωχία yevoiTO, 
iirihihovTa μαΧΧον αντον του έαντον μΑρου^ 
τΐσθάνοντο η ιτροσΒεομενον, καΐ ττρος τούτοις δέ 
ταΧΧα κρατιστ€νοντα αύτον έώρων εαντων, ivTav- 
θα St) ττάΧιν υττίτΓτησσον αύτφ οί ηΧικε^;, 

ΈτΓβΙ δέ δ*€λ^ώΐ' την TraiSeiav ταντην ηΒτ} 
βίσήΧθεν eh τους έφηβους, iv τούτοις αΰ iSoxei 

74 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. iv. 28-v. i 

lather. And when Cyrus saw him he said : *' Why, 
how now ? Did you forget something that you 
intended to say ? " 

" No, by Zeus/' said he, " but I have come back 
after a time of separation." 

"By Zeus, cousin^" said Cyrus, "a pretty short 
time." 

'^ Short, is it ? " said the Mede ; ^^ don't you know, . 
Cyrus," said he, " that even the time it takes me to 
wink seems an eternity to me, because during that 
time I do not see you, who are so handsome ? " i 

Then Cyrus laughed through his tears and bade / 
him go and be of good cheer, for in a little while he / 
would come back to them, so that he might soon look | 
at him — ^without winking, if he chose. 



1. Now when Cyrus had returned, as before cyms 
narrated, he is said to have spent one more year in I^""*.^ ^*^ 
the class of boys in Persia. And at first the boys in Persia 
were inclined to make fun of him, saying that he had 
come back after having learned to live a life of 
luxurious ease among the Medes. But when they saw 
him eating and drinking with no less relish than they 
themselves, and, if there ever was feasting at any 
celebration, freely giving away a part of his own 
share rather than asking for more ; and when, in 
addition to this, they saw him surpassing them in 
other things as well, then again his comrades began 
to have proper respect for him. 

And when he had passed through this discipline and 
had now entered the class of the youths, among these 

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XENOPHON 

κρατι,στ€ν€ΐν καΧ μελάτων & XPV^ * fcal καρτ€ρων 
teal αΙΒονμερο^ τους ΤΓρβσβυτίρους καΧ 7Γ€ΐθόμ€νος 
τοις αργρυσι. 

2. ΤΙροϊόντος Be τον χρόνου 6 μλν ^Αστνώγης iv 
τοις ΜήΒοις άττοθνησκβι, 6 δέ Κναξάρης 6 τον 
Άστυάγοι/ς τταΐς, της Sk Jivpov μητρός άΒέΚφός, 
την βασιΧύαν €σχ€ την ΜηΒων. 

Ό δέ των ^Ασσνρίων βασιλεύς καταστραμμένος 
μεν Ίτάντας Χνρονς, φνΚον ττάμττοΧν, νττηκοον δβ 
7Γ€7Γθίημένος τον ^Αραβίων βασιλέα, χητηκοονς δέ 
€χων ήΒη καΐ 'Ύρκανίονς, ττοΚιορκων δέ καΧ Βα/(- 
τρίονς, ένόμιζεν, el τονς ΜηΒονς ασθενείς ποιήσετε, 
ττάντων ye των ττέριζ ραΒίως αρξειν Ισχνρότατον 
yap των €77^^ φύλων τοντο εΒοκει, είναι. 3. οντω 
Βη Βιαπέμττει ττρός τε τους υττ αντον ττάντας κα\ 
Ίτρος Κροΐσον τον ΑνΒων βασιλέα καΐ ττρος τον 
Κ.α7Γ7Γαοοκων καί ττρος Φpvyaς άμφοτέρονς κα\ 
προς ΐlaφλa>y6vaς καϊ ^ΙνΒονς καΧ ττρος Κάρας καΐ 
Κίλικας, τα μ^ν καϊ ΒιαβάΧλων τονς ΜηΒονς καϊ 
ΐΐέρσας, λέyωv ώς μεγάλα τ εϊη ταντα έθνη καϊ 
Ισχνρίί καΐ σννεστηκοτα εΙς ταντο, καΧ εττιγαμίας 
άλληλοις πετΓΟίημένοι εΐεν, καΧ κινΒννενσοιεν, ει 
μη τις αυτούς φθάσας ασθενώσοι, επΙ Ιζ/ εκαστον 
των εθνών Ιόντες καταστρέψα/τθαι. οί μεν Βη καϊ 
τοις λόγοις τούτοις ττειθομενοι σνμμαχίαν αντω 
ετΓΟίονντο, οί δέ καϊ Βώροις καΐ χρημασιν άναπει- 
θομενοι* ττολλά γάρ καΧ τοιαύτα ffv αντφ. 

4. Κναξάρης δέ [ό τον ^Αστνάτ/ονς παις] ^ επεί 
χισθάνετο την τ έτηβονλην καΐ τ^ν παρασκενην 

' χρην Zeune, Edd.; χμ^ι MSS. 

^ 6 . . , TOis MSS., Dindorf ; bracketed by Hug, Gemoll, 
Marchant, Breitenbach, et al. 

6 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. v. 1-4 

in turn he had the reputation of being the best both 
in attending to duty and in endurance^ in respect 
toward his elders and in obedience to the officers. 

2. In the course of time Astyages died in Media^ 
and Cyaxares^ the son of Astyages and brother of 
Cyrus's mother, succeeded to the Median throne. 

At that time the king of Assyria had subjugated Aesyria's 
all Syria, a very large nation, and had made the king world- '^'^ 
of Arabia his vassal ; he already had Hyrcania under *^"<i"*»* 
his dominion and was closely besetting Bactria. So 
he thought that if he should break the power of the 
Medes, he should easily obtain dominion over all the 
nations round about ; for he considered the Medes the 
strongest of the neighbouring tribes. 3. Accordingly, 
he sent aroimd to all those under his sway and to 
Croesus, the king of Lydia, to the king of Cappadocia ; 
to both Phrygias, to Paphlagonia, India, Caria, and 
Cilicia ; and to a certain extent also he misrepresented 
the Medes and Persians, for he said that they were 
great, powerful nations, that they had intermarried 
with each other, and were united in common 
interests, and that unless some one attacked them 
first and broke their power, they would be likely to 
make war upon each one of the nations singly and 
subjugate them. Some, then, entered into an 
alliance with him because they actually believed 
what he said ; others, because they were bribed with 
gifts and money, for he had great wealth. 

4. Now when Cyaxares heard of the plot and of The Modes 
the warlike preparations of the nations allied against Peraiana 



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XENOPHON 

των συνισταμένων βφ' ίαντόν, αυτός τε ευθέως δ σα 
βΒύνατο άντιπαρ€σκ€υάζ€το καϊ βίς ΐΐέρσας επεμττβ 
προς τ€ το κοινον καϊ προς Κ,αμβύσην τον την 
α^εΧφην έχοντα και, βασιΧενοντα iv ΤΙέρσαις. 
έπεμπε Βε καΐ προς Κ,νρον, Βεόμενος αύτον πει- 
ρασθαι αργρντα εΚθεΐν των άνΒρων, εϊ τινας 
πέμποί στρατιώτας το ΐίερσων κοινον. ήΒη yap 
καϊ ο Κΰρος ΒιατετεΧεκως τά εν τοις εφηβοις Βέκα 
h"q εν τοις τέλείοις ανΒράσιν ^ν. 

5. Οδτω Βη Βεξαμένου τον Κύρου οι βουΧεύοντες 
^εραίτεροι αίροΰνται αυτόν αργρντα της εΙς ΤΑηΒους 
στρατιάς. εΒοσαν Βε αύτφ καΐ προσεΧέσθαι Βιακο- 
σίονς των ομότιμων, των δ' ai Βιακοσίων εκάστφ 
τετταρας εΒωκαν προσεΧΑσθαι κα\ τούτους ίκ των 
ομότιμων ηίηνονται μεν Βη ούτοι γιΧιοι* των δ' 
aJf χιλίων τούτων εκάστφ έταξαν εκ τον Βήμου 
των ΙΙερσων Βέκα μλν πεΧταστά,ς προσεΧέσθαι, 
Βέκα Bk σφενΒονήτας, Βέκα Bk τοξότας' καΐ ούτως 
ετ^ένοντο μύριοι μεν τοξοται, μύριοι δέ πεΧτασταί, 
μύριοι δέ σφενΒονηται* χωρίς δέ τούτων οι χίΧιοι 
ύπήρχον. τοσαύτη μεν Βη στρατιά τφ Κύρφ 
εΒόθη, 

6. ΈττεΙ δέ 'ρρέθη τύχιστα, ήρχετο πρώτον άπο 
των θέων καΧΧιερησάμενος δέ τότε προστ^ρεΐτο 
τους Βιακοσίους* επεϊ Bk προσείΧοντο καϊ οντοι Βη 
τους τέτταρας ίκαστοι, συνέΧεξεν αυτούς καΧ είπε 
τότε πρώτον εν αύτοΐς τάΒε' 

7. "^ΑνΒρες φίΧοι, βγω προσειΧομην^ μλν υ μας, 
ου νυν πρώτον Βοκιμάσας, αλλ' εκ παίΒων ορών 

^ τροσ€ΐ\όμην yR, Hug ; τρο^ιΚόμην χζ, other Edd. 
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CYROPAEDIA, I. v. 4-7 

him^ without delay he made what counter prepara- make 
tions he could himself and also sent to Persia both ^epora- 
to the general assembly and to his brother-in-law, tions 
Cambyses, who was king of Persia. And he sent 
word to Cyrus, too, asking him to try to come 
as commander of the men, in case the Persian 
state should send any troops. For Cyrus had by 
this time completed his ten years among the youths 
also and was now in the class of mature men. 

5. So Cyrus accepted the invitation, and the 
elders in council chose him conunander of the 
expedition to Media. And they further permitted 
him to choose two hundred peers ^ to accompany 
him, and to each one of the two hundred peers 
in turn they gave authority to choose four more, 
these also from the peers. That made a thousand. 
And each one of the thousand in their turn 
they bade choose in addition from the common 
people of the Persians ten targeteers, ten slingers, 
and ten bowmen. That made ten thousand bowmen, 
ten thousand targeteers, and ten thousand slingers — 
not counting the original thousand. So large was 
the army given to Cyrus. 

6. Now as soon as he was chosen, his first act was \ 
to consult the gods ; and not till he had sacrificed ' 
and the omens, were propitious, did he proceed to 
choose his two hundred men. And when these also 
had chosen each his four, he called them all together 
and then addressed them for the first time as follows : 

7. *' My friends, I have chosen you not because I Cyrus 
now see your worth for the first time, but because hte trooiw 

^ The "peers," or **equals-in-honour," were so called be- 
cause they enjoyed equality of riehts in matters of education, 
politics, and offices of hqnour and distinction. See Index, 8,v. 

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XENOPHON 

νμας a μβι/ κα\α ή πολίζ νομίζβι, ττροθνμως ταύτα 
€Κ7Γονονντας, h Be αίσγοίί riyelrat, τταντέΚω^ τού- 
των απεγρμΑνοχ)^, &ν 8 ίνβκα αυτός τ€ ουκ άκων 
€ΐ<ζ τόδβ το Τ€λθ9 κατέστην και υμάς τταρβκάΧβσα 
Βηλωσαι, ύμΐν βούΧομαί, 

8. Έγώ.γά/ο κατενόησα οτι οί Trpoyovoi χείρονες 
μεν ημών ούΒεν iyivovro' ασκούντες youv κάκεΐνοι 
ΒιετέΧεσαν αττερ epya αρετής νομίζεται' δ τι 
μέντοί Ίτροσεκτήσαντο τοιούτοι δντες tf τφ των 
ΤΙερσών κοινω αγαθόν ή αύτοΐς, τοϋτ ούκέτι 
Βύναμαι ΙΒεΐν. 9. καίτοι ^γώ οΐμαι ούΒεμίαν άρετην 
άσκεΐσθαι υττ ανθρώττων ως μηΒ^ν ττΧεΐον ^χωσιν 
οι εσθΧοΙ γενόμενοι των ττονηρων, αλλ' οϊ τε των 
τταραυτίκα ήΒονών άττεχόμενοι ούχ ίνα μηΒετΛτε 
εύφρανθωσι, τοϋτο ττράττουσιν, αλλ* ως Βιά ταυ- 
την την ετ^κράτειαν ττοΧΚαπΧάσια εις τον εττειτα 
γρόνον εύφρανούμενοι οΰτω τταρασκευάζονταΐ'^ οι 
τε Χέτγειν ττροθυμούμενοι ΒεινοΙ γενέσθαι ουχ ΐνα 
εΖ \&^οντες μηΒέιτοτε παύσωνται, τοΰτο μεΧετω- 
σιν, αλλ* εΚττίζοντες τφ Χε^ειν εΖ ττείθοντες 
άνθρώτΓους ττολλά και μετ/άΧα a^aOh Βιαιτράξε- 
σθαι*^ οι τε αυ^ τά ποΧεμικά, ασκούντες ούχ ώς 
μαχόμενοι μηΒεττοτε τταύσωνται, τοΰτ εκττονοΰσιν, 
άΧΧά νομίζοντες καΐ οίτοι Tct, ττοΧεμικά άτγαθοί 
γενόμενοι ττοΧυν μλν δΧβον, ττοΧΧην δέ εύΒαιαο- 
νίαν, μετ^άΧας Bk τιμάς καΐ εαυτοΐς κ αϊ ττοΧει 
περιάψειν. 

10. Έ,Ι Βέ Τίνες ταύτα εκττονησαντες ττρίν τίνα 
καρτΓον άτΓ* αύτων κομίσασθαι ττεριεϊΒον αυτούς 
γηρα άΒυνάτους ^γενομένους, ομοιον εμοι^ε Βοκοΰσι 

* 5iairp({|€<r6ai myVR2^ Edd.; ΖιαΊτρά^ασθαι xyzR. 
^ οΧ τ€ αβ m y, Edd.; kcX oi ταύτα xzR. 

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CYROPAEDIA, I. v. 7-10 

I have observed that from your boyhood on you have 
been zealously following out all that the state con- 
siders right and abstaining altogether from all that 
it regards as wrong. As for myself, I wish to make 
known to you why I have not hesitated to assume 
this office and why I have invited you to join me. 

8. ^'I have come to realize that our forefathers 
were no whit worse than we. At any rate, they 
also spent their time in practising what are 
considered the works of virtue. However, what 
they gained by being what they were, either for 
the conunonwealth of the Persians or for themselves, 
I can by no means discover. 9. And yet I think 
that no virtue is practised by men except with 
the aim that the good, by being such, may have 
something more than the bad ; and I believe that 
those who abstain from present pleasures do this 
not that they may never enjoy themselves, but 
by this self-restraint they prepare themselves to 
have many times greater enjoyment in time to come. 
And those who are eager to become able speakers 
study oratory, not that they may never cease from 
speaking eloquently, but in the hope that by their 
eloquence they may persuade men and accomplish 
great good. And those also who practise military 
science undergo this labour, not that they may 
never cease from fighting, but because they think 
that by gaining proficiency in the arts of war they 
will secure great wealth and happiness and honour 
both for themselves and for their country. 

10. '^But when men go through all tliis toilniefoUy 
and then allow themselves to become old and feeble eff^t^**"^ 
before they reap any fruit of their labours, they 

81 

VOL. I. G 



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XENOPHON 

ΊΓ€Ίτονθίναί οίον €Ϊ τί9 y€ωpy6<; ayaOo^ ττροσν- 
μηθβΐ^ yeviaOat καΐ βδ σπάρων καΐ eZ φντενων, 
oTTore κα[τποΰσθαι ταύτα heoi, ίωη τον καρττον 
cL&vyKo^i^aTov βίς την yrjv ττάΧιν καταρρ€Ϊν. /cal 
έΪ τ Is ye ασκητής ττολλά ττονησα^ καΐ άξιόνικο^ 
^€ν6μ€νο^ avayaviaTOS huLTeXiaeiev, ούδ* &ν οντ09 
μΛΐ Βοκ€Ϊ Bucaiws avavTtos elvai αφροσύνης» 1 1 . 
αλλ' ήμ€Ϊς, ω avSp^s, f^V ττάθωμεν ταντα, αλλ' 
irreiTrep σννίσμ€ν ήμΐν αντοΐ<ζ άττο τταίΒων άρξά- 
μενοί άσκηταΧ ovt^s των καΧων κω^αθων ^pyωv, 
ϊωμ€ν €7γΙ T0VS ττοΧβμίου^, οΰς εγώ σαφώς έιτίστα- 
μοΛ ΙΒίώτας οντάς ως προς ημάς άyωvίζ€σθaι. ου 
yap πω ούτοι Ικανοί βίσιν ά/γωνισταί, όΐ &ν 
τοξ€ύωσΐ> καΐ άκοντίζωσι καΐ ίππβνωσιν έπιστη- 
μόνως^ ην Bi που πονησαι Sijf, τούτφ Χ^ίπωνταν, 
αλλ' ουτοί ΙΒιωταί είσι κατίί τους πόνους' ούΒέ 
ye οϊτιν€ς ά/γρυπνήσαι Βέον ηττώνται τούτου, άΧΧΛ 
καΧ οϋτοι ΙΒιωται κατά, τον ΰπνον ούΒέ ye οι 
J ταΟτα μ€ν Ικανοί; άπαίΒ€υτοι Bk ώς γρη καΧ συμ- 
μάγρις καί πο'Χ^μίοις γ^ρήσθαι, αλλά καΧ ούτοι, 
ΒήΧον ώς των μ€τγίστων πaιBeυμάτωv άπeίpως 
^χουσιν. 

12. 'Ύμ€Ϊς Be νυκτΧ μ^ν Βηπου δσαπ€ρ οΐ άλλο* 
ημέρα Βύναισθ^ civ ^ χρήσθαι, πόνους Be του ζην 
ήΒέως ηyeμ6vaς νομίζ<ετ^, Χιμγ Bi oaavep οψφ 
BiaxprjaOeti, υΒροποσίαν Bk paov των Τ^όντων 
φipeτe^ κοίΧΧιστον Be πάντων καί* πoXeμικώτaτov 

* ίύναισβ^ hp xzR, EIdd/; ίύνασθ^ m y {you can). 
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CYROPAEDIA^ I. v. 10-12 

seem to me at least to be like a man who, anxious 
to become a good farmer, should sow and plant 
well but, when harvest-time came, should permit his 
crop to fall back^again to the ground ungathered. 
And again, if an athlete after long training and 
after getting himself in condition to wm a victory 
should then persist in refusing to compete, not 
even he, I ween, would rightly be considered 
guiltless of folly. 11. But, fellow-soldiers, let us not 
make this mistake ; but, conscious that from our 
boyhood on we have practised what is good and 
honourable, let us go against the enemy, who, 
I am sure, are too untrained to contend against 
us. For those men are not yet valiant warriors, 
who, however skilful in the use of bow or spear 
and in horsemanship, are still found wanting if 
it is ever necessary to suffer hardship ; such persons 
are mere tiros when it comes to hardships. Nor 
are those men valiant warriors, who are found 
wanting when it is necessary to keep awake ; but 
these also are mere tiros in the face of sleep. 
Nor yet are those men valiant warriors, who have • 
these qualifications but have not been taught 
how they ought to treat comrades and how to 
treat enemies, but it is evident that they also 
are unacquainted with the most important branches 
of education. 

12. "Now you, I take it, could make use of The 
the njght just as others do of the day ; and you ^^nSges 
consider toil the guide to a happy life ; hunger of Per^u 
you use regularly as a sauce, and you endure *^°*p*"® 
drinking plain water more readily than lions do, 
while you have stored up in your souls that best 

83 

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XENOPHON 

κτήμα ei? τά? 'ψΊ'χά^ συτ^κ€κ6μ,ισθ€* iiraivov^evoL 
yhp μαΧΧον ή τοις αΧ\οι<ζ αττασι γαίρ€Τ€, τους δ' 
iiraivov ίραστ^ς άνώγκη^ Sih τούτο πάντα μ€Ρ 
ττόνον, ττάντα 8ί κίνΖννον ηΖέως υττοΒυεσθαι,'^ 

13. Έαί Sk ταύτα βγω λβγω irepX νμων aWtf yc- 
γνώσκων, εμαντον ίξαιτατω. ο τι yap μη τοιούτον 
άποβ'ήσ€ται παρ* νμων, εΙς έμλ το ελλβϊττοι/ ηξ^ι. 
άΧΚα πιστεύω τοι Ty πείρα κα\ Ty νμων εις βμ^ 
εύνοια καΐ τ§ των ποΧεμίων άνοια μη ψενσειν με 
ταύτας τάς άραβας εΚπίΒας. αλλά θαρρονντες 6ρ- 
μωμεθα, επεώη καί εκποδών ήμΐν yεyivητaι το 
86ξαι των αλΧοτρίων άΒίκως εφίεσθαυ. νυν yap 
έρχονται μλν οΐ πο\4μιοι άρχοντες άΒίκων χειρών, 
καΧονσι Sk ημάς επικούρονς οι φίΧοι* τι ούν εστίν 
ή τον αΧΑζασθαι Βικαιότερον ή του τοις φίΧοις 
άριγγειν κάΧΚιον; 

14. 'Αλλά μην κάκείνο οίμαι υμάς θαρρεΐν, το 
μη παρημέΚη/ΰότα με των θέων την ίξοΒον ποιεί- 
σθαΐ' ΤΓολλά yap μοι συνόντες επίστασθε ού μόνον 
τά pj^yoKa αλλά καΧ τά μικρά πειρώμενον άεϊ άπο 
θέων ορμάσθαι. 

Τ^λθ9 είπε, Ύί 8εΐ ετι \&γειν; αλλ' ύμεΐς μεν 
τους ανΒρας εΚομενοι καΧ άναΧαβόντες και ταλλα 
παρασκευασάμενοι ϊτε εις Μη8ους' iyo) 5' επανεΧ- 
θών προς τον πατέρα πρόειμι Βή, 6πως τά των 
ποΧεμίων ώς τάχιστα μαθών οϊά εστί παρασκευά- 

^ After kudymi AEGBP add κτασθαι τά αίτια. 
^ ύποΗ^σθαι xyR ; ύτοΖύ^σθαι ζ and c (above the line) ; 
yκη κτασθαι τά αίτια. Hia τοΰτο . . . ύιτοίύίσθ^ Dindorf . 



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CYROPAEDIA, L v. 12-14 

of all possessions and the one most suitable to war : / 
I mean^ you enjoy p raise more than anything else : . / 
and lovers" of praise must for this reason gladly! / 
undergo every sort of hardship and every sort of j/ 
danger. ' 

13. '^ Now if I say this concerning you while I 
believe the contrary to be true, I deceive myself 
utterly. For if. any of these qtialities shall fail 
to be forthcoming in you, the loss will fall on 
me. But I feel confident, you see, both from 
my own experience and from your good-will toward 
me and from the ignorance of the enemy that 
these sanguine hopes will not deceive me. So 
let us set out with good heart, since we are free 
from the suspicion of even seeming to aim unjustly 
at other men's possessions. »For, as it is, the enemy 
are coming, aggressors in wrong, and our friends 
are calling us to their assistance. What, then, is 
more justifiable than to defend oneself, or what 
more noble than to assist one's friends ? 

14. ^^This, moreover, wHl, I think, strengthen 
your confidence : I have not neglected the gods 
as we embark upon this expedition. For you have 
been with me enough to know that not only in 
great things but also in small I always try to begin 
with the approval of the gods. 

" What more need I add ? " he said in closing. 
^^ Choose you your men and get them together, and 
when you have made the necessary preparations 
come on to Media. As for myself, I will first return 
to my father and then go on ahead of you, to learn 
as soon as possible what the plans of the enemy are 
and to make what preparations I may require, in 



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XENOPHON 

ζωμαι ο τί &ν Ζέωμαι, ΟΊτω^ ώζ κόΧΚιστα συν θβφ 
ατ/ωνιζώμβθα. 

Οί μ€ν Stf ταύτα eirparrov. 



\1 

1. Ki}/>09 α €\θων oi/caSe καΐ ιτροσευξάμ^νο^ 
*Έστία πατρφα καΐ Αά ττατρφφ καΧ τοίν αΧΚοι<; 
Oeoh ώρματο έττΐ την στρατείαν, σνβΑΤΓροντΓβμτΓβ 
Sk αυτόν καΙ ο ττατήρ. errel δέ €ξω της οΙκίας 
iyivovTO, \iyovTai άστρατταΐ καϊ βρονταΐ αύτφ 
αίσιου η^ν^σθαυ. τούτων Se φανέντων ούΒεν αΚΧο 
€τι οίωνίζόμενοί iiropevovTO^ ως oiheva &ν Χύσαντα ^ 
τά του μ€Τ^ίστου θεοΰ σημαία. 2. ττροϊόντι δέ τ^ 
Κύρφ 6 Ίτατ^ιρ ηρχετο λόγου τοίουδβ* 

^Ω τταΐ, 6τι μ^ν οί θεοί ΐλεφ τ€ fcai ^ύμενύς 
ιτέμπουσί σ€ καϊ ev ίεροΐς hrjkov καΧ ev oifpavioi^ 
σημείοις* ηιηνωσκ^ς h\ καϊ αυτός, iyo) yap σ€ 
ταύτα ^ττιττ/δβ? ϋιΖαξάμην, οττως μη 8ι αΧλων 
ίρμηνέων τίίς των Oe&v συμβουΤύας σιη/ιείης,^ αλλ* 
αιττος καϊ ορών τά ορατά καΐ ακούων τά ακουστά 
ηιηνώσκοις κοΧ μη iirl μάντ^σιν €Ϊης, el βούΚοιντο 
σ€ εξαπαταν frepa \€yovτ€ς ή τά τταρα των θέων 
σημαινόμβνα, μηΒ* αδ, €Ϊ 7γοτ€ αρα avev μάντβως 

^ obiiva hu \ύσαι>τα GR, Marchant, Breitenbach ; obidra. hv 
λ^ο-ακτα χΑΗ {no one toould faU to set) ; ottkv &λλο αΰσαντα 
D (for ΛΤ2ΑΝΤΑ) ; oh^ha λ^β-οκτα Dindorf ; ohZiva ayvo-fiaavra 
Gemoll {no one would fail to understand). 

' σ•υνΐ€ίη5 Pantazides, Gemoll, Marchant, Breitenbach ; 
0'vv(e)ii}s MSS., Dindorf, et al. 

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CYROPAEDIA, I. v. 14-vi. 2 

order that with God's help we may make as good a 
fight as possible." 

They, for their part, proceeded to do as he ha^ 
said. 



VI 

1. Now, when Cyrus had gone home and prayed to The 
ancestral Hestia, ancestral Zeus, and the rest of the S?S?vine^^ 
gods, he set out upon his expedition ; and his father omens 
also joined in escorting him on his way. And when 
they were out of the house, it is said to have thundered 
and lightened with happy auspices for him ; and when 
this manifestation had been made, they proceeded, 
without taking any further auspices, in the convic- 
tion that no one would make void the signs of the 
supreme god. 2. Then, as they went on, his father 
began to speak to C3nais on this wise : 

*^ My son, it is evident both from the sacrifices and 
from the signs from the skies that the gods are 
sending you forth with their grace and favour ; and 
you yourself must recognize it, for I had you taught 
this art on purpose that you might not have to learn 
the counsels of the gods through others as inter- 
preters, but that you yourself, both seeing what is to 
be seen and hearing what is to be heard, might 
understand ; for I would not have you at the mercy 
of the soothsayers, in case they should wish to 
deceive you by saying other things than those 
revealed by the gods; and furthermore, if ever you 
should be without a soothsayer, I would not have 
you in doubt as to what to make of the divine 



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XENOPHON 

yevoio, αίΓοροϊο θβίοις σημείοι^; ο τι χρφο, άλλα 

^ ί^ιψ^ώσκων hih τη^ μαντικής τά τταρα των θβων 

ανμβονΧενομενα, τούτοις ττβίθοιο. 

■ * 3. Καϊ μ^ν δι;, ω ττάτβ/ο, €φη 6 Κνρος, ώς &ν 

ΐ\€φ οί θβοί 6ντ€ς ημΐν σνμβον\€ν€ΐν έθέΧωσιν, 

δσον Ζύναμαι κατίί τον σον \6yov 8ιατ€\ω έτη- 

μέλόμενος, μέμνημαι yap, βφη, άκουσας ττοτέ 

σον ΟΤΙ είκότως &ν καΧ irapk θέων 'Π'ρακτικώτ€ρος 

€Ϊη ωστΓβρ καΧ trap άνθρωττων όστις μη 6ίγ6τ€ iv 

ατΓοροις €Ϊη, τ6τ€ κοΧακενοι, αλλ' οτ€ τά άριστα 

ττράττοι, τότ€ μάλιστα των θέων μεμν^το* καϊ 

των φίΧων δ' ίφησθα χρήναι ωσαύτως όντως 

^ €7Γΐμέ\€σθαι. 

4. Ov/covv ννν, βφη, ω τταΐ, Βιά y εκβίνας 
τάν ετΓΐμέλείας ήΒιον μ^ν ίρχει προς τονς θεούς 
Βεησόμενος, εΚιτίζεις Se μαλΧον τενξεσθαι ων &ν 
Sirj, ΟΤΙ σννειΒέναι σαντω Βοκεΐς ούττώττοτ άμε- 

^ λ7;σα9 αύτων; 

ΐΐάνν μ^ν ούν, εφη, ω ττάτερ, ώς προς φίλονς 
μοι δντας τονς θεούς οντω Βιάκειμαι, 

5. Ύί yap, ίφη, ω παΐ, μέμνησαι εκείνα α 
ΤΓΟτε εΒόκει ήμΐν ώς αττερ 8ε8ώκασιν οί θεοί 
μαθ όντας ανθρώττονς βεΧτιον ττράττειν η άνεττι- 
στη μονάς αντων οντάς καϊ ipyaζoμεvovς μαΧΧον 
άνντειν ή άpyovvτaς και επιμεΧομενονς άσφαΧε- 
στερον Βιώγειν^ ή άφνΧακτονντας, τούτων ττερι^ 
παράγοντας ούν τοιούτονς εαντούς οΐονς Βεΐ, 
όντως ήμΐν εΒόκει 8εΐν καΐ αΐτεΐσθαι τά^αθίι παρά 
των θέων; 

6. Ν αϊ μα Αί*, εφη 6 }ζ.νρος, μέμνημαι μεν- 

* [hv] nidyuy Stephanus, Edd.; hv nidyuv MSS. 
2 τ4ρι Madvig, Hug ; not in MSS. 

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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. 2-6 

revelations^ but by your soothsayer's art I would 
have you understand the counsels of the gods and 
obey them." 

3. ^' Aye, father," said Cyrus, ^^as you have taught 
me^ I always try to take care, as far as I can, that 
the gods may be gracious unto us and willingly give 

us counsel ; for I remember," said he, "having once The secret 
heard you say that that man would be more likely to ^ prajw 
have power with the gods, even as with men, who 
did not fawn upon them when he was in adversity, 
but remembered the gods most of all when he was 
in the highest prosperity. And for one's friends also, 
you said, one ought always to show one's regard in 
precisely the same way." 

4. " Well, my son," said he, ^^ and owing to that 
very regard do yoii not come to the gods with a better 
heart to pray, and do you not expect more confidently 
to obtain what you pray for, because you feel conscious 
of never having neglected them ? " 

" Yes, indeed, father," said he ; '^ I feel toward 
the gods as if they were my friends." 

5. "To be sure," said his father; "and do you God help 
remember the conclusion which once we reached — ^^ 
that as people who know what the gods have granted themselves 
fare better than those who do not ; as people who 

work accomplish more than those who are idle ; as 
people who are careful live more securely than those 
who are indifferent ; so in this matter it seemed to 
us that those only who had made themselves what 
they ought to be had a right to ask for correspond- 
ing blessings from the gods ? " 

6. "Yes, by Zeus," said Cyrus; "I do indeed 



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XENOPHON 

τοι τοιαύτα άκούσα<ζ σον καΐ ycbp άνώγκη μ€ 

ΤΓβίθβσθαι τφ \6yφ' καΐ γά/> οΖδά σβ Χβ^οντα aeX 

\ ώ? ουδέ θέμί^ €Ϊη αΐτβΐσθαί irapoL των θβων οντ€ 

\ iirireveLv μη μαθόντα^ ίττπομαχοΰντας νικαν, οντ€ 

μη Επισταμένους τοξενβιν τοξεύοντας κρατβΐν των 

επισταμένων, οντβ μη επισταμένους κυβερνάν 

σώζειν εΰγεσθαι ναυς κυβερνώντας, ουδέ μη 

f ^ σπείροντάς γε σΐτον εΰγεσθαι καΧον αύτοΐς 

^, \ φύεσθαι, ουδέ μη φυΧαττομένους γε εν ποΧέμφ 

/' ί* σωτηρίαν αΐτεΐσθαΐ' /πάρα yap τους των θέων 

θεσμούς πάντα τά τοιαύτα είναι* τους δέ αθέμιτα 

ευχόμενους ομοίως εφησθα εΙκος είναι παρά, θέων 

άτυχεΐν ωσπερ καϊ παροι ανθρώπων απρακτεΐν 

\ τους: παράνομα Βεομένους. 1 

7. ^Έικείνων δε, *& παΐ, επεΧάθου α ποτέ εγώ 
καΐ σύ εXoyιζ6μεθa ως ικανον εϊη καΐ καΧον άνΒρΙ 
εpyov, εϊ τις Βύναιτο επιμεΧηθήναι όπως &ν αυτός 
Τ€ καΧος κάλαθος Βοκίμως yέvoιτo καί τάπιτηΒεια 
αυτός τε καϊ οι οΐκέται ίκανως εχοιεν; το Βέ, 
τούτου μεyάXoυ ίρyoυ 6ντος, οΰτως επίστασθαι 
"ανθρώπων αΧΧων προστατεύειν όπως εξουσι 
/ πάντα τάπιτηΒεια εκπΧεω και οπως^ έσονται 
" πάντες οίους Βεΐ, τούτο θαυμαστον Βήπου ημΐν ' 
εφαίνετο είναι. 
* - g jsj^^ μ^^ /^ρ^ ξφη^ ^ πάτερ, μέμνημαι 
καϊ τοΰτο σου Xέyovτoς' συνεΒοκει οΰν καϊ έμοί 
υπεpμέyεθες είναι ^pyov το κάΧως αργειν καϊ 
νυν y, εφη, ταύτα μοι Βοκει ταΰτα, όταν προς 
αύτο το αργειν σκοπών Xoyίξωμaι, όταν μέντοι 
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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. 6-8 

remember hearing you say so, and all the more because 
I could not help but agree with what you said. For I 
know that you always used to say that those who had 
not learned to ride had no right to ask the gods to give 
them victory in a cavalry battle ; and those who did 
not know how to shoot had no right to ask to excel 
in marksmanship those who did know how; and 
those who did not know how to steer had no right to 
pray that they might save ships by taking the 
helm ; neither had those who did not sow at all any 
right to pray for a fine crop, nor those who were not 
watchful in war to ask for preservation ; for all that 
is contrary to the ordinances of the gods. You said, 
moreover, that it was quite as likely that those who 
prayed for what was not right should fail of success 
with the gods as that those who asked for what was 
contrary to human law should be disappointed at the 
hands of men." 

7. ^' But, my gon, have you forgotten the discussion The ruler's 
you and I once had — that it was a great task and *"^ 
one worthy of a man, to do the best he could not only 

to prove himself a truly good and noble man but also to 
provide a good living both for himself and his house- 
hold ? And while this was a great task, still, to under- 
stand how to govern other people so that they might 
have all the necessaries of life in abundance and 
might all become what they ought to be, this ^eemed 
to us worthy of all admiration." 

8. ^^ Yes, by Zeus, father," said he, " I do remember 
your saying this also ; and I agreed with you, too, 
that it was an exceedingly difficult task to govern 
well ; and now," said he, " I hold this same opinion 
still, when I consider the matter and think of the prin- 
ciples of governing. When I look at other people, 

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XENOPHON 

7€ προς αλΧους ανθρώπους ΙΒών κατανοήσω otoi 
6ντ€ς Siayiyvojnai αρ'χρντΒς καί οΐοι οντβς άντα- 
Χίγωι/^σταΙ ήμΐν βσονται, πάνυ μοι Sofcei αίσγρον 
elvat το τοωντονς αυτούς οντάς ύποπτήξαι καί 
μη iOeXeiv ievat αύτοΐς άντατ/ωνίου μένους' ους, 
€φη, βγω αισθάνομαι άρξάμενος άπο των 
ημετέρων φίλων τούτων ηγουμένους Seiv τον αρ- 
γρντα των αργρμΑνων Βιαφέρβιν τφ καΐ ποΧυ- 
τ€λ€στ€ρον ΒβιπνβΙν καΐ πΧέον Ιχειν evhov γρυσίον 
καϊ πΧβίονα χρονον καθβύΒβιν καΐ πάντα άπονώ- 
τβρον των αργρμένων Scayeiv. βγω δέ οΐμαι, 
€φη, τον άρχοντα ου τφ ρ^^ίουρ^€Ϊν χρήναι 
Βιαφέρβιν των αργρμένων, αΧΚα τφ προνοβΐν 
' καΐ φιΚοπονεΐν,^ 

9. Άλλα τοι, ίφη, & παΐ, evia έστιν & ου 
προς ανθρώπους ά^ωνιστβον, αλλά προς αντά τα 
πράγματα, &ν ου paSiov €ύπ6ρως πβριτγενέσθαν. 
αύτίκα Βηπου οίσθα οτι el μη ίξβι τάπιτήΒβΜΐ η 
στρατιά, καταΧέΚύσΒταί^ σου η άργτι. 

Ούκουν ταύτα μέν, βφη, ω πάτβρ, Κυαξάρης 
φησί παρέξβιν τοις ίντΒυθβν Ιοΰσι πασιν οπόσοι 
αν &σι. 

Ύούτοις Βη συ, ίφη, & παΐ, πιστβύων €ρχ€ΐ 
τοις παρά Κυαξάρου γρημασιν; 

"Έτ^ω^, €φη 6 Κύρος. 

Ύί Βέ, βφη, οΙσθα οποσα αύτφ €στι; 

Μά τον ΔΓ, Ιφη 6 Κύρος, ου μβν 8ή, 

^ φιΚοΊτον^ιν y, Hug, Gemoll, Marchant, Breitenbach ; φιλο- 
iroveiv 'κροθυμούμ^νον xzRy", Dindorf. 
^ καταλβλτνβται Cobet, Edd. ; καταΧύσ^ται MSS. 

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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. 8-9 

however, and observe what sort of men -those are 
who, in spite of their character, continue to rule over 
them, and what sort of opponents we are going to 
have, it seems to me an utter disgrace to show any 
respect for such as they are and not to wish to go to 
fight them. To begin with our own friends here," 
he continued, ^' I observe that^ Jthe^ Medes consider 
it iTi^ne^^Ty fo^LjJlnj?'^ wHn^nvprn g them to sur- 
pa ss the governed in greater sumpt u ousnes s of fare, 
in the jgo ssession of more mgnfijLJn ^ his^paTace, in 
Ic^y er hours of sleep, an J inA more luxurious manner 
o ritfe, injeyery. xe s pcctT th fln \h^ govern ed. But I 
think, ^^ he added, ^' that the jnilgt^ ought to surpass 
those^ .uuj^r his ^^1** "^tr in sel f-indulgence, bu t in 
tak ing forethought and willingly undergoing t oil. 

9. "But let me tell you, my boy," said the other, 
*' there are some instances in which we must wrestle 
not against men but against actual facts, and it is not 
so easy to get the better of these without trouble. For Supplies 
instance, you doubtless know that if your army does tS^i^^ 
not receive its rations, your authority will soon come 
to naught." 

*^ Yes, father," said he ; " but Cyaxares says that 
he will fiimish supplies for all who come from here, 
however many they be." 

'*But, my son," said he, "do you mean to say that 
you are marching out trusting to the funds at the 
command of Cyaxares } " 

"Yes, I do," said Cyrus. 

"But say," said his father, "do you know how 
much he has ? " 

" No, by Zeus," said Cyrus, " I know nothing 
about it." 



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XENOPHON 

' ^'Ομως Be τούτοις πίστ€ν€ί<ζ toU ΜηΧοιςί οτί 
Be ΤΓοΧΧών μ^ν σοΙ Β€ησ€ΐ, ττοΧΧά Be καΐ αΧΚα νυν 
άνώγκη Βαπανάν €Κ€Ϊνον, ου ^ι/ψνώσκ€ΐ<ζ; ^ 

Τιτγνώσκω, Ιφη 6 Κυράς. 

*Ηι/ οΰν, βφη, eTruUTrt} αύτον η Βαττάνη η καΧ 
€κών ψεύσηται, πώς σοι ίξ€ΐ τά της στρατιάς; 

ΑήΧον δτι ου κάλως, άτάρ, ^φη, ω πάτ€ρ, 
συ €1 €νορας τίνα ττόρον καΐ άττ' έμοΰ &ν ττροσ- 
^evo^evov, €ως ίτι iv φιλία έσμέν, λβγε. 

10. * Ερωτας, €φη, ω π αϊ, ττοΰ &ν απ 6 σον 
πόρος προσ^ένοιτο; άπο τίνος Bk μαΧΧον €ΐκ6ς 
€στι πόρον y€V€σθaι η άπο τον Βύναμιν έχοντος; 
συ Be πβζην μλν Βύναμιν ivOevBe (ίγων €ρχ€ΐ avff 
ης οΖδ' δτι πόλΧαπΧασίαν αΧλην ουκ &ν Βέξαιο, 
Ιππικον Be σοι, δπ€ρ κράτιστον, το Μ,ηΒων 
σύμμαχον ίσται, ποιον οΰν €θνος των πέριξ ου 
Βοκ€Ϊ σοι καΐ χapίζeσθaι βουΧ6μ€νον υμίν υπηpe' 
τησβιν καΐ φοβούμενον μη τι πάθ^; h χρη σε 
κοιν^ συν Κυαξάρυ σκοπεισθαι μηποτε έπιΧίπτ) 
τι υμάς &ν Bet ύπάρχειν, καΧ εθους Bk ίνεκα 
μηχανασθαι προσοΒου πόρον, τοΒε Bk πάντων 
μαΧιστά μοι μεμνησο μηΒέποτε αναμενειν το 
πορίζεσθαι τάπιτήΒεια εστ αν ή χρεία σε 
άνα^κάσψ αλλ' δταν μάΧιστα εύπορτ}ς, τότε 
προ της απορίας μηχανω, καΐ γά/> τεύξει 

^ iKuvov, ου yiyvacKcis Η*, Hug, Marohant, Breitenbach ; 
ahrov, ob 7., yn, Gemoll ; Uuvo oh 7. xAGR, Dindorf. 

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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. 9-1O 

'^ And do you nevertheless trust to these uncer^ 
tainties ? And do you not know that you will need 
many things and that he must now have many other 
expenses ? " 

" Yes," said Cyrus, " I do." 

^^ Well, then," said he, "if his resources fail or if 
he play you false on purpose, how will your army 
fare?" 

" Evidently not very well ; but father," said he, 
" if you have in mind any means that I might find at 
my own command for obtaining supplies, tell me 
about it, while we are still in a friendly country." 

10. *' Do you ask me, my son," said he, " where 
you might yourself find means? Where might 
you better look to find the means of obtaining 
supplies than- to the one who has an army ? Now 
you are marching out from here with a force 0£ 
infantry which you would not exchange, I am sure, 
for any other though many time as large ; and you 
will have for cavalry to support you the Median 
horse, the best cavalry troops in the world. What 
nation, then, of those around do you suppose will 
refuse to serve you, both from the wish to do your 
side a favour, and for fear of suffering harm ? And 
therefore in common with Cyaxares you should take 
care that you may never be without any of the 
things you need to have, and as a matter of habit, 
too, contrive some means of revenue. And above 
all I beg you to remember this : never postpone: 
procuring supplies until want compels you to it ; but: 
when you have the greatest abundance, then take: 
measures against want. And this is most expedient ;; 
for you will obtain more from those upon whom youi 



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XENOPHON 

μαΧΚον τταρ ων &ν Bejj -μη άπορος Βοκων elvai, 
καΐ 6Τί αναίτιο<; €σ€ΐ τταρα τοΐ^ σαντον στρατί- 
ώταί9• ifc τούτου δέ μαΧΚον καϊ υττ αΧΚων 
alSov^ τ€νξ€ΐ, καϊ ήν τινα^ βονλ^ ή €v ττοιήσαί τ§ 
Βυνάμ€ί fj κακω<;, μαΧΚον Ιως &ν βγωσί Th Beovra 
oi στρατιωταί νπηρβτήσονσί σοι, καΐ ττβιστικω-- 
τίρου^, σάφ* ϊσθι, \oyov<i Βυνησβι τ6τ€ Xeyeiv 
6τανπ€ρ καϊ ίνΒείκνυσθαι μάΧιστα Bvvtf καϊ ei 
ποΐ€Ϊν ικανός &ν κάΙ κακω<ζ, 

11. *Αλλ', ίφη, & πάτβρ, αΧΚως τέ μοι Λ:αλώ9 
Βοκ€Ϊς ταύτα Xejecv πάντα, καΐ οτι ων μεν 
νυν Xeyovrai Χηψεσθαί οί στρατίωται, ουΒάς 
αυτών €μοΙ τούτων χάριν €Ϊσ€ταΓ ϊσασι ykp €ψ* 
oh αύτού<ζ Κυαξάρης €πώγ€ται^ συμμάχους* 6 
τι S* &ν προς τοις είρημένοις Χαμβάντ) τις, ταύτα 
καΧ τιμήν νομιούσι καϊ χάριν τούτων βίκος el- 
Βέναι τφ ΒιΒόντι. το δ' έχοντα Βύναμιν ^ ίστι 
phf φίλους εύ ποιούντα άντωφέΚβισθαι, εστί 
Bk εχθρούς [έχοντα'] ^ π€ΐρασθαι τίσασθαι, επειτ 
άμέλεΐν του πορίζβσθαιί^ οϊει τι, ίφη, fJTTOv τι 
τούτο €Ϊναι αίσχρον tj el rt? ίχων phf ά/γρούς, 
ίχων Bk ερ^ά^τας οίς &ν ίρ^άζοιτο, ίπειτ εφη 
την άρ^/ούσαν άνωφέΧητον elvai; ως^ y εμού, 
εφη, μηΒέποτε άμεΧησοντος τού τάπιτήΒβια τοις 
στρατιώταις συμμηχανάσθαι μήτ εν φιλία. μητ 
iv πολέμια οΰτως εχε την Ύνώμην, 

^ Iway^rai Cobet, Hag, Marchant, Gemoll ; Hy^rou MSS., 
Dindorf, Breitenbach, et al. 

* [^χοκτο] Madvig, Hug, Gemoll, Marohant ; ίχοντα MSS., 
Dindorf, Breitenbach. 

' As Μ88.;*Ώ5 £dd., as if Cambyses spoke here. 

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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. lo-ii 

make demands, if you do not seem to be in want, 
and besides you will thus be blameless in the eyes 
of your own soldiers ; in this way, furthermore, you 
will command more respect from others also, and if 
you wish to do good or ill to any one with your 
forces, your soldiers will serve you better as long as 
they have what they need. And let me assure you 
that the words you say will have more more power 
to convince, when you can abundantly prove that 
you are in a position to do both good and ill." 

11. "Well, father,'* said he,, "it seems to me 
that you are right in all you say, both on other 
grounds and also because not one of my soldiers 
will be grateful to me for that which according 
to the agreement he is to receive ; for they know 
on what terms Cyaxares is having them brought 
as bis allies. But whatever any one receives in ad- 
dition to what has been agreed upon, that he will 
consider as a reward, and he will probably be grate- 
ful to the giver. But for a man to have an army 
with which he may do good to his friends and 
get help in return and try to punish his enemies, 
and for him then to neglect to make due pro- 
vision for it, do you think," said he, "that this is 
in any way less disgraceful than for a man to have 
fields and labourers to work them and after all to let 
his land lie idle and unprofitable ? But," he added, 
"I, at any rate, shall not fail to provide supplies 
for my men, whether in a friendly or in a hostile land 
— ^you may be certain of that." 

97 

VOL. I. Π 



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XENOPHON 

12. Ύί yap, βφη, ω Trdft, των αΧΚων, ων iSo/cet 
ΤΓοθ* ημίν αναηκαΐον elvat μη τταραμβλεΐν, fj 
μίμνησαι; 

Ευ ^ γα/Ο, €ή>ηί μέμνημαί 6τ€ iyco μεν ττρος 
σ€ ήΧθον €7γ' apyvpcov, οττως άττοΒοίην τφ φά- 
σκοντί στpaτηyeΐv με TrewacSev/civai, συ Be αμα 
8ι,8ού<; μοι €7Γηρώτα<ζ ωΒέ ττως, ^Κρά ye, €ΐπα<ί, 
& τταΐ, iv τοις στpaτηyι,/coΐ<; καϊ οικονομίας τι 
σοι €7Γ€μνησθη 6 άνηρ φ τον μισθον φέρεις; 
ovSev μίντοί ήττον οι στρατιωται των επιτηΒείων 
Βέονται η οί iv οϊκω οίκετβΐ. iireX S* εγώ σον 
\eyωv ταΚηθή eiirov οτι ουδ' οτιουν ττερί τούτον 
€7Γ€μνήσθη, εττήρον με ττάΧιν εϊ τι μοι ύycείaς 
ττέρι ή ρώμης ελεξεν, ώς Βεήσον καϊ τούτων 
ωσπερ καϊ της στpaτηyiaς τον στpaτηyov εττι- 
μέλεσθαι, 13. ώς Βε καϊ ταυτ άττέφησα, εττηρον 
με αϊ) τταΚιν εϊ τινας τέχνας εΒίΒαξεν, αΐ^ των 
τΓοΧεμικών εpyωv κράτισται^ αν σύμμαχοι yi- 
νοιντο. άτΓοφησαντος Βε μου και τούτο άνεκρινας 
αΖ συ καϊ τ6Βε εϊ τι μ! έτταιΒευσεν ώς αν Βνναίμην 
στρατιά προθνμίαν εμβαΧεΐν, Xeywv οτι το τταν 
Βιαφερει εν τταντι εpyφ ττροθυμία άθνμίας, εττεί 
Βε καϊ τούτο άνένευον, ηΚετ^χες αύ συ εϊ τίνα 
\6yov ΤΓΟίήσαιτο ΒιΒάσκων ττερΙ του ττείθεσθαι 
την στρατιάν, ώς αν τις μάλιστα μηχανωτο, 
14. επεί Βε και τούτο τταντάττασιν άρρητον εφαΐ- 
νετο, τέΚος Βη μ εττήρου ο τ* ττοτε ΒιΒάσκων 

^ €δ Jacob, Hug, Gemoll ; ου MSS- Dindorf, Marchant, 
Breitenbach. 

2 ot Pantazides, most Edd. ; ols xz, Dindorf, et al. 

^ κράησται Hertlein, most Edd. ; κράτιστοι MSS., Dindorf, 
et al. 

98 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. 12-14 

12. "Well then, my boy," said his father, '* tell Au incam• 
me, do you remember the other points which, we ^cher of 
agreed, must not be neglected — eh ? " wiouce* 

" Yes,'* said he, '^ I remember well when I came 
to you for money to pay to the man who professed 
to have taught me to be a general ; and you, while 
you gave it me, asked a question something like this : 
^Of course,* you said, Hhe man to whom you are 
taking the pay has given you instruction in domestic 
economy as a part of the duties of a general, has he 
not? At any rate, the soldiers need provisions no 
whit less than the servants in your house.* And 
when I told you the truth and said that he had given 
me no instruction whatever in this subject, you asked 
me further whether he had said anjrthing to me 
about health or strength, inasmuch as it would be 
requisite for the general to take thought for these 
matters as well as for the conduct of his campaign. 
13. And when I said ^no ' to this also, you asked me 
once more whether he had taught me any arts that 
would be the best helps in the business of war. And 
when I said ^ no ' to this as well, you put this further 
question, whether he had put me through any train- 
ing so that I might be able to inspire my soldiers 
with enthusiasm, adding that in every project 
enthusiasm or faintheartedness made all the differ- 
ence in the world. And when I shook my head in 
response to this likewise, you questioned me again 
whether he had given me any lessons to teach 
me how best to secure obedience on the part of an 
army. 14. And when this also appeared not to have 



99 
II Ί 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XENOPHON 

στρατη^ίαν φαίη μ€ ΒιΒάσκειν. κάτ/ώ 8η ενταύθα 
αποκρίνομαι ore τα τακτικά, καΐ συ yeXaaa^ 
ΒιήΧθές μοι παρατιθβΐς βκαστον τι €Ϊη δφέλος 
στρατιά τακτικών avev των εττιτηΒβίων, τι S* 
avev τον vyiaiveiv, τί δ' ανβυ του ίττίστασθαι 
τα<ζ ηυρημένα^ eU ττόΧεμον τ€χνας, . . . ^ τί δ' 
&ν€υ του Ίτείθεσθαι. ώ? Βέ μοι καταφανΙ<ζ ίττοίη- 
'J σας οτι μικρόν τι μέρος €Ϊη στρατ7}τγίας τα 
^ τακτικά, €7Γ€ρομ€νου μου €Ϊ τι τούτων συ μβ 
ΒιΒάξαι ικανός €Ϊης, άπιοντα μ€ εκέΚβυσας τοις 
στραττγγικοΐς νομιζομένοις άνΒράσι ΒιαΚί^βσθαι 
καΧ Ίτυθέσθαι iry έκαστα τούτων ^ί'^νβται. 15. e/c 
τούτου Βη συνην τούτοις εγώ, ούς μάλιστα φρονίτ 
μους irepl τούτων ήκουον eivai. και irepl μεν 
τροφής έττείσθην Ικανον είναι υττάργον ο τι 
Κναξάρης εμεΧΚε τταρέξειν ήμΐν, ττερί Βε ίτ/ιείας, 
\ άκούων και ορών οτι καΙ ττολεις αΐ χρχίζουσαι 
V ίτ/ιαίνειν Ιατρούς αίροΰνται και οι στραττγγοί 
τών στρατιωτών ένεκεν ιατρούς εξάτ/ουσιν, ούτω 
καΐ eyo) εττεί εν τω τέλει τούτφ ε^ενομην, ευθύς 
τούτου εττεμεληθην, και οιμαι, εφη, ω ττάτερ, 
ττάνυ ικανούς την ιατρικην, τέχνην εξειν μετ 
εμαυτοΰ άνΒρας, 

16. ΤΙρος ταύτα Βη 6 ττατηρ είττεν, Άλλ', 
ω τταΐ, εφη, ούτοι μεν ούς λεy€ις, ωσπερ 
ιματίων ρα^έντων είσί τίνες άκεσταί^ ούτω καΐ 
οι ιατροί, όταν τίνες νοσησωσι, τότ€ ίώνται 
τούτους' σοι Βέ τούτου με^αλοίΓρεττεστέρα εσται 

^ Α lacuna, from which something like ri 5* aveu του ιτροθυ- 
μίαν txeiv is lost, Poppo, Gemoll, Marchant. 

'^ &κ€σταί y, Photius, Cobet, Breitenbach, Gemoll, Mar- 
chant ; iivrrrcd xzR, Dindorf , et al. 

JOO 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. 14-16 

been discussed at all, you finally asked me what in 
the world he had been teaching me that he pro- 
fessed to have been teaching me generalship. And 
thereupon I answered, * tactics.* And you laughed 
and went through it all, explaining point by point, 
as you asked of what conceivable use tactics could 
be to an army, without provisions and health, and 
of what use it could be without the knowledge 
of the arts invented for warfare and without obedi- 
ence. And when you had made it clear to me 
that tactics was only a small part of generalship, 
I asked you if you could teach me any of those 
things, and you bade me go and talk with the 
men who were reputed to be masters of military 
science and find out how each one of those 
problems was to be met. 15. Thereupon I joined Practical 
myself to those who I heard were most proficient Jj^aSfry 
in those branches. And in regard to provisions — science 
I was persuaded that what Cyaxares was to furnish 
us was enough if it should be forthcoming; and 
in regard to health — as I had always heard and 
observed that states that wished to be healthy 
elected a board of health, and also that generals for 
the sake of their soldiers took physicians out with 
them, so also when I was appointed to this position, 
I immediately took thought for this ; and I think," 
he added, ^* that you will find that I have with me 
men eminent in the medical profession.** 

16. " Yes, my son,** said his father in reply to this, 
"but just as there are menders of torn garments, so 
also these physicians whom you mention heal us 
when we fall sick. But your responsibility for 



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XENOPHON 

η τη^ vyida^ έττιμέΚεια' το yap άρχην μη κάμνβιν 
το στράτευμα^ τούτον σοι Set μέλειν. 

Καί τίνα 8η iyfiif €φη, ω ττάτβρ, ohov Ιων 
τούτο 7Γράττ€ΐν Ικανός εσομαι; 

*Ηι/ μβν ΒήτΓον γ^ρονον τ ίνα μβΧΧης iv τ φ 
αυτφ μένβιν, vyietvov ττρωτον Bel στρατοττέΒου 
μη άμέΚησαι,' τούτου Be ουκ αν άμάρτοις, eavirep 
μ^Κήστι σοι, και yap XeyovTe^ ovoev τταύονται 
άνθρωποι irepL re των νοσηρών γωρίων καϊ irepl 
των vyieiv&v μάρτυρ€ς Bk σαφ€Ϊς ίκατέροις 
αυτών παρίστανται τά Τ€ σώματα και τά 
χρώματα, eπetτa Be ου τά χωρία μόνον άpκeσeι 
σκέψασθαι, αλλά μνησθητι συ πως π€ίρα σαυτον 
eπιμe\eσθaι όπως υyιaίvr|ς, 

17. ΚαΙ ό ΚΟρο? eίπe, Ώρώτον μ€ν νη Αία 
πeιpώμaι μηBeτΓOτe ύπ€ρπίμπ\ασθαΐ' Βύσφορον 
yap' erreiTa Be ίκπονω τα eiσιόvτa^ οΰτω yap 
μοι BoKei ή τ€ ύyίeιa pdXKQV πapaμeveιv καϊ 
ισχύς πpoσyeveσθaι. 

Οδτω τοίνυν, €φη, ω παι, και των αΧΚων Bei 
€πιμέλeσθaι, 

Ή καϊ σχοΧη, €φη, ω πάτ€ρ, €σται σώμα- 
σκeΐv τοις στρατιώταις; 

Ου μά ΔΓ, €φη 6 πατήρ, ου μόνον ye, αλλά 
και άvάyκη, Bei ycip Βηπου στρατιάν, el μίλΧει 
πpάξeιv τα Βέοντα, μηBeπoτe παύ€σθαι ή τοις 
πο'λ^μίοις κακά πορσύνουσαν η έαυττ} ατ/αθά* 
ως χa\eπbv μ^ν και eva ανθρωπον apyov τρέ- 
φeσθaι, ποΧύ δ' €τι χαλεττώτε/οοι/, ω παι, οίκον 
6\ον, πάντων Be χa\eπώτaτov στρατιάν apyov 
τpeφeιv. πXeΐστά re γά/ο τά έσθίοντα iv στρατιά 
και απ* ίλαχίστων 6pμώμeva και οίς αν Χάβγ 

Ι02 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. 16-17 

health will be a larger one than that : you must see 
to it that your army does not get sick at all.'* 

"And pray what course shall I take, father/' said 
he, " that I may be able to accomplish that ? " 

^' In the first place, if you 'are going to ^stay for 
some time in the same neighbourhood, you must not 
neglect to find a- sanitary location for your camp ; 
and with proper attention you can not fail in this. 
For people are continually talking about unhealthful 
localities and localities that are healthful ; and you 
may find clear witnesses to either in the physique 
and complexion of the inhabitants ; and in the 
second place, it is not enough to have regard to the 
localities only, but tell me what means you adopt to 
keep well yourself." 

17. "In the first place, by Zeus," said Cyrus, "I 
try never to eat too much, for tl\^t is oppressive ; and 
in the second place, I work off by exercise what I 
have eaten, for by so doing health seems more likely 
to endure and strength to accrue." 

"That, then, my son," said he, "is the way in 
which you must take care of the rest also." 

^^ Yes, father," said he ; " but will the soldiers find 
leisure for taking physical exercise ? " 

^^Nay, by Zeus," said his father, "they not only 
can, but they actually must. For if an army is to do 
its duty, it is absolutely necessary that it never 
cease to contrive both evil for the enemy and good 
for itself. What a burden it is to support even one 
idle man ! It is more burdensome still to support a 
whole household in idleness ; but the worst burden 
of all is to support an army in idleness. For not 
only are the mouths in an army very numerous but 
the supplies they start wjth are exceedingly limited, 

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XENOPHON 

Βαψιλέστατα γρώμενα, ώστε oxnroTe αρηύν' 
Ββησβι στρατίάν* 

18. Λ^γ€49 σιί, βφη, ω ττάτε/ο, ώς €μοϊ SoxeZ, 
ωστΓβρ ούββ γβω/ογοβ apyov ovSev οφβΧος, οντω<ί 
ovSe στρατηγού apyoGvTO^ ovShv όφελος elvat. 

Ύον he ye epyaTqv στρατιγγον εγώ, €φη, 
άναΒέχομαι, ην μη τις θ€ος βΧάτττυ, αμα καΐ 
τάιητηϊβια μάΧιστα έχοντας τους ^τρατιώτα^ 
άτΓοΒείξειν καϊ τά σώματα άριστα βχοντας παρα- 
σκ€νάσ€ΐν. 

Άλλα μέντοι, €φη, το ye μέλετάσθαι €καστα 
των ΊΓοΧεμικων ίpyωv, ά/γωνας αν τις μοι Botcei, 
βφη, ω ττάτβρ, irpoeiiribv ίκάστοις καΧ ίθΧα 
ΊτροτιθεΙς μαΚιστ &ν iroielv^eZ ασκεισθαι ίκαστα, 
ώστ€^ ότΓοτε Βέοιτο ίχειν αν 'τταρεσκευασμένοις 
χρησθαι. , ν 

Κάλλιστα λεγβί?, €φη, ω τταΐ' τούτο yap 
\flwoιησaς, σάφ* ΐσθι, ωσττερ χορούς τά? τάξ€ΐς aei 
τα ττροσηκοντα μέλετωσας θβάσει. 

19. 'Αλλά μην, 6 Κ,νρος €φη, €Ϊς ye το ιτρο- 
θνμίαν €μβαΧ€Ϊν στρατιώταις ονΒέν μοι Boxei 
Ικανώτβρον elvai η το Βύνασθαι έΧττίΒας ίμιτοιειν 
ανθρωτΓΟίς, 

Άλλ', €φη, & τταΐ^ τούτο ye τοιούτον εστίν 
olovirep ei τις κύνας ev θήρα άνακαΧοΙτο 
aei τη κΧ'ήσει ηττερ όταν το θηρίον ορα, το 
pkv yctp ττρωτον ττροθνμως εύ οι^ οτι έχει 
υττακουούσας' ην Βε ττοΧΧάκις ψενΒηται αυτάς, 
τεΧεντωσαι ουδ' οττόταν άΧηθως ορών καΧη 
πείθονται αντφ, οντω καϊ το ττερί των ελττίΒων 

^ ίκαστα, &στ€ y, Dindorf, Gemoll, etal. ; &στ€ Ικαστα xzR, 
Saiippe. 

104 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. 17-19 

and they use up most extravagantly whatever they 
get, so that an army must never be left idle.** 

18. "Methinks you mean, father," said he, ^'that 
just as a lazy farmer is of no account, so also a lazy 
general is of no account at all." 

'^ But at any rate, as regards the energetic general," 
said his father, " I can .vouch for it that, unless some 
god do cross him, he will keep his soldiers abun- 
dantly supplied with provisions and at the same time 
in the best physical condition.*' 

^' Yes," said Cyrus ; " but at all events, as to incentives 
practice in the various warlike exercises, it seems to ^ιΐη&ϊ°*^ 
me, father, that by announcing contests in each one and to 
and offering prizes you would best secure practice in SiSSjsiasm 
them, so that you would have everything prepared 
for use, whenever you might need it.** 

/^ Quite right, my son," said he; "for if you do 
that you may be sure that you will see your com- 
panies performing their proper parts like trained 
sets of dancers.*' 

19. "In the next place,** said Cyrus, "for putting 
enthusiasm into the soldiers nothing seems to be 
more effectual than the power of inspiring men with 
hopes.** 

^^ Yes, my son,** said he ; " but that is just as if any 
one on a hunt should always call up his dogs with 
the call that he uses when he sees the quarry. 
For at first, to be sure, he will find them obeying 
him eagerly ; but if he deceives them often, in the 
end they will not obey him when he calls, even 
though he really does see a wild beast. So it stands 
with respect to those hopes also. If any one too 



105 



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XENOPHON 

e%66• ην τΓοΧΧάκις ιτροσ^οκίας ayad&v έμβαΧων 
ψβνδηταί τις, ούδ' οπόταν άΧηθεΐς βΧπίΒας Xiyy 
6 τοιούτος ireldeiv δύναται, άλλα του μ€ν αύτον 
Xeyeiv α μη σαφώς είδβίη €Ϊρ^€σθαι hel, ω τταΐ, 
άΧΧοι δ' iv€Toi ^ XeyovTe^ ταΰτ αν Ζιαττράττοιεν 
* την δ' αυτού τταρακέΧευσιν εΙς τους p^y ιστούς 

\ί κινδύνους Set ώς μάΧιστα έν ττίστει διασώξειν. 

Άλλα ναΙ μα τον ΔΓ, ίφη 6 Κύρος^ ω 
^ πάτερ, καΧως μοι 8οκ€Ϊς Xiyeiv, καΐ έμοί ούτως 
ήδίον. 20. τό y€ μην πβιθομένους τταρέχβσθαι 
τους στρατιώτας, ουκ απείρως μοι δοκώ αύτον 
€χ€ΐν, ω πάτερ* σύ τ€ yap με ευθύς τούτο εκ 
παιδιού επαίδευες, σαυτφ πείθεσθαι άvayκάξωv^ 
έπειτα τοις διδασκάΧοις παρέδωκας, και εκείνοι 
αύ ταύτο τούτο επραττον επεί δ' εν τοις εφήβοις 
ημεν, 6 άρχων τού αυτού τούτου ισχυρώς επε- 
μεΧετο* και οι νόμοι δε μοι δοκούσιν οι ποΧΧοΙ 
ταύτα δύο μάΧιστα διδάσκειν, άρχειν τε καΧ^ 

^ άργεσθαι, καΐ τοίνυν κατανοων περί τούτων 
εν πασϊϊΓοραν μοι δοκω τό προτρεπον πείθεσθαι 
μάΧιστα ον το τον πειθόμενον επαινεΐν τε και 
τιμαν, τον δε άπειθούντα άτιμάζειν τε και 
κοΧάξβιν, 

21. Κ αϊ έπΙ μεν yε το avayKTf επεσθαι αύτη, 
ω παΐ, ή οδός εστίν επι δέ το κρεΐττον τούτον 
ποΧύ,.το εκόντας πείθεσθαι, αΧΧη €στΙ συντομω- 
τέρα. ίον ycbp αν ήγήσωνται περί τού συμφέροντος 
έαυτοις φρονιμώτερον εαυτών ^ είναι, τούτφ οι 
άνθρωποι ύπερηδέως πείθονται, ) yvoίης δ' αν οτι 
τούθ^ ούτως έχει εν άΧΧοις τε ποΧΧοΐς και δη 

^ iverol Dindorf, most Edd. ; iviore xyG ; aiperai AH ; not 
inR. 

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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. 19-21 

often raises false expectations of good things to come, 
eventually he can gain no credence, even when he 
holds forth well-grounded hopes. But, my son, you 
should refrain from saying what you are not perfectly 
sure of; by making certain others your mouthpiece, 
however, the desired end may be accomplished ; but 
faith in your own words of encouragement you must 
keep sacred to the utmost to serve you in the 
greatest crises/' 

^^ Yes, by Zeus, father," said Cyrus ; " I think you 
are right in what you say, and I like your idea 
better. 20. And then in regard to keeping the sol- how 
diers in a state of obedience, I think, father, that I 5*^^^"^® 
am not inexperienced in that direction ; for you secured 
instructed me in obedience from my very childhood 
on, compelling me to obey you. Then you surrendered 
me to the charge of my teachers, and they pursued 
the same course ; and when we were in the class of 
young men, the officer in charge paid especial atten- 
tion to this same point ; and most of the laws seem 
to me to teach these two things above all else, to 
govern and to be governed. And now, when I think ] 
of it, it seems to me that in all things the chief/ 
incentive to obedience lies in this : praise and honour/ 
for the obedient, punishment and dishonour for the| 
disobedient." 

21. " This, my son, is the road to compulsory obedi-, 
ence, indeed, but there is another road, a short cut, to \ 
what is much better— ^namely, to willing obedience, j 
For people are only too glad to obey the man who / 
they believe takes wiser thought for their interests) 
than they themselves do. And you might recognize 
that this is so in many instances but particularly in the 



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XENOPHON 

καΧ iv ToU κάμνονσιν, ώ? ττροθνμω^; τους eiri- 
τάξοντα<ζ ο τι γρη ττοιβΐν κάλοΰσΐ' και iv 
θαΧάττΎΐ Bk ώ9 ττροθνμω^; τοις κυβ€ρνηται<; οΐ 
συμττΧέοντβς ireiOovTar καΐ οΰ<; 7' ^^ νομίσωσί 
τίνες βέΧτιον αυτών 68ούς eihivai^ ως Ισχυρώς 
τούτων ούδ' άττοΧείττεσθαι ίθίΧουσιν• όταν he 
οϊωνται ττβιθόμβνοι, κακόν τι Χηψεσθαι, ούτε 
ζημίαις ττάνυ τι βθέΧουσιν εϊκβιν ούτβ Βώροις 
ετταίρεσθαι, ούΒε yap Βώρα iirl τφ αυτού κακφ 
€κων ούΒεΙς Χαμβάνβι, 

22. A€y€ις συ, ώ ττάτβρ, βίς το πβιθομένους 
€χ€ΐν oiSiv elvai άνυσιμώτβρον του φρονιμώτβρον 
8οκ€Ϊν elvai τών αρχομένων* 

Λβγω yhp οΰν, ίφη, 

ΚαΙ πώς 8ή τις αν, ω πάτερ, τοιαύτην Βοξαν 
τάχιστα περί αύτοΰ παρασχεσθαι Βύναιτο; 

Ουκ εστίν, εφη, ω παΐ, συντομωτέρα οΒος επι 
τό/ περί ων βούλει, Βοκεΐν φρόνιμος είναι ή το 
γενέσθαι περί τούτων φρόνιμον, καθ^ εν S' εκαστον 
σκοπών γνώσει οτι εγώ άΧηθή Xεyω, ήν yap 
βούΧτι μη ων άβαθος yεωpyoς ΒοκεΙν είναι άτ^αβός, 
ή ίππεύς ή Ιατρός fj αύΧητης ή αλλ' οτιοΰν, εννοεί 
ποσά σε Βεοι αν μηχανασθαι του Βοκεΐν ίνεκα, 
καΐ εΐ Βη πείσαις επαινεΐν τέ σε ποΧΧούς, όπως 
Βόξαν Χάβοις, καΐ κατασκευας καΧίί,ς εψ' εκάστφ 
αυτών κτησαιο^ άρτι τε εξηπατηκως εϊης &ν καΐ 
6Xly(p ύστερον, οπού πεΐραν Βοίης, εξέΧηΧετ^μίνος 
&ν προσέτι και άΧαζων φαίνοιο. 

* 4η\ TOf Hug, Marchant ; not in MSS. 
108 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. 21-22 

case of the sick : how readily they call in those who 
are \o prescribe what they must do ; and at sea how 1 
cheerfully the passengers obey the captain ; and how 
earnestly travellers desire not to get separated from 
those who they think are better acquainted with the 
road than they are. But when people think that they 
are going to get into trouble if they obey, they will / 
neither yield very much for punishment nor will/ 
they be moved by gifts ; for no one willingly accepts 
even a gift at the cost of trouble to himself." 

22. '' You mean to say, fatlier, that nothing is \ 
more effectual toward keeping one's men obedient j 
than to seem to be wiser than they .^ " -^ 

" Y ej/' said h e, ^rthat is just what I mean." 

^^And how, pray/fatEer, could one most quickly 
acquire such a reputation for oneself.'*" 

" There is no shorter road, my son," said he, "than Be what 
really to be wise in those things in which you wish J^JJ^^S 
to seem to be wise ; and when you examine concrete 
instances, you will realize that what I say is true. 
For example, if you wish to seem to be a good 
farmer when you are not, or a good rider, doctor, 
flute-player, or an3i;hing else that you are not, just 
think how many schemes you must invent to keep 
up your pretensions. And even if you should per- 
suade any number of people to praise you, in order 
to give yourself a reputation, and if you should pro- 
cure a fine outfit for each of your professions, you 
would soon be found to have practised deception; 
and not long after, when you were giving an 
exhibition of your skill, you would be shown up and 
convicted, too, as an impostor." 



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XENOPHON 

23. Φρόνιμος δε irepl του συνοίσειν μέΧΚοντος 
ττώ? αν τις τω οντν 'γένοιτο; 

ΑήΧον, €φη, ω τταΐ, οτι οσα μβν εστί μαθόντα 
elBevai, μαθών αν, ωσττβρ τα τακτικά ίμαθβς• 
οσα δε άνθρώττοις οντ€ μαθητα οΰτ€ ττροορατα 
άνθρωττίντ) ιτρονοία, Sia μαντικής αν τταρα θέων 
ττυνθανόμβνος φρονιμωτβρος αΧΚων €Ϊης* ο τι 
δε ^νοίης βέΧτιον ον ιτραχθήναι, βττιμέΚομβνος 
αν τούτον ως αν πραχθβίη, καΐ yap το έτημίΧε- 
σθαι ου αν Sey φρονιμωτέρον άνΒρος ή το άμέλεϊν. 

24. Άλλα μέντοι έττϊ το φιλ€Ϊσθαι ύττο των 
αρχομένων, oirep €μοι^€ ev τοΙς μ€τ/ίστοις 8οκ€Ϊ 
elvai, hrjXov οτι ή αύτη 68ος ήτΓβρ €Ϊ τις ύττο των 
φίΧων στέρ^βσθαι έττιθυμοίη* eif yap οΐμαι helv 
ποιοϋντα φανβρον elvai. 

Άλλα τούτο μέν, βφη, w τταΐ, χαΧεττον το 
άβϊ Βύνασθαι βΰ iroieiv ους αν τις έθέΧψ το Sk 
συνη86μ€ν6ν τ€ φαίνβσθαι, ην τι ayadov αύτοΐς 
συμβαίντ), καΐ συναχθόμενον, ην τι κακόν, και 
συν€7Γΐκουρ€Ϊν ττροθυμούμβνον ταις άπορίαις αυ- 
τών, καΐ φοβούμβνον μη τι σφαΧωσι, καΐ ττρο* 
voeiv ΐΓ€ΐρώμ€νον ως μη σφάΧΧωνται, ταύτα ^ ττω? 
Ζβΐ μαΧΧον συμτταρομαρτβΐν, 25. καΐ έττΐ των 
ττράξβων δε, ην μίν έν θέρβι ωσι, τον άρχοντα Sec 
τού ήΧίου ττΧβονβκτούντα φανερον elvai• ην δε iv 
χ€ΐμωνι, τού ψύχους• ην δε δ^ά μόχθων,^ των 

^ ταΟτα 8tobaeus, Edd. ; 4ν\ τούτα MSS. 
2 δίά μόχθων ζ, Dindorf, Marchant, Breitenbach; δβτ? 
μοχθΰν xyR, Gemoll. 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. 23-25. 

23. "But how could one become really wise in 
foreseeing that which will prove to be useful ? " 

"Obviously, my son/* said he, "by learning all 
that it is possible to acquire by learning, just as you 
learned tactics. But whatever it is not possible for 
man to learn, nor for human wisdom to foresee, that 
you may find out from the gods by the soothsayer's 
art, and thus prove yourself wiser than others ; and 
if you know anything that it would be best to have 
done, you would show yourself wiser than others if 
you should exert yourself to get that done ; for it is 
a mark of greater wisdom in a man to strive to secure 
what is needful than to neglect it." 

24. " Yes ; but as to t he love of one*s subje cts — The way 
and this, it seems to me at least, is one of the most ^^?ou 
important questions — the same course that you would 

take if you wished to gain the affection of your 
friends leads also to that ; that is, I think, you must 
show yourself to be their benefactor.' ' 

" Yes, my son," said he ; " it is a difficult matter, 
however, always to be in a position to do good to 
whom you will ; but to show that you rejoice with 
them if any good befall them, that you sympathize 
with them if any ill betide, that you are eager to 
help them in times of distress, that you are anxious 
that they be not crossed in any way, and that 
you try to prevent their being crossed ; it is in these 
respects somehow that you ought rather to go hand 
in hand with them. 25. And in his campaigns also, if 
they fall in the summer time, the general must show 
that he can endure the heat of the sun better than his 
soldiers can, and that he can endure cold better 
than they if it be in winter ; if the way lead through 



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XENOPHON 

ητονων ττάντα yap ταύτα eh το φιΧύσθαι νττο 
των άργρμίνων συΧΧαμβάνβι. 

Λεγβ^? συ, βφη, ω ττάτβ/ο, ώς καΐ καρτερώτερον 
Set 7Γ/0Ο9 ττάντα τον άρχοντα των αρχομένων elvac. 

Λβγω yap oiv, ίφη, ddppec μέντοί τούτο, ω 
τταΐ* ev yap ϊσθι οτί των ομοίων σωμάτων οι 
αύτοΙ ττόνοι ούχ ομοίως ατττονται άρχοντος re αν- 
Βρος καϊ ΙΒιώτου, αλλ' ίτηκουφίζει, τι η τιμή τους 
ττ όνους τω αρχοντι καϊ αυτό το eiZhai οτι ου Χαν- 
θάν€ί δ τι αν iroif), 

26. ΌτΓοτβ 8i, ω Ίτάτβρ, σοι η8η βχοιβν μεν 
τάτητηΖεια οΐ στρατιωται, iyvaivoiev Si, irovelv 
Se Βύναι,ντο, τας he ττοΧεμιχ^ς τεχνας ησκηκοτες 
εΐεν, φιλοτίμως δ' εγριεν προς το ayaOol φαίνε- 
σθαι, το δέ ττείθεσθαι αύτοΐς ήΒνον εϊη του άπειθεΐν, 
ουκ &ν τηννκαΰτα σωφρονείν αν τ^ς σοι Βοκοίτ] 
Bιayωvίζεσθaι βουλομενος ττρος τους ττοΧεμίους 
ώς τάχιστα; 

ΝαΙ μΛ Δί', εφη, ει μεΧΚοι yε πλεΐον εξειν 
εΐ Bk μη, βγωγ' &ν οσφ οίοίμην καϊ αύτος βεΚτίων 
είναι καί τους επόμενους βεΧτίονας εχειν, τ οσφ &ν 
μαΧΚον φυΧαττοίμην, ωσπερ καΧ ταΧΧα αν οΐώ- 
μέθα πΧείστου ημΐν άξια είναι, ταΰτα πειρώμεθα 
ώς εν ίχυρωτάτφ ποιεισθαι, 

27. ΤίΧ^ΐον S* εχειν, ω πάτερ, ποΧεμίων πως 
αν τις Βύναιτο μάΧιστα; 

Ου act ΔΓ, ίφη, ούκέτι τοΰτο φαΰΧον, ω 
παΐ, ούΒ* άπΧοΰν Ipyov έρωτας* αλλ' εΰ ϊσθι οτι 
Βεΐ τον μέΧΧοντα τοΰτο ποιησειν καϊ επίβουΧον 
είναι καϊ κρυψίνουν καϊ ΒοΧερον καϊ απατεώνα 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. 25-27 

difficulties^ that he caii endure hardships better. 
All this contributes to his being loved by his men." 
^' You mean to say, father," said he, '^ that in 7 

^vf>rytl^ing t.hp gtf>n^rf|] pliiQt s})inw moff ^ ndurance J 

t han his me n." 

" Yes," said he, "that is just what I mean ; how- 
evei^ never fear for that, my son ; for bear in mind 
that the same toils do not affect the general and the 
private in the same way, though they have the same 
sort of bodies ; but the honour of the general's 
position and the very consciousness that nothing he 
does escapes notice lighten the burdens for him." 

26. " But, father, when once your soldiers had 
supplies arid were well and able to endure toils, and 
when they were practised in the arts of war and 
ambitious to prove themselves brave, and when they 
were more inclined to obey than to disobey, under 
such circumstances do you not think it would be wise 
to desire to engage the enemy at the very first 
opportunity ? " 

" Yes, by Zeus," said he ; " at any rate, if I Taking 
expected to gain some advantage by it ; otherwise, ^S"*^^ 
for my part, the better I thought myself to be and enemy 
the better my followers, the more should I be on 
my guard, just as we try to keep other things also 
which we hold most precious in the greatest possible 
security." 

27. " But, father, what would be the best way to' 
gain an advantage over the enemy } " 

'^ By Zeus," said he, " this is no easy or simple 
question that you ask now, my son ; but, let me tell 
you, the man who proposes to do that must be j 
designing and cunning, wily and deceitful, a thief 

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XENOPHON 

καΐ κλέπτην καΐ apTraya fcal iv τταντί ττΧβονέκτην 
των ποΧβμίων. 

ΚαΙ ο Κνρος iiriyeXaaa^ elirevy *ί1 ^ΆράκΚβι^, 
οίον συ λ6γ€ί9, ώ ττάτερ, Selv avBpa μβ yeveaOai. 

Οίθ9 αν ών,^ €φη, ω τταΐ, δικαιότατος τβ και 
νομιμώτατο<; άνηρ €Ϊη<;. 

28. Πως μην, βφη, τταίδα? οντάς ημάς καΐ 
€φη0ους ταναντία τούτων έΒιΒάσκετβ; 

Ναι μα ΔΓ, βφη, καΐ νυν ττρος τους φίΧονς 
τ€ καΐ ΊΓοΧίτας* όπως Si ye τους ττοΧεμίους 
Βύναισθβ κακώς ποιβΐν ουκ οίσθα μανθάνοντας 
υμάς ττοΧΧας κάκου pyίaς; 

Ου Βήτα, ίφη, βγωγβ, ώ ττάτ^ρ. y 
Τίνος μην βνεκα, βφη, ίμανθάνβτβ τοξβύειν; 
τίνος δ' €ν€κα άκοντίζβιν; τίνος δ' βνβκα ΒοΧοΰν ΰς 
αγρίους καΐ irXeyp^ai καΐ opiyp^iai; τί δ' ελα- 
φους 7ΓoSάypaις καΐ άρττε^οναις; τί δέ Χέουσι και 
άρκτοις καΐ irapSdXeaiv ουκ εΙς το ϊσον καθιστά- 
μενοι €μάχ€σθ€, άΧΧα μβτεί ττΧβονβξίας τίνος ael 
€7Γ€ΐράσθ€ ayωvίζeσθaι ιτρος αυτά; ή ου ττάντα 
yιyvώσκ€ις ταύτα οτι κaκoυpyίaι τέ βίσι και 
άττάται καΐ 8οΧώσ€ΐς καϊ ττΧβονεξίαι; 

29. ΝαΙ μα ΔΓ, βφη, θηρίων ye• άνθρώττων 
Se el καΧ Βόξαιμι βούΧ€σθαι έξαττατήσαί τίνα, 
ΤΓολΧάς 7ΓXηyaς οΙΒα Χαμβάνων. 

Ουδέ yap τoξeύ€lV, οιμαι, ούδ' άκovτίζeιv άν^ 
θρωίτον eTreTpiirop^v υμίν, αλλ' έττΐ σκοττον βάΧ- 
Xeiv €8ιΒάσκομ€ν, ίνα ye νυν μ€ν μη κaκoυpyoίητe 

} ών Hertlein, Edd. ; not in MSS. 
114 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. 27-29 

and a robber, overreaching the enemy at every 1 
point/* ^ 

*^ Ο Heracles, father/* said Cyrus with a laugh^ 
'^ what a man you say I must become ! ** 

^^Such, my son/* he said, " that you would be at 
the same time the most righteous and law-abiding 
man in the world.** "^ 

28. " Why then, pray, did you use to teach us the 
opposite of this when we were boys and youths ? " 

'^ Aye, by Zeus,'* said he ; "and so we would have 
you still towards your friends and fellow-citizens ; 
but, that you might be able to hurt your enemies, 
do you not know that you all were learning many 
villainies ? ** 

" No, indeed, father,** said he ; " not I, at any 
rate.** 

"Why,** said he, "did you learn to shoot, and 
why to throw the spear? Why did you learn to 
ensnare wild boars with nets and pitfalls, and deer 
with traps and toils ? And why were you not used 
to confront lions and bears and leopards in a fair 
fight face to face instead of always trying to contend 
against them with some advantage on your side? 
Why, do you not know that all this is villainy and 
deceit and trickery and taking unfair advantage ? ** 

29. " Yes, by Zeus,** said he, "toward wild animals 
however; but if I ever even seemed to wish to 
deceive a man, I know that I got a good beating for 
it.** 

" Yes,'* said he ; ** for, methinks, we did not 
permit you to shoot at people nor to throw your 
spear at them ; but we taught you to shoot at a 
mark, in order that you might not for tha time at 



115 



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XENOPHON 

τους φίΧονς, el Be irore πoλeμoς yevoiTO, Bvvat^de 
Koi άνθρώττων στoχάξeσθar καί e^airarav hk καΧ 
TrXeove/crecv ουκ iv άνθρώττοις eTraihevo^ev νμα<;, 
αλλ' iv θηρίοις, ίνα μηΒ* iv τούτοι^; τους φίΧονς 
fiXAirTOCTe, el Si irore ττολεμος yivoiTO, μηΒ^ τού- 
των a^yv^vaaTOL €Ϊητ€, 

30. Ονκοΰν, €φη, ω Trarep, etirep χρήσιμα 
€στίν άμφότepa iTriaTaaOai, ev τ€ Troceiv και 
κακώς άνθρώτΓονς, καΐ SiSaaKeiv άμφ6τepa ταΰτα 
eBei iv ^ άνθρώττοις, 

31. Άλλα XeyeTai, βφη, ω τταΐ, iiri των 
ημβτίρων ττρο^ονων yeviadal• ττοτέ άνηρ ΒιΒάσκα- 
λθ9 των τταίΒων, ος ihihaaKev αρα τους τταΐΒας την 
Βικαιοσύνην, ώσπβρ συ κ€\€ύ€ίς, μη ψ€ν8€σθαί 
καΐ ψ€ύ8€σθαί, καΐ μη i^airaTav καΧ i^airaTav, 
καΧ μη 8ιαβάλ\€ίν καΧ StaffdWeiv, καί μη irXeo- 
veKTelv καΧ irXeoveKTetv. Βιώριζβ 8e τούτων α τ€ 
Ίτρος τους φίΧους ττοιητίον καΧ α ττρος iχθpoύς. 
καΧ €τι ye ^ ταΰτα iSiSaaKev ώς καΧ τους φίΧους 
Βίκαΰον eϊη i^airaTav iirl ye ατ^αθψ, και KXeitTeiv 
τα των φίΧων iirX ayaθφ, 32. ταΟτα he Βώάσκοντα 
ανάγκη kcu yυμvάζeιv fjv ττρος άΧΧηΧους τους τταΐ- 
Βας ταΰτα iroieiv, aairep καΧ iv ττάΧτ) φασΧ τους 
'^ΈΐΧΧηνας ΒιΒάσκειν ίξατταταν, και yυμvάζeιv Be 
τους τταΐΒας προς άΧΧήΧους τοΰτο Βύνασθαι iroieiv. 
yevop^evoi οΰν τιveς οΰτως €ύφυ€Ϊς καΧ ττρος το €ΰ 
iξa^Γaτav καΧ ττρος το eS irXeoveKTeiv, ϊσως Be καΧ 
προς το φιΧοκ€ρΒ€Ϊν ουκ άφυeΐς 6vτeς, ουκ άπeL 

^ ^ν yC^, GemoU, Marchant, Breitenbach ; ^ir* xzR, Din- 
dorf, et al. {against). 

^ in ye Dindorf, most Edd. ; ^τί R ; ^rt Se vpofias y ; κάΙ 
ravra Se AEO"^. 

Il6 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. ^9-32 

least do harm to your friends, but, in case there 
should ever be a war, that you might be able to aim 
well at men also. And we instructed you likewise 
to deceive and to take advantage, not in the case of 
men but of beasts, in order that you might not 
injure your friends by so doing, but, if there should 
ever be a war, that you might not be unpractised in 
these arts." 

30. " Well then, father," said he, " if indeed it is Training 
useful to understand both how to do good and how Sjjfc^"*^ 
to do evil to men, we ought to have been taught »«*^'»ntaee 
both these branches in the case of men, too.** 

31. ^^ Yes, my son,*' said he; "it is said that in 
the time of our forefathers there was once a teacher 
of the boys who, it seems, used to teach them justice 
in the very way that you propose ; to lie and not to 
lie, to cheat and not to cheat, to slander and not to 
slander, to take and not to take unfair advantage. 
And he drew the line between what one should do 
to one*s friends and what to one's enemies. And 
what is more, he used to teach this : that it was 
right to deceive friends even, provided it were for a 
good end, and to steal the possessions of a friend for 
a good purpose. 32. And in teaching these lessons he 
had also to train the boys to practise them upon one 
another, just as also in wrestling, the Greeks, they 
say, teach deception and train the boys to be able 
to practise it upon one another. When, therefore, 
some had in this way become expert both in deceiv- 
ing successfully and in taking unfair advantage and 
perhaps also not inexpert in avarice, they did not 

117 



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XENOPHON 

γοντο ovS άττο των φί\ων το μη ου ττΧεονεκτβΐν 
αυτών πβιρασθαί, 33. iyivcTO ουν €κ τούτων 
ρήτρα, fi καΧ νυν χρώμβθα €Tt, άττλώς 8tSa- 
σκ€ΐν τους τταΐΒας ωσττβρ τού<; οΐκέτας ττρο? 
ήμα<; αυτούς 8ι8άσκομ6ν άΧηθβύβιν κα\ μη ίζα- 
ττατάν καΐ μη ifKeoveKTeiv* el Sk waph ταύτα 
irovolev, κοΧάζβιν, οττως συν ^ τοιούτψ edei, Wt- 
σθβντες πραότεροι ττοΧίται yivoiVTo, 34. εττεί δέ 
€χοί€ν την ηλικίαν fjv συ νυν €χ€ΐς, ηΒη καΐ τα 
7Γ/0Ο9 τους τΓοΧβμίους νόμιμα iSoxei άσφαΧβς elvai 
8ιΒάσκ€ΐν, ου γά/Ο αν €τι ίξβνβχθηναι 8οκ€Ϊτ€ προς 
το aypioi ττοΧΐται ^γενέσθαι iv τφ αΙΒβΐσθαι άλ- 
ΧηΧους συντεθ ραμμένοι• ωσττερ ye καΐ irepl 
άώροΒισίων ου hLaXeyόμeθa ^ προς τους ayav 
νβους, ίνα μη προς την Ισχυρών έπιθυμίαν αύτοΐς 
ραΒιουρ^ίας προσ^γενομένης άμέτρως αύττ} χρφντο 
0C νέοι, 

35. Ν^ ΔΓ, βφη' ως τοίνυν οψιμαθή οντά 
6/χέ τούτων των πΧεονβξιων, ω πάτερ, μη φβίΒου 
€Ϊ τί έχεις Βώάσκειν όπως πΧεονεκτησω ε^γω 
των ποΧεμίων, 

Μηχανω τοίνυν, εφη, όπόση εστϊ Βύναμις, 
τετα^μενοις τοις σαυτοΰ άτακτους Χαμβάνειν 
τους πολεμίους καΐ ώπΧισμένοις άόπΧους και 
έ^ρη^ορόσι καθεύΒοντας καϊ φανερούς σοι οντάς 
άφανης αύτος ων εκείνοις καϊ εν Βυσχωρία αυτούς 
^νγνομένους εν ερυμνφ αύτος ων ύποΒεξει.^ 

1 ff{;i/MSS.;^i'Hug. 

2 δίολ€7<ί)α€βο MSS., Dindorf ; Βΐ€λ€γόμ€θα Sauppe, Hug, 
GemoU, et al. 

' ύποδ€|€ί MSS., Dindorf, most Edd. ; bracketed by Cobet, 
Hug, et al. 

Ii8 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. 32-35 

refrain from trying to take an unfair advantage even 
of their friends. 33. In consequence of that, there- 
fore, an ordinance was passed which obtains even 
unto this day, simply to teach our boys, just as we 
teach our servants in their relations toward us, to tell 
the truth and not to deceive and not to take unfair 
advantage ; and if they should act contrary to this 
law, the law requires their punishment, in order that, 
inured to such habits, they may become more refined 
members of society. 34. But when they came to 
be as old as you are now, then it seemed to be safe 
to teach them that also which is lawful toward 
enemies ; for it does not seem likely that you would 
break away and degenerate into savages after you 
had been brought up together in mutual respect. 
In the same way we do not discuss sexual matters in 
the presence of very young boys, lest in case lax 
discipline should give a free rein to their passions 
the young might indulge them to excess." 

35. "True, by Zeus," said he; "but seeing that How to take 
I am late in learning about this art of taking of tSe**^* 
advantage of others, do not neglect to teach me, enemy 
father, if you can, how I may take advantage of the 
enemy." 

"Contrive, then," said he, ^^as far as is in your 
power, with your own men in good order to catch 
the enemy in disorder, with yotir own men armed to 
come upon them unarmed, and with your own men 
awake to surprise them sleeping, and then you will 
catch them in an unfavourable position while you 
yourself are in a strong position, when they are in 
sight to you and while you yourself are unseen." 



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XENOPHON 

36. Κ.αϊ ττως αν, €φη, τί,ς τοιαύτα^ ω ττάτβ/ο, 
άμαρτάνοντα^ Βνναιτ αν τους ττόλβμίους Χαμ- 
βάν€ίν; 

'Ότι, €φη, ω ΊταΙ^ ττολλα μλν τούτων avw>fK7] 
εστί και ίίμας καΐ τους ττοΧεμίονς Ίταρασχ^ίν 
σιτοτΓΟίβΐσθαί τ€ yap άνώγκη αμφότερους, κοι- 
μασθαί τ€ ανάγκη αμφότερους, καΧ βωθεν iirl 
TCLvayKaia σχβΒον αμα ττάντας hei ΐβσθαι και 
ταΐς οΒοΐς οττοιαι civ ωσι τοιαύταις άνώ^κτ) 
χρήσθαι. & χρη σβ ττάντα κατανοοΰντα, iv ω 
μβν αν ύμας yiyvioaKjj^ ασθενέστατους yiyvo- 
^μένους, iv τούτφ μάλιστα φυΧάττβσθαι* iv ω 
δ' &ν τους ιτοΧεμίους αισθάντ/ εύχβιρωτοτάτους ^ 
yιyvoμέvoυςy iv τούτφ μάΚιστα i^Γlτίθ€σθaι, 

37. ΤΙότερον S\ ίφη 6 Κϋρος, iv τούτοις 
μόνον βστι ττΧεονεκτεΙν η κα\ iv αΧΚοις τισί; 

ΚαΙ ΤΓοΧύ ye μάΧΧον, βφη, ω τταΐ' ev τούτοις 
μ€ν yap ώς iirl το ιτοΧύ ΤΓ(ίντ€ς Ισγυρίις φυΧαχά,ς 
ΤΓοιοΰνται βί^ότβς δτι δέονται, οί δ' i^aira- 
τώντες τους ττοΧβμίους Βύνανται καΐ θαρρήσαι 
ΤΓΟιήσαντβς άφυΧάκτους Χαμβάνειν καΧ Βιώζαι 
Ίταρα^όντβς εαυτούς άτακτους ττοιησαι καΧ βίς 
Ζυσγωρίαν φιτγτ} υ^Γayay6vτ€ς βνταΰθα ίττιτί- 
θεσθαι. 38. δβΖ ίή, βφη, φιΧομαθή σβ τούτων 
απάντων 6ντα ούχ οϊς &ν μάθτίς τούτοις μόνοις 
χρησθαι, aXXct, καί αύτον ττοιητην elvai των 
ττρος τους ττοΧβμίους μηχανημάτων, ωσιτέρ καΧ 
οι μουσικοΧ ούχ οϊς άν μάθωσι τούτοις μόνον 
χρωνται, άΧΧα καΐ αΧΧα νέα ιτειρωνται iroieiv, 
καΧ σφόΒρα μ^ν καΧ iv τοις μουσικοΐς τά νέα ^ 

1 cuxe</)wroT(£rous Stephanus, Edd.; €ύχ€ΐρο{ωΚ)τάτου5 MBS, 

2 y4a zR, most Edd. ; vca μ4\7ΐ χ ; μ4\7ΐ j (aonga). 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. 36-38 

36. " And how, father/' said he, "could one catch 
the enemy making such mistakes ? '* 

" Why, my son," said he, " both you and the 
enemy must necessarily offer many such opportuni- 
ties ; for instance, you must both eat, and you must 
both sleep, and early in the morning you must 
almost all at the same time attend to the calls of 
nature, *and you must make use of such roads as you 
find. All this you must observe, and you must be 
particularly watchful on the side where you know 
yourselves to be weaker, and you must attack the 
enemy above all in that quarter in which you see 
that they are most vulnerable." 

37. " And is it possible to take «advantage in these 
ways only," said Cyrus, "or in other ways also l• " 

" Aye, far more in other ways, my son," said he ; 
"for in these particulars all men, as a rule, take 
strict precautions; for they know that they must. 
But those whose business it is to deceive the enemy 
can catch them off their guard by inspiring them 
with over-confidence; and, by offering them the 
opportunity of pursuit, can get them into disorder ; 
and, by leading them on into unfavouKable ground 
by pretended flight, can there turn and attack them. 
38. However, my son," he continued, '^ since you 
are desirous of learning all these matters, you must 
not only utilize what you may learn from others, but 
you must yourself also be an inventor of stratagems 
against the enemy, just as musicians render not only 
those compositions which they have learned but try 
to compose others also that are new. Now if in 



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XENOPHON 

και ανθήρα βύΒοκιμβΐ, ττολυ Be και ev το?9 
ΊΓοΧβμ,ίκοΐ^ μαΧΧον τα καινά μηχανήματα evSo- 
κιμβΐ' ταύτα yhp μαλΧον και ίξαιταταν Βνναται 
Toif^ ντΓβναντίου^, 

39. Et δέ συ yc, βφη, ω τταΐ, μηΒ^ν αΧΧο 
ή μ€Τ€νί^κοι<; iir άνθρώττονς τάς μηχανίις ας 
και Ttavv €7γΙ τοί<ζ μικροΐς θηρίοις βμηχανώ, 
ουκ οΪ€ΐ αν, βφη, ιτροσω ττάνυ ΙΚάσαι της ττρος 
τους ΤΓοΧεμίους ττΧβονεξίας; συ ycip βττί μεν τάς 
όρνιθας ev τφ ισχυροτάτφ χειμωνι άνιστάμενος 
ίτΓορεύου νυκτός^ και ιτρίν κινβίσθαι τας όρνιθας 
€ΊΓ€ΤΓθίηντό σοι αί Trouyai αύταΐς και το κεκινημέ- 
νον χωρίον βξείκαστο τφ άκινητω* όρνιθες δ' 
€7Γ€7ΓαίΒ€υντ6 σοι ώστε σο\ μεν τα συμφέροντα 
ύττηρετεΐν, τάς Be ομοφύΧους όρνιθας εξαττατάν 
αύτος Be ενηΒρευες, ώστε οράν μεν αύτάς, μη 
ορασθαι Be υττ αυτών* ησκήκεις Βε φθάνων εΧκειν 
fj τα τΓτηνά φεύ^ειν. 40. ττρος S* αΰ τον λαγω, 
ΟΤΙ μεν εν σκότει νέμεται, την δ' ημεραν απτό- 
ΒιΒράσκει, κύνας έτρεφες at τ§ οσ/χ§ αύτον 
άνηύρισκον} οτι δέ ταχύ εφευ^εν, εττεϊ εύρεθείη, 
αΧΧας κύνας είχες εττιτετηΒευμενας ττρος τύ κατά 
ποΒας αίρειν, ει Βε καΧ ταύτας άττοφύ^οι, τους 
ΤΓορους αύτων εκμανθάνων και ιτρος οϊα χωρία 
ώεύ^οντες αίροΰνται^ οι Xayoi, εν τούτοις οικτυα 
ουσ ορατά ενεττετάννυς αν, ίνα εν τφ σφοΒρα 
φεύ^ειν αυτός εαυτόν ίμττεσων συνέΒει, του δέ 
μηΒ^ εντεύθεν Βιαφεύ^ειν σκοττούς του yiyvopAvov 

^ άνηύρισκον y, most Edd. ; ^ΰρισκον xzR, Sauppe. 

2 TTphs . . . αίροΰνται MSS., Dindorf, Breitenbach ; [rphs'] 
. . . αίροΰνται Hug {places which hares choose in their flight) ; 
vphs . . . &€2 όρωνται Gemoll ; irphs . . Λφικνονντίϋ Marchant. 

122 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. 38-40 

music that which is new and fresh wins applause^ 
new stratagems in warfare also win far greater 
applause^ for such can deceive the enemy even more 
successfiiUy. 

39. ^^ And if you, my son/* he went on, "should Theieesone V 
do nothing more than apply to your dealings with appf^d ^^ I 
men the tricks that you used to practise so constantly *^e arts οϋ J 
in dealing with small game, do you not think that ^^^ ^ 
you would make a very considerable advance in the 
art of taking advantage of the enemy? For you 
used to get up in the coldest winter weather and go 
out before daylight to catch birds, and before the 
birds were astir you had your snares laid ready for 
them and the ground disturbed had been made 
exactly like the ground undisturbed ; and your decoy 
birds had been so trained as to serve your purposes 
and to deceive the birds of the same species, while 
you yourself would lie in hiding so as to see them 
but not to be seen by them ; and you had practised 
drawing your nets before the birds could escape. 
40. And again, to catch the hare — because he feeds 
in the night and hides in the daytime — ^you used 
to breed dogs that would find him out by the 
scent. And because he ran so fast, when he 
was found, you used to have other dogs trained 
to catch him by coursing. And in case he escaped 
even these, you used to find out the runs and the 
places where hares take refuge and may be caught, 
and there you would spread out your nets so as to be 
hardly visible, and the hare in his headlong flight 
would plunge into them and entangle himself. And 
lest he escape even from that^ you used to station 
men to watch for what might happen and to pounce 



123 



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XENOPHON 

καθιστής^ ot iyyvOev ταχύ βμέλΧον eirtyevq- 
aeaOar και αύτος μ€ν σύ οττισθβν Kpauyfj ov8kv 
ύστβριζονστ) τον \ay& βοών εξέττληττβς αύτον 
ωστ€ άφρονα^ άΧίσκβσθαι, του? δ' βμττροσθεν 
aiyav ΒιΒάξα^ eveSpevovTa^ \ανθάν€νν ίττοίβί^. 

41. 'ΏστΓβρ ουν TrpoeiTrov, ei τοιαύτα βθέλη- 
σαι<; καΐ έττΐ toU ανθρωττοί^ μηγανάσθαι, ουκ οΐ8* 
Ιγωγβ €Ϊ tcvo<; Xeinoio^ αν των iroXepirov, ην Si 
7Γοτ€ αρα άνώγκη ^ίνηται κα\ iv τφ ΙσοττέΒφ καΐ i/c 
τον €μφανον<; καΐ ώττΧισ μένους αμφότερους μάχην 
συνάτΓΤ€ΐν, iv τφ τοιούτφ 8η^ ω τταΐ, αί €κ ττοΧΚού 
τταρβσκευασμέναι ττΚβονβξίαι μ&γα δύνανται, ταύ- 
τας he βγω λβγω elvai, ην των στρατιωτών ev 
μ€ν τά σώματα ησκημένα fi, €v Sk αί ψυχαΐ 
T€θηyμ€vai,, €v δε αί ττοΧβμίκαΙ τέχναι μβμβΧβτη- 
μέναι ωσιν. 42. €u δέ χρη καΙ τούτο elSivat 
OTL οΊΓοσους αν άξιοϊς σοι ττείθεσθαι, καΧ iiceivov 
ττάντβς άξιώσουσι σ€ ττρο ίαυτων βονλ€ύ€σθαι, 
μηΒέτΓΟΤ οΰν άφροντίστως Ιχβ, αλλά της μβν 
νυκτός ΊτροσκοΊτει τι σοι ττοιησουσιν οί αρχόμενοι, 
iweiBciv ημέρα ^ένηται, της δ' ημέρας οττως τά 
εις νύκτα κάΧλιστα ίξβΐ, 43. διτως Be χρη 
τάττειν €ΐς μάχην στρατίζίν ή οττως ayeiv ήμ€ρας 
η νυκτός ή στevάς tj ττΚατβίας οΒούς rj ορβινας 
ή ττβΒινάς, η οττως στρατοττβΒεύβσθαι, η οττως 
φυΧακίΐς νυκτερινές καΐ ήμερινείς καθιστάναι, 
ή οττως 7Γροσάτ/€ΐν ιτρος ττοΧβμίους rj άττώγειν 
άτΓο τΓo\eμίωv, η οττως τταρίι ττόΧιν ιτοΧεμίαν 

^ άφρονα Hertlein, most Edd.; &φρ(&^9 ζ)όνωί MSS., 
Dindorf, Sauppe. 

* Tivos \fiiroio Hertlein, most Edd.; τίνα Xeiwotj yR ; rivhs 
Xlrois ζ ; τίνα Xhois (** leave any man alive ") Dindorf. 

124 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. 40-43 

upon him suddenly from a place near by. And you 
yourself from behind shouting with a cry that kept 
right up with the hare would frighten him so that 
he would lose his wits and be taken ; those in front, 
on the other hand, you had instructed to keep silent 
and made them lie concealed in ambush. 

41. *^ As I said before, then, if you would employ Cambysees 
such schemes on men also, I am inclined to think that ei^gestioM 
you would not come short of any enemy in the world. 
But if it is ever necessary — as it may well be — to 
join battle in the open field, in plain sight, with both 
armies in full array, why, in such a case, my son, the 
advantages that have been long sinc^ secured are of 
much avail; by that I mean, if your soldiers are 
physically in good training, if their hearts are well 
steeled and the arts of war well studied. 42. Besides, 
you must remember well that all those from whom 
you expect obedience to you will, on their part, 
expect you to take thought for them. So never be 
careless, but think out at night what your men are to 
do for you when day comes, and in the daytime think 
out ho\y the arrangements for the night may best be 
made. 43. But how you ought to draw up an army 
in battle array, or how you ought to lead it by day or 
by night, by narrow ways or broad, over mountains 
or plains, or how you should pitch camp, or how 
station your sentinels by night or by day, or how 
you should advance against the enemy or retreat 
before them, or how you should lead past a hostile 
city, or how attack a fortification or withdraw from 



125 



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XENOPHON 

ayeiv 7) δττως ττρος τβιχος ayecv ή άττάτ/βί,ν, 
ή δττως νάττη ή ττοταμούς Βιαβαίρ€ίν, ή οττως 
Ιτττηκον φνΧάττεσθαι η οττως άκοντιστίυ^ η 
τοξότα^, fcai eX ye Βή σοι κατά κερα^ ayovrt 
οί τΓολέμίΟί, €ΊΓίφαν€Ϊ€ν, ττώς χρη άντίκαθιστάναι, 
καΐ €? σοί i*irl <f>aXayyo^ ayovri αΧΚοθίν ττοθβν 
oi ΤΓοΧέμιοι φαίνοιντο η κατά ττρόσωττον, οττως 
χρη avTCTrapa/yecv, ή δπως τα των ττοΧεμίων 
αν τί<ζ μάΧιστα αίσθάνοιτο, ή δττως τα σα οί 
ΊΓοΧέμιοί ηκιστα elSecev^ ταντα Se ττάντα ^ τι αν 
εγώ Xeyo^L σοι; δσα τ€ yap βγωγβ yheiv, ίγοΧ- 
Χάκί<; άκηκοα<ζ, αΧΧος Τ€ δστι<ζ iSoKCt τι τούτων 
βττίστασθαι, ovSevo^ αντων ήμέΧηκας ούδ' άΒαη^ 
y€yevησaι. Bei οΰν ιτρος τά συμβαίνοντα, οΐμαι, 
τούτοις γρησθαι όττοΐον αν σνμφίρβιν σοι τούτων 
Βοκτ). 

44. Made Βέ μου καΐ ταδβ, ώ τταΐ, βφη, τα 
μeyιστa* iraph yap iepa καΐ οιωνούς μητβ σαυτφ 

J μηΒίτΓοτε μητ€ στρατιά κινΒννεύστ)^, κατανοων 
m ανθρωτΓΟί μεν αιροΰνται ττράξβι^ εΐκάζοντε^, 
€ίΒότ€<ζ Bk ovBev άτΓΟ TroLas βσται αύτοΐ<; τω^αθά. 
45. yvoiy^ δ' αν έξ αυτών των yιyvoμέvωv' ίγοΧ- 
ΧοΧ μ€ν yap ηΒη ττόλβ^ς €ΤΓ€ΐσαν καϊ ταύτα οί 
Βοκοΰντβς σοφώτατοι elvai ττόΧεμον αρασθαι 

Ι 7Γ/>09 τούτου? ύφ^ ων οί ττβισθέντες εττιθβσθαι 

αττώΧοντο, ττοΧΧοΙ Be ττοΧΧούς ηΰξησαν καϊ 

t ΙΒιώτα<; και woXei^ ύφ* ων αύξηθέντων τά μeyιστa 

, κακά erraOov, ττοΧΧοΙ Be οϊς εξήν φίΧοι<; χρησθαι 
και βδ TTOieiv καϊ ευ ττάσχειν, τούτοι^: οούΧοι^ 

^ Ίτάντα y, Kdd. ; not in xzR. 
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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. 43-45 

it, or how you should cross ravines or rivers, or how 
you should protect yourself against cavalry or spear- 
men or bowmen, and if the enemy should suddenly 
come in sight while you are leading on in column, 
how you should form and take your stand against 
them, and if they should come in sight from any 
other quarter than in front as you are marching in 
phalanx, how you should form and face them, or 
how any one might best find out the enemy's plans 
or how the enemy might be least likely to learn his 
— why should I tell you all these things ? For what 
I, for my {mrt, know, you have often heard; and if any 
one else had a reputation for understanding anything 
of that kind, you never neglected to get information 
from him, nor have you been uninstructed. I think, 
then, that you should turn this knowledge to account 
according to circumstances, as each item of it may 
appear serviceable to you. 

44. ^' Learn this lesson, too, from me, my son," obedience Ί 
said he ; ''it is the most important thing of all : ^f]^ I 
never go into any danger either to yourself or to the first J 
your army contrary to the omens or the auspices, *^® 
and bear in mind that men choose lines of action by 
conjecture and do not know in the least from which 
of them success will come. 45. But you may derive 
this lesson from the facts of history ; for many, and 
men, too, who seemed most wise, have ere now 
persuaded states to take up arms against others, and 
the states thus persuaded to attack have been 
destroyed. And many have made many others 
great, both individuals and states ; and when they 
have exalted them, they have suffered the most 
grievous wrongs at their hands. And many who 



127 



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■;.r-( 



XENOPHON 

/φαλλοί; βονληθέρτβς η φί\οι<ί χρήσθαι, ύττ' 
αυτών τούτων Βίκην eSoaav woXkoh S* ουκ 
fjpKeaev ainoU το μέρος βχουσι ζην ή^έως, 
^ €τηθυμησαντ€(; Be ττάντων κύριοι elvat, Βια ταντα 
)% KCU ων βίχον αττέτυγον ττολλοί Be τον ττοΧύβυ- 
κτον ττΧοΰτον κατακτησάμ€νοι, Βια τούτον άττώ- 
"Κοντο. 46. ούτως ή άνθρωττίνη σοφία ούΒ^ν 
μαΧΚον olBe το άριστον αίρεΐσθαι fj el κΧηρού- 
μ€νος ο τι Χάχοι τούτο τις ττράττοι, θβοι Bi, 
ω παΐ, aei οντες ττάντα ϊσασι τά τε ^γβ^γβνημένα 
και τα οντά καΧ ο τι ίξ εκάστου αύτων αττοβη- 
σ€ται, κάΙ των συμβουΧευομένων άνθρώττων oh 
αν ΐ\€φ ωσι, ιτροσημαίνουσιν α Τ€ γρη iroieiv 
και α ου χρή. el Be μη ττασιν ίθέΧουσι συμβου- 
Χεύειν, ούΒΙν θαυμαστόν ου yap άνα^κη αύτοΐς 
ίστιν ων άν μη εθέΧωσιν βττιμέΧεσθαι* 



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CYROPAEDIA, I. vi. 45-46 

might have treated people as friends and done 
them favours and received favours from them, 
have received their just deserts from these very 
people because they preferred to treat them like 
slaves rather than as friends. Many, too, not 
satisfied to hve contentedly in the enjoyment 
of their own proper share, have lost even that 
which they had, because they have desired to 
be lords of everything; and many, when they 
have gained the much coveted wealth, have been 
ruined by it. 46. So we see that mere human 
wisdom does not know how to choose what is best 
any more than if any one were to cast lots and do as 
the lot fell. But the gods, my son, the eternal gods, 
know all things, both what has been and what is and 
what shall come to pass as a result of each present 
or past event ; and if men consult them, they reveal 
to those to whom they are propitious what they 
ought to do and what they ought not to do. But if 
they are not willing to give coimsel to everybody, 
that is not surprising ; for they are under no com- 
pulsion to care for any one unless they will." 



129 
VOL. I. κ 



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BOOK 11 



THE REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY 



κ 2 

I 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Β 



1. Ύοίαντα μλν Ζη άώίκοντο δίάΚβ'γομβνοί μέχρί 
των ορίων της ΐίβρσώος* eirei δ' αύτοΙ<; άβτο^; 
Ββξιο^ζ φανείς ττροη^γβΐτο, ττροσευξάμβνον θεοίς 
καΐ ήρωσν τοις TlepaiSa jrjv κατέχρυσιν ΐλβως 
καΐ €νμ€ν€ΐς ττέμττείν σφάς, οντω οιέβαινον τα 
όρια, €7Γ€ν8η Be Βοέβησαν, ττροσηύ'χρν^ο αύθις 
θεοίς τοις ΜηΒίαν γην κατέχονσιν ΐΧβως καΐ 
€νμ€ν€Ϊς Βέχβσθαί αυτούς, ταντα Be ΊΓοιησαντβς, 
άσττασάμβνοι άΧΧηΧονς ωσττερ βίκος, 6 μ€ν ττατηρ 
ττάΚιν βίς ΤΙίρσας^ άττ^βι, Κνρος Be βίς ΜηΒους 
'ττρος Ιίυαξάρην iiropeveTO. 

2. ΈττεΙ δέ άφίκ€Τ0 6 Ιίΰρος βίς ΜήΒους 'ττρος 
τον Κναξάρην, ττρωτον μβν ωσττερ βίκος ήσπά- 
σαντο άΧΚηΚους, βττβιτα δέ ήρβτο τον Κϋρον 6 
Κναξάρης ττοσον τι ayoi το στράτευμα. 

Ό Be €φη, Ύροσ μύριους ^ μβν oIol καί ττροσθβν 
βφοίτων ττρος υμάς μισθοφόροι αλΧοι Be και των 
ούΒείΓοτβ έξβΧθοντων προσέρχονται των ομότιμων. 

ΤΙόσοι τινίς; βφη 6 ίίυαξάρης. 

3. Ουκ αν 6 αριθμός σε, βφη 6 Κύρος, 

άκούσαντα βύφράνβιβν αλλ' CKeivo έννοησον 

^ η4ρσα$ xy, most Edd. ; κόκιν ζ, Diadorf, Sauppe {to the 
cdpital), ^ τρισμυρΙου5 Aldus, Edd.; Ιισμυρίουχ MSS. 



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BOOK II 



I 



1. In such conversation they arrived at the Persian Cyrus 
frontier. And when an eagle appeared upon their m^" ^ 
right and flew on ahead of them, they prayed to the 

gods and heroes who watch over the land of Persia 
to conduct them on with grace and favour, and then 
proceeded to cross the frontier. And when they 
had crossed, they prayed again to the tutelary gods 
of the Median land to receive them with grace and 
favour; and when they had finished their devotions, 
they embraced one another, as was natural, and 
the father went back again to Persia, while Cyrus 
went on to Cyaxares in Media. 

2. And when he arrived there, first they embraced cyrue and 
one another, as was natural, and then Cyaxares SSum «le 
asked Cyrus how large the army was that he was situation 
bringing. 

*' Thirty thousand," he answered, "of such as 
have come to you before as mercenaries ; but others 
also, of the peers, who have never before left their 
country, are coming." 

^'About how many ? " asked Cyaxares. 

3. "The number," said Cyrus, "would give you 
no pleasure, if you were to hear it ; but bear this in 



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XENOPHON 

ΟΤΙ oXiyoi οντ€ς οντοι oi ομότιμοι κάΧονμβΡΟί 
ΤΓοΧΧών όντων των αΚΚων ΤΙβρσων ραΒίως άρχου - 
σιν, άτάρ, βφη, Βέβι τι αυτών η μάτην βφοβη- 
θης^ οί δέ ΤΓοΧέμιοι ουκ βργρντία; 

ΝαΙ μα ΔΓ, €φη, κα\ ττοΧΚοί ye. 

4. Πως τοΰτο σαφές; 

"Οτί, βφη, ΤΓολλοΙ ηκοντ€ς αύτοθβν αΧΚος αΧΧον 
τρότΓον Ίτάντες ταύτο \€τ/ουσιν, 

^ Ατ/ωνιστίον μεν αρα ήμΐν προς τους ανΒρας. 

^ Ανά^κΎ} yapy βφη, 

Ύί oJfVy βφη 6 Ιίΰρος, ου και την Βύναμιν 
€\€ξάς μοι, el οισθα, πόση τις ή ττροσιουσα, καΐ 
ττάΧιν την ήμετέραν, δττως €ΐΒ6τ€ς άμφοτέρας ττρος 
ταύτα βουΧευώμεθα οττως αν άριστα ω^ωνιζοί- 
μέθα; 

*Άκουε Βη, βφη 6 Κυαξάρης, 5. Ιίροΐσος μ^ν 
6 ΑυΒος ayeiv XeyeTai μύριους μϊν ιτητέας, 
7Γ€Χταστάς Β^ και τοξότας ττΧείους ή τετ ρακισ- 
μυρίους, *Αρτακάμαν Be τον της μετγάΧης Φρυγίας 
άρχοντα Χ&γουσιν ιτΓΤτεας μεν εις οκτακισχιΧίους 
ά'γειν, Χοτγχοώορους Βε συν ιτεΧτασταΙς ου μείους 
τ ετρακισ μυρίων i ^Αρίβαιον δέ τον των ΚατΓΤτα- 
Βοκων βασίΧέα ίτητέας μεν εξακισχιΧίους, τοξότας 
δέ καΐ ττεΧταστάς ου μείους τρισμυρίων, τον 
^Αράβιον δέ "ApajBov ιτητέας τε εις μύριους καΐ 
άρματα εις εκατόν και σφενΒονητών ΊτάμίΓοΧύ τι 
χρήμα, τους μεντοι '^ΕΧΧηνας τους εν τ§ 'Ασία 
οικοΰντας ούΒέν ττω σαφ^ς Χέτγεται ει εττονται, 
τους Βε άττο Φρυγίας της ττρος 'ΈίΧΧησττόντφ συμ- 
βαΧειν φασι ΤάβαιΒον ίχοντα εις Καύστρον 
ΙΙεΒίον εξακισχιΧίους μεν ίπττέας, ττεΧταστάς δέ 

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CYROPAEDIA, II. i. 3-5 

mind^ that though the so-called peers are few, they 
easily rule the rest of the Persians, many though 
they be. But/* he added, "are you in any need 
of them, or was it a false alarm, and are the enemy 
not coming .'* " 

" Yes, by Zeus," said he, " they are coming and in 
great numbers, too." 

4. " How is this so certain ? " 

*^ Because," said he, " many have come from there, 
and though one tells the story one way and another 
another, they all say the same thing." 

" We shall have to fight those men, then ? " 

^' Aye," said he ; "we must of necessity." 

" Well then," said C3rrus, " won't you please tell 
me, if you know, how great the forces are that are 
coming against us ; and tell me of our own as well, 
so that with full information about both we may lay 
our plans accordingly, how best to enter the conflict." 

" Listen then," said Cyaxares. 5. ^' Croesus, the The 
king of Lydia, is said to be coming at the head of J^J^Jfof 
10,000 horsemen and more than 40,000 peltasts and theoppos- 
bowmen. And they say that Artacamas, the king of "^ ^^^^ 
Greater Phrygia, is coming at the head of 8000 
horse and not fewer than 40,000 lancers and peltasts ; 
and Aribaeus, the king of Cappadocia, has 6000 
horse and not fewer than 30,000 bowmen and pel- 
tasts; while the Arabian, Aragdus, has about 10,000 
horsemen, about 100 chariots of war, and a great 
host of slingers. As for the Greeks who dwell in 
Asia, however, no definite information is as yet re- 
ceived whether they are in the coalition or not. 
But the contingent from Phrygia on the Hellespont, 
under Gabaedus, has arrived at Caystru-Pedium, it is 
said, to the number of 6000 horse and 10,000 peltasts. 

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XENOPHON 

eh μνρίου<ζ. Κ,άρα^ζ μέντοί καϊ YlXiKas /cal Πα- 
φΧα^ονα^ τταρακληθβντα^; ου φασνν βττβσθαί. 6 Bk 
^Ασσνρως 6 3αβν\ωνά Τ€ €χων καϊ την αΧΧην 
*Ασσνρίαν βγω μβν οΐμαι ίτητέας μλν αξ€ΐ ουκ 
βΧάττονς Ζνσμυρίων, άρματα δ' el• oW ου μ€Ϊον 
8ιακοσίων, ττβζον? Be οΐμαι τταμτΓοΧΧου^ζ' el(oeec 
yovv ότΓΟΤβ Sevp* €μβάΧΧοι. 

6. Σ ν, ίφη 6 Κνρος, 7ΓΟΧ€μίου<ζ X4yei^ tV- 
7Γ€α9 μ€ν ίξακισμυρίον^ξ elvai, TreXTaaTci^ Sk καΐ 
τοξ6τα<ζ TrXelov η ecKoai μνρίάΒας. aye Βη της σης 
Bυvάμeω<ζ τί φτ^ς πΧήθος elvav; 

ΈίΙσίν, €φη, ΜηΒων μλν imrels irXeiov^ των 
μυρίων ireXTacToX hk καϊ ^οξόται yevocvr αν ττως 
efc^ της ημετέρας κ&ν ^ξακισ μύριοι, ^ Αρμενίων S\ 
€φη, των ομόρων ημιν τταρέσονται iinrei^ μ€ν 
TeTpaKiaxtXioiy ττεζοί δε Βισμνριοι, 

Aeyei^ συ, €φη 6 Κύρος, ιττιτέας μ€ν ήμΐν 
elvai μ^ΐον ή τέταρτον ^ μ^ρος του των ^ΓoXeμίωv 
ίτΓτηκοΰ, ^Γeζoύς δέ αμφΐ τους ήμίσeις. 

7. Ύί οΰν, €φη 6 Τίυαξάρης, ουκ 6Xίyoυς voμίζeις 
Tlepa&v elvai οΐ)ς συ φτ)ς ayeiv; 

Άλλ' €1 μλν άνΒρων ττροσδβί ήμΐν, €φη ο Κΰρος, 
eiT€ καϊ μη, αΰθις συμβουΧ^υσομ^θα' την Be 
μάχην μοι, €φη, Χέξον έκαστων ήτις εστί. 

^yeBov, €φη 6 Τίυαξάρης, πάντων ή αυτή• 
τοξοται yap eiσι και άκοντισται οι τ eκeίvωv καϊ 
οΐ ήμ€Τ€ροι, 

Ούκοΰν, €φη 6 Κ,ΰρος, άκpoβoXίξeσθaι άνάτ/κη 
έστΙ τοιούτων ye των οττΧων όντων. 

1 ir»j 4κ Breitenbach, later Edd.; tbs iirl MSS., except E, 
which omits a)s. 

'^ τ4ταρτον Hug, Gemoll, Marchant, Breitenbach ; τρίτον χ ζ, 
Dindorf (a third) ; Th τρίτον y. 

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CYROPAEDIA, II. i. 5-7 

The Carians, however, and Cilicians and Paphla- 
gonians, they say, have not joined the expedition, 
although they have been invited to do so. But the 
Assyrians, both those from Babylon and those from 
the rest of Assyria, will bring, I think, not fewer 
than 20,000 horse and not fewer, I am sure, than 200 
war-chariots, and a vast number of infantry, I suppose ; 
at any rate, they used to have as many as that when- 
ever they invaded our country." 

6. " You mean to say,** said Cyrus, " that the 
enemy have 60,000 horse and more than 200,000 
peltasts and bowmen. And at how many, pray, 
do you estimate the number of your own forces ? '* 

^' There are,'* said he, "of the Medes more than 
10,000 horse ; and the peltasts and bowmen might 
be, from a country like ours, some 60,000 ; while from 
our neighbours, the Armenians, we shall get 4000 
horse and 20,000 foot.** 

'^That is to say,** said Cjtus, ^^we have less than 
one-fourth as many horsemen as the enemy and 
about half as many foot-soldiers.** 

7. "Tell me, then,'* said Cyaxares, "do you not 
consider the Persian force small which you say you 
are bringing ? '* 

"Yes," said Cyrus; "but we will consider later Their 

whether we need more men or not. Now tell me," wM^re**^ 

he went on, ^^ what each party's method of fighting 

• ft 

is. 

" About the same with all,** said Cyaxares ; " for 
there are bowmen and spearmen both on their side 
and on ours.** 

^^ Well -then," said Cyrus, " as their arms are of 
that sort, we must fight at long range." 



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XENOPHON 

8. ^Ανατ/κη yhp οΰν, €φη 6 Κναζάρης. 
Ουκουν iv τούτω μ€ν των ττΧβίονων ή νίκη* 

τΓοΧν yhp &ν θαττον οί ^oXiyoi νττο των ττοΧΚων 
τιτρωσκομενοι άνάλωθβίησαν ή οί ττολλοί νττο των 
οΧί^ων} 

Et οΖν όντως βχβι, ω Κδ/3€, τί αν αΧΚο τις 
KpetTTOv evpoi η Trep/rreiv βίς ΤΙέρσας, καϊ αμα μλν 
hthacKeiv αυτούς otl et τι ττεισονται, Μ^δοί, εΙς 
ΤΙέρσας το Seivov ήξβι, άμα Be αΐτβΐν ττΧβΐον 
στράτβνμα; 

'Αλλά τούτο μέν, βφη 6 Κύρος, βΰ ϊσθί δτι, 
ουδ' βΐ ττάντβς ίλθοιεν ΊΙέρσαν, ττΧήθει ούχ inrep- 
βαΧοίμεθ* αν τους ττοΧβμίους. 

9. Τί μην αΧΧο ενοράς αμβινον τούτου; 

Έγώ μεν αν, εφη 6 Κύρος, el συ εΐην, ώς 
τάχιστα δττΧα ττοωίμην ττάσι ΤΙέρσαις τοις ττροσ- 
ιοΰσιν olairep εχοντ€ς έρχονται τταρ ημών οί 
των ομότιμων καΧούμενοι* ταύτα δ' εστΧ θώραξ 
μεν ττερί τα στέρνα, yeppov Be €ΐς την άριστεράν, 
κοτΓίς δέ η σάyapLς €ΐς την Beξιάv^ καν ταύτα 
ΐΓαρασκ€υάστ[}ς, ημίν μ€ν 7Γοιησ€ΐς το ομοσε τοΙς 
έναντίοις Ιεναι άσφαΧέστατον, τοις 7ΓθΧ€μίοις Be 
το φeύyeιv η το μένειν aίpeτώτepov, τάττoμev Be, 
εφη, ημάς μ€ν αυτούς βττΐ τους μένοντας' οι ye 
μεντ&ν αύτων φεύyωσι, τούτους ύμΐν και τοις 
ΐτητοις νέμομεν, ως μη σχοΧάζωσι μήτε μένειν"^ 
μήτε άναστρέφεσθαι. 

10. Κΰρος μίν ούτως εXεξe^ τω Be Κυαξάρη 

^ Ούκονν . . . Ιλί'γων erroneously given to Cyaxares by Hug, 
Gemoll, Marchant. 

2 μίν^ιν y, most Edd. ; φ€ύγ€ΐν xz, Sauppe {to make their 
esccupe), 

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CYROPAEDIA, Π. i. 8-10 



\ 



8. ^^ Yes," said Cyaxares, ^^that will be necessary." 
^^In that• ease, then, the victory will be with 

the side that has the greater numbers ; for the few 
would be wounded and killed off by the many sooner 
than the many by. the few." 

'*If that is so, C3rrus, then what better plan 
could any one think of than to send to Persia to 
inform them that if anything happens to the Medes, 
the danger will extend to the Persians, and at the 
same time to ask for a larger army } " 

" Why," said Cyrus, ^^let me assure you that even 
though all the Persians were to come, \^e should 
not surpass the enemy in point of numbers." 

9. " What better plan do you see than this ? " 

" If I were you," said C3rrus, " I should as quickly Proposed 
as possible have armour made for all the Persians «on^tS 
who are cominsr here just like that of the so-called Persian 
peers who are coming from our country — that is, a 
corselet to wear about the breast, a small shield upon 
the left arm, and a scimitar or sabre in the right 
hand. And if you provide these weapons, you will 
make it the safest procedure for us to fight at close 
quarters with the enemy, while for the enemy flight 
will prove preferable to standing their ground. And 
it is for us," he continued, ^^to range ourselves 
against those who hold their ground, while those of 
them who. run away we propose to leave to you and 
the cavalry, that they may have no chance to stand 
their ground or to turn back." 

10. Thus Cyrus spoke. And to Cyaxares it seemed 



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XENOPHON 

βΒοξέ Τ€ eJf \eyeiv, καΐ τον μ€ν irXeiov^ μ^ταττέμ- 
ireaOcu ovKCTL• βμέμνητο, τταρεσκβυάζβτο δέ οττλα 
rh ττροβφημένα. καΧ σχβΒον re βτοιμα fjv καΧ των 
Ώβρσων οί ομότιμοι τταρησαν €χοντ€<ζ το άττο 
ΤΙερσων στράτευμα. 

11. Έι/ταυ^α Βη eiTreiv λβγβτα^ ο Κΰρο<ζ συν- 
ayaycbv αυτούς' "ΑνΒρβς φίΧοι, βγω υμάς όρων 
αυτούς μβν καθωττΧισ μένους οΰτω και ταΐς ψυγ^αΐς 
τταρβσκβνασμένους ως βίς χείρας συμμίξοντας τοις 
τΓοΧβμίοις, τους δέ έττομένους ύμΐν ΪΙέρσας yiyvdo- 
σκων οτι ούτως ωττΧισμένοι άσΧν ως οτι ττροσω- 
τάτω ταχθέντες μάγεσθαι, cSeiaa μη oXiyoi 
fcaX έρημοι συμμάχων συμττίτΓΤοντβς ττοΧεμίοις 
ΤΓοΧΚοΐς ττάθοιτέ τι, νυν οΰν, εφη^ σώματα μ^ν 
έχοντες άνΒρων ήκετε ου μεμτττά* δττλα δέ εσται 
αυτοΐς όμοια τοις ημετεροις' τάς yε μεντοι ψυχ^ς 
θηyειv αυτών ημέτερον εpyov. άρχοντος yap εστίν 
ούχ εαυτόν μόνον ayaOov τταρέχειν, άλλα Βεΐ καΧ 
των αρχομένων εττιμεΧεσθαι οττως ως βέΧτιστοι 
έσονται. 

12. Ό μεν ούτως εΐττεν οί δ' ήσθησαν μεν 
ττάντες, νομίξοντες μετά ττΧειονων άτ^ωνιείσθαΐ' εΙς 
δ' αυτών καϊ εΧεξε τοιάδε' 13. 'Αλλά θαυμαστά, 
εφη, ϊσως Βοξω Xέyειv, εΐ Ίίύρω συμβουΧεύσω 
τι είττεΐν ύττερ ήμων, όταν τά δττλα Χαμβάνωσιν 
οι ημίν μεΧΧοντες συμμάχεσθαΐ' αλλά yιyvώσκω 
yap, εφη, οτι οί των ικανωτάτων καΧ εδ καΧ 
κακώς ττοιεΐν Xiyoi οίτοι καΧ μάΧιστα ενδύονται 
ταΐς Λίτυχαΐς των άκουόντων καΧ 8ωρα ην ΒιΒωσιν 
οί τοιούτοι, κάν μείω τυyχάvr| οντά η τά τταρα 
των ομοίων, όμως μείζονος αυτά τιμώνται οί Χαμ- 
βάνοντες. καΧ νυν, εφη, οί ΤΙέρσαι ιταραστάται 

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CYROPAEDIA, Π. i. 10-13 

that he spoke to the point ; and he no longer talked 
of sending for reinforcements, but he set about pro- 
curing the arms as suggested. And they were 
almost ready when the Persian peers came with the 
army from Persia. 

11. Thereupon Cyrus is said to have called the Cyrue 
peers together and said : '' My friends : When I saw ?? the^^rs 
you thus equipped and ready in heart to grapple with ^^ 

the enemy in a hand-to-hand encounter, and when I ch^^ 
observed that those Persians who follow you are so 
armed as to do their fighting standing as far off as 
possible, I was afraid lest, few in number and unaccom- 
panied by others to support you, you might fall in 
with a large division of the enemy and come to some 
harm. Now then," said he, *^you have brought with 
you men blameless in bodily strength ; and they are 
to have arms like ours ; but to steel their hearts is 
our task ; for it is not the whole duty of an officer to 
show himself valiant, but he must also take care that 
his men be as valiant as possible." 

12. Thus he spoke. And they were all delighted, 
for they thought they were going into battle with 
more to support them. And one of them also spoke 
as follows: 13. ^^Now," he began, "it will perhaps 
sound strange if I advise Cyrus to say something on 
our behalf, when those who are to fight along with us 
receive their arms. But I venture the suggestion, 
for I know that when men have most power to do 
both good and ill, then their words also are the most 
likely to sink deep into the hearts of the hearers. 
And if such persons give presents, even though the 
gifts be of less worth than those given by equals, 
still the recipients value them more highly. And 
now," said he, " our Persian comrades will be more 

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XENOPHON 

ύτΓΟ Κνρον ΊΓολν μαΧΧον ήσθησονται η ύφ' ημών 
ιταρακαΧονμβνοί, €Ϊς Τ€ τους ομότιμους καθιστά- 
μενοι βββαιοτέρως σφίσιν η^ησονται €χ€ΐν τοϋτο 
ντΓΟ βασιΚέως Τ€ τταιΒος και νττο στρατηγού 
^ενομενον ή el νή>* ημών το αυτό τοΰτο ηίηνοιτο. 
αττάναι μεντοι ουδέ τα ημέτ€ρα χρη, αλλά τταντϊ 
τρόιτφ Bei των άνΒρων θψγειν ττάντω*; το φρόνημα, 
ήμΐν yap βσται τοϋτο χρησιμον δ τι αν οΰτοι 
βέλτίονβς ^ένωνται, 

14. Οι/τω Βη ό Κΰρος καταθβΐς τα οττλα eh το 
μέσον καΐ συ^καΧΑσα^ζ ττάντα^; τους ΤΙβρσών 
στρατιώτας Ιλε^β τοιάΒε' 15. ^ΆνΒρες ΙΙέρσαι, 
υμβΐς καΐ €φυτ€ iv τ^ αύτρ ημΐν καΐ €τράφητ€, και 
τά σώματα Τ€ ούΒβν ημών χείρονα Ιχετβ, ψυχάς 
Τ€ ούΒ^ν κακίονας νμΖν ττροσηκβι ημών εχ€ΐν. 
τοιούτοι δ' δντες iv μ€ν tj} ττατρίΒι ου μετ^ίχβτβ 
των ϊσων ήμΐν, ούχ ύφ* ήμων άτΓέλαθέντβς αλλ' 
ύτΓΟ του τάτΓΐτήΒβια ανάγκην ύμΐν etvai ΤΓορίζβ- 
σθαι. νυν Be οττως μβν ταύτα e^CTC ίμοϊ μεΧησβι 
συν τοις θβοΐς* βξβστι S* ύμΐν, ei βούΧεσθβ, Χαβ ον- 
τάς δττλα οΐώπβρ ήμβΐς εχομβν^ βις τον αύτον 
ήμΐν κίνΒυνον εμβαίνβιν, καν τι €κ τούτων καΧον 
κάγαθον ^ί^νηται, των ομοίων ήμΐν αξιούσθαι, 

1 6. Ύον μ^ν ούν πρ6σθ€ν χρόνον ύμεΐς τ€ τόξο- 

ταικαΐ άκοντισται ήτ€ και ημείς, KaXei τι χείρους 

ήμων ταύτα iroieiv ήτ€, ούΒεν θαυμαστον* ού yap 

ήν ύμΐν σχοΧή ωσττερ ήμΐν τούτων ειτιμέΧεσθαΐ' 

iv Βέ ταύτΎΐ τη οττΧίσβι ούΒεν ήμβΐς ύμων ττροέξο- 

μ€ν. θώραξ μβν ye irepX τά στέρνα άρμόττων 

* After ίχομ^ν χζ and (in the margin) F add καί €Ϊ η 
X^ipovis τιμών 4σΎ4 {although you are somewhat inferior to us). 

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CYROPAEDIA, II. i. 13-16 

highly pleased to be exhorted by Cyrus than by us ; 
and when they have taken their place among the 
peers they will feel that they hold this honour with 
more security because conferred by their prince and 
their general than if the same honour were be- 
stowed by us. However, our co-operation must not 
be wanting, but in every way and by all means we^ 
must steel the hearts of our men. For the braver 
these men are, the more to our advantage it will be." 

14. Accordingly, Cyrus had the arms brought in 
and arranged to view, and calling all the Persian 
soldiers together he spoke as follows: 15. ^^ Fellow- cyms 
citizens of Persia, you were bom and bred upon the ^^ ®^^** 
same soil as we ; the bodies you have are no whit proposed 
inferior to ours, and it is not likely that you have ti^i^'the 
hearts in the least less brave than our own. In commonera 
spite of this, in our own country you did not enjoy 
equal privileges with us, not because you were ex- 
cluded from them by us, but because you were 
obliged to earn your own livelihood. Now, however, 
with the help of the gods, I shall see to it that you 
are provided with the necessaries of life ; and you 
are permitted, if you wish, to receive arms like ours, 
to face the same danger as we, and, if any fair 
success crowns our enterprise, to be counted worthy 
of an equal share with us. 

16. '' Now, up to this time you have been bowmen 
and lancers, and so have we ; and if you were not 
quite our equals in the use of these arms, there is no- 
thing surprising about that ; for you had not the leisure 
to practise with them that we had. But with this 
equipment we shall have no advantage over you. In 
any case, every man will have a corselet fitted to his 



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XENOPHON 

ίκάστφ Ιστα*, yippov Be iv rfj apiarepa, ο τται/τβ? 
βΐθίσμεθα φορεΐν, μάχαιρα Be η aayapi^ ev τ§ 
Be^ta, rj Βη iraieiv τού<ζ €ναντίου<ζ Berjaec ovBev 
φνΤ^αττο μένους μη το iraiopre^ eξaμάpτωμev, 17. 
ύΙ οΰν &ν ev τούτοίς €Τ€ρο<ζ ίτέρου Βιαφέροι ημών 
ττΧην τοΧμχι; ήν ovBev ύμίν ήττον irpoarffcei η ήμΐν 
ν'7Γθτρέφ€σθαο, νίκη<ζ τ€ yap €^Γcθυμeΐv, fj τά 
καΧά ττάντα καΐ TayaOa κτάται Τ€ καΐ σώξβί, τι 
μαΧΧον ήμΐν ή νμΐν 7Γροσήκ€ΐ; κράτους τ€, δ πάντα 
τα των τ^ττόζ/ωι; τοις κρείττοσι Βωρεΐται, τι εΙκος 
ή μας μάΧΧον ή καϊ ν μας τούτον Βεΐσθαι; 

18. Τβλο? elirev, ^Ακηκοατε πάντα* opcLTe τα 
δπΧα' 6 μ€ν χρ'^ζ(ύν Χαμβανέτω ταύτα καϊ άττο- 
ypaφeσθω προς τον ταξίαρχον άς την όμοίαν 
τάξνν ήμΐν δτφ δ' αρκεί ev μισθοφόρου χώρα 
eivai, καταμενέτω ev τοΐς υπηρετικοΐς οπΧοις. 

Ό μεν οΰτως είπεν. 19. άκούσαντες Βε οί 
ΤΙέρσαι ενομισαν, ει παρακαΧούμενοι ώστε τα 
όμοια πονουντες των αύτων τvyχάvειv μη εθεΧή- 
σουσι ταύτα ποιεΐν, Βικαίως αν Βια παντός τον 
αιώνος άμηχάνούντες βιοτεύειν, ούτω Βή απογρά- 
φονται πάντες άνεΧαβον τε τα οττλα πάντες. 

20. Έι; ω Bk οί ποΧέμιοι iXiyovTO μεν προσ- 
ιεναι, παρήσαν Βε ούΒεπω, εν τούτφ επεφάτο 6 
Ιίύρος άσκεΐν μεν τα σώματα των μεθ* εαυτού 
εις ισχνν, ΒιΒάσκειν Βε τα τακτικά, θιγγειν Βε 
τας ψνχας εις τα ποΧεμικά, 21. καϊ πρώτον μεν 
Χαβών πάρα Κναζάρον νπηρέτας προσέταξεν 
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CYROPAEDIA, Π. i. 16-21 

breast, upon his left arm a shield, such as we have all 
been accustomed to carry, and in his right hand a 
sabre or scimitar with which, you see, we must 
strike those opposed to us at such close range 
that we need not fear to miss our aim when we 
strike. 17. In this armour, then, how could any 
one of us have the advantage over another ex- 
cept in courage .'' And this it is proper for you to 
cherish in your hearts no ]ess than we. For why is 
it more proper for us than for you to desire victory, 
which gains and keeps safe all things beautiful and 
all things good .'' And what reason is there that we, 
any more than you, should desire that superiority in 
arms which gives to the victors all the belongings of 
the vanquished .'' . 

18. ^^ You have heard all," he said in conclusion. 
" You see your arms ; whosoeVer will, let him take 
them and have his name enrolled with the captain 
in the same companies with us. But whosoever is 
satisfied to be in the position of a mercenary, let him 
remain in the armour of the hired soldiery." 

Thus he spoke. 19. And when the Persians heard The 
it, they thought that if they were unwilling to^^^^"*®" 
accept, when invited to share the same toils and 
enjoy the same rewards, they should deserve to live 
in want through all time. And so they were all 
enrolled and all took up the arms. 

20. And while the enemy were said to be Preliminary 
approaching but had not yet come, Cyrus tried to ^**^ 
develop the physical strength of his men, to teach 
them tactics, and to steel their hearts for war. 
21. And first of all he received quartermasters from 
Cyaxares and commanded them to furnish ready made 

145 

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XENOPHON 

ίκάστοις των στρατιωτών ικανών ^ ων iSeovTo 
πάντα τΓβποιημένα τταρασχβΐν τοΰτο Be τταρα- 
σκευάσας ovBev αντοΐς iXeXotTrec αΧΚο ή άσκεΐν 
Tci άμφΐ τον ττόΧβμον, ίκεΐνο Βοκων καταμεμαθη- 
Kevat δτι ούτοι κράτιστοι έκαστα yiyvovTai οι 
αν άώέμενοί τον ττοΧΧοΐς ττροσέχειν τον νουν 
€7γΙ €v €pyov τράπωνται. καΐ αυτών he των 
ΤΓοΧεμικων ττεριεΧων καΙ το τοξφ μεΧετάν καΐ 
άκοντίφ κατέΧιττε τοΰτο μόνον αύτοΐς το συν 
μαχαίρα καΐ ^έρρφ καϊ θώρακι μάχεσθαι* ώστε 
ευθυ<; αύτων τταρεσκεύασε τάς γνώμα^; ώς ομόσε 
ίτέον εϊη τοις 7ΓθΧεμίοι<ζ, ή ομόΧο^ητεον μηΒενος 
είναι άξιους συμμάχους* τοΰτο Βε χαΧεπον ομο- 
Χο^ησαι οϊτινες αν εΙΒωσιν δτι ούΒε Βι εν 
άΧΧο τρέφονται ή δττως μαχοΰνται ΰττερ των 
τρεφόντων, 

22. Έτ6 Βε ΤΓΟος τούτοις εννοησας οτι ττερι 
οτΓοσων &ν ε^^ενωνται άνθρώττοις φιΧονικίαι,^ 
ΤΓοΧύ μαΧΧον εθέΧουσι ταΰτ άσκεΙν, ατ/ωνάς τε 
αύτοΐς προεΐττεν άιτάντων όττόσα ετ^νγνωσκεν 
άσκεΐσθαι ayaOov είναι ΰττο στρατιωτών καΐ 
ττροεΐτΓε τάΒε, ΙΒιώττ) μεν εαυτόν τταρεχειν εύττειθη 
τοις άρχουσι καΐ εθεΧόττονον και φιΧοκίνΒυνον 
μετ ευταξίας καΐ εττιστημονα των στρατιωτικών 
καΐ φιΧοκαΧον ττερΙ οττΧα καΐ φιΧοτιμον εττϊ ττάσι 
τοις τοιούτοις, ττεμιταΒάρχω δ' αύτον οντά οίονττερ 
τον ayaOov ΙΒιώτην και την ττεμιτάΒα εις το 
Βυνατον τοιαύτην τταρεχειν, ΒεκαΒάρχω δέ την 
ΒεκάΒα ωσαύτως, Xoxay(p Βε τον Χοχον, και 

^ ΙκΛνω5 Castalio, Edd. ; iKoyohs MSS. 
2 iyy4p(cvTai . . . φιλονικίαι Hug, Gemoll, Marchant ; iyyt- 
ντηται . . . (piKovuKia y ; y4v(ovrai . . . ψιλονακίαι xz, Dindorf. 

146 



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CYROPAEDIA, ΙΪ. 



1. 21-22 



for each of the soldiers a liberal supply of everything 
that he needed. And when he had provided for 
this, he had left them nothing to do but to practise 
the arts of war, for he thought he had observed 
that those became best in any given thing who gave 
up pajring attention to many things and devoted 
themselves to that alone. So, in the drill itself he 
relieved them of even the practice with bow and 
spear and left them only the drill with sword and 
shield and breastplate. And so he at once brought 
home to them the conviction that they must go into 
a hand-to-hand encounter with the enemy or else 
admit that as allies they were good for nothing. 
But such an admission is hard for those who know 
that they are being maintained for no other purpose 
than to fight for those who maintain them. 

22. And as, in addition to this, he had further competitive 
observed that people are much more willing to ^^^ 
practise those things in which they have rivalry 
among themselves, he appointed contests for them 
in everything that he knew it was important for 
soldiers to practise. What he proposed was as follows : 
to the private soldier, that he show himself 
obedient to the officers, reacjy for hardship, eager for 
danger but subject td good discipline, familiar with 
the duties required of a soldier, neat in the care 
of his equipment, and ambitious about all such 
matters ; to the corporal, that, besides being himself 
like the good private, he make his squad of five a 
model, as far as possible ; to the sergeant, that he do 
likewise with his squad of ten, and the lieutenant 

147 
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XENOPHON 

ταξίάρχφ άνεττΙκΧητον αυτόν οντά βτημέΧβσθαι 
καϊ των νή> αύτφ αρχόντων δττως έκβΐνοι αν ων 
αν αργωσι τταρέζονσι τά Βέοντα ττοιοΰντα^. 

23. "^Κθλα Se ττρονφηνβ το?? μ€ν ταζιάργρι^ ώ? 
του? κρατίστας 8όζαντα<ζ τά? τάζ€ΐ<ζ τταρβσκβυά- 
σθαι χ(Χιάρχον(ζ βσεσθαι, των Si Χοχα^ων dt 
κρατίστοχ^ Βοξβίαν του? Χοχους airoSeiKvyvac, 
eh τας των ταξίαρχων χωρα^ βτταναβησβσθαι, 
των δ' αΰ ΒεκαΒάρχων του? κρατίστονς eh τα? 
των Χοχατγων χώρας καταστησ€σθαί, των δ' αΰ 
7Γ€μ'Π'αΒάρχων ωσαύτως βί? τά? των Β€καΒάρχων, 
των ye μην ΙΒιωτων του? κρατίστ€ύοντας eh τά? 
των πeμlΓaBάpχωv. νπήρχ€ Be ττασι τούτοις το?? 
αρχονσι ττρωτον μ€ν θepaπeύeσθat ύττο των 
άρχο μίνων i eireiTa Be fcai αΧΧαί τιμαΐ αΐ irpe- 
ΤΓονσαι ίκάστοις συμ'πapeί^Γovτo. eiraveTeivovTo 
Be καΐ μ€ίξο'ν€ς βλττίδβ? τοΐς άξίοις eiraivov, ei 
τι ev τφ eiriovTi χρόνφ αγαθόν μeΐζov φανοΐτο.^ 
24. TTpoeiire Be νικητήρια και δΧαις ταΐς Ta^eai 
και οΧοις τοις Χοχοις, καΐ ταΐς BeKaaiv ωσαύτως 
και ταΐς 'n-epm-aaiv, at αν^ φαίνωντςιι evTriaTo- 

^ ψαροΐτο Cobet, most Edd.; φaiyoιro MSS., Dindorf, 
Breitenbach. 
* at hv Dindorf, most Edd. ; ihy MSS., Sauppe. 

148 



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CYROPAEDIA, II. i. 22-24 

with his platoon ^ ; and to the captain, that he be 
unexceptionable himself and see to it that the 
officers under him get those whom they command 
to do their duty. 

23. As rewards, moreover, he offered the following : Rewards 
in the case of captains, those who were thought to ^ °** * 
have got their companies into the best condition 
should be made colonels ; of the lieutenants, those 
who were thought to have put their platoons into 
the best condition should be advanced to the rank of 
captains ; of the sergeants, those who were the most 
meritorious should be promoted to the rank of 
lieutenant ; in the same way, the best of the corporals 
should be promoted to the rank of sergeants; and 
finally of the privates, the best should be advanced 
to the rank of corporal. Moreover, all these 
officers not only had a right to claim the respect 
of th^ir subordinates, but other distinctions also 
appropriate to each office followed in course. And 
to those who should deserve praise still greater hopes 
were held out, in case in time to come any greater 
good fortune should befall. 24. Besides, he offered 
prizes of victory to whole companies and to whole 
platoons and to squads of ten and of five likewise, if 
they showed themselves implicitly obedient to the 

^ The divisions of Cyrus's army were as follows : — 

DivUion Officer Total 
5 men ={1 ^SdO^^-ri,)} •• «'Π>θΓ»1(«μ»<ίί<φχοί)... » 

' """"Ί^ Η tS^U) ) • •• »e.Ke.nt(i..<ii.^x«, ... 10 

*"'^4Sid,}={''(ASx..) } - lleutena»t(X.x.,i,) ... «, 

2 platoons ={^ ^^J^fy) } •• ^V^a^ (ταξίαρχος) ... 100 

10 companies « j^ '^^^titoarvy) } - ^^^°°®^ (Χ^λίαρχος) ... 1,000 

10 regiment» =|l ^"^^οσηί?) } - «^«"«^^ (Μ«Ρ^Χο«) - 10,000 

149 



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XENOPHON 

TUrai τοϊ<ζ αργρυσιν οΖσαι καΐ προθυμότατα 
ασκούσαν τα ττροβιρημένα. fjv δέ ταύταν^ τα 
νικητήρια οία Βη βίς ττΧήθο^ irpeirei, 

Ύαντα μβν 8η ττροβίρητό τε καΧ ησκύτο η 
στρατιά. 

25. ^κηνα^ζ δ' αύτοΐ^ κατασκεύασε, ττΧήθοζ μεν 

όσοι ταξίαρχοι ^σαν, μέ^γ^θος 8ε ώστε ίκανας 

είναι Trj τάξει εκάσττι* η δέ^ τάξι^ ffv εκατόν 

ανΒρες. εσκηνονν μεν 8η οντω κατεί τάξεί<ζ' 

εν 8ε τφ ομού σκηνονν ihoKovv μεν αντφ ώφε- 

Χεΐσθαι ττρος τον μεΧΚοντα α/^ωνα τούτο οτι 

εώρων ά\\η\ον<ζ ομοίως τρεφόμενους καΧ ουκ 

ενήν ττρόφασις μειονεξίας ώστε ύφίεσθαί τινας^ 

κακίω έτερον ετέρου είναι ττρος τους ττοΧεμίους. 

ώφεΧεΐσθαι δ' εΒοκουν αύτφ καΧ ττρος το yiyvw- 

σκειν άΧΧηΧους ομού σκηνούντες. εν 8ε τφ ηιηνά^- 

σκεσθαι καΧ το αίσχύνεσθαι ιτασι Βοκεΐ μαΧΚον 

εηηίηνεσθαι, οι 8ε αγνοούμενοι ρα^ιουρ^^ειν πως 

μαΧΚον Ζοκούσιν, ωσπερ εν σκότει οντες. 26. εδό- 

κονν δ' αύτφ καΧ εις το τά? τάξεις άκριβούν 

με^^άΧα ώφεΧεΐσθαι Sih την συσκηνίαν, είγρν 

yelp οι μ^ν ταξίαρχοι ύφ* εαυτοΐς τά? τάξεις 

y κεκοσ μημενας ωσπερ όποτε εις ενα πορεύοιτο ή- 

τάξις, οι 8ε Χοχα^οΧ τους Χόχους ωσαύτως, οι 

δέ Βεκάβαρχοι ΒεκάΒας, πεμπάΒαρχοι πεμπάΒας. 

27. το δέ Βιακριβούν τλς τάξεις σφοΒρα εΒόκει 

αύτφ ayaOov είναι και εις το μη ταράττεσθαι 

καΧ ει ταραχθείεν θαττον καταστηναι, ωσπερ 

* l/ceicTTw• ή δ€ y, most Edd. ; εκάστη ^ η ζ; εκάστη δ^ χ. 
' Tipas Hug, later Edd. ; τιρα MSS., earlier Edd. 

150 



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CYROPAEDIA, II. i. 24-27 

officers and very ready in performing the afore- 
mentioned duties. And the prizes of victory for 
these divisions were just such as were appropriate to 
groups of men. 

Such, then, were the competitions appointed, and 
the army began to train for them. 

25. Then, he had tents made for them — in number. Tenting by 
as many as there were captains ; in size, large enough companies 
to accommodate each a company. A company, more- 
over, was composed of a hundred men. Accordingly, 
they lived in tents each company by itself; for 
Cyrus thought that in occupying tents together they 
had the following advantages for the coming conflict: 
they saw one another provided for in the same 
way, and there could be -no possible pretext of 
unjust discrimination that could lead any one to 
allow himself to prove less brave than another in the 
face of the enemy. And he thought that if they 
tented together it would help theta to get acquainted 
with one another. And in getting acquainted with 
one another, he thought, a feeling of considerateness 
was more likely to be engendered in them all, while 
those who are unacquainted seem somehow more 
indifferent — like people when they are in the dark. 
26. He thought also that their tenting together 
helped them not a little to gain a perfect acquaintance 
with their positions. For the captains had the com- 
panies under them in as perfect order as when a 
company was matching single file, and the lieutenants 
their platoons, and the sergeants and corporals their 
squads in the same way. 27. He thought, moreover, 
that such perfect acquaintance with their places 
in the line was exceedingly helpful both to prevent 
their being thrown into confusion and to restore ' 

151 



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XENOPHON 

7€ καΧ "λίθων κα\ ξύλων αν Berj συναρμοσθήναι, 
€στι, καν όττωσονν καταβββΧημένα τύχτ), συναρ- 
μόσαί αύτα €ΐΠΓ€τως, ην βχχι γνωρίσματα ωστ 
βΰΒηλον elvai έξ οποίας βκαστον χώρας αύτων 
€στίν. 28. iSoKOVv δ' ώφέλεΐσθαι αύτφ ομού 
τββφόμενοι καν ΐτρος το ήττον άΧΚηλονς iOeKeiv 
άτΓοΧείτΓβίν, οτι έώρα καν τά θηρία τά σνντρβ- 
φόμενα Sevvov έχοντα ττόθον,^ήν τις αυτά δίασττα 
άτΓ* άΧΚηλων. 

29. ΈτΓβ/Αβλβτο δέ καΐ τούτου 6 Κύρος οττως 
μητΓ0Τ€ άνίΒρωτον ^^€ν6μενον iirl το άριστον καΧ 
το SevTTVOV βίσίοιεν. ή ycip βττΐ θηραν εξάδων 
ί8ρωτα αντοΐς τταρβΐχβν, ή ττανΒίάς τοιαύτας 
€ξηύρισκ€ν α? ίΒρωτα βμέλΧον ΤΓαρ€χ€ΐν, ή καΐ 
Ίτραζαι el τι Ββόμβνος τύχοι, οΰτως ίξη^βίτο της 
ττράξβως ώς μη βιτανίοιβν άνιΒρωτί, τοντο yap 
ψ/€Ϊτο καΐ προς το ήΒβως βσθίειν ayaObv elvai 
και προς το vyiaiveiv καΐ προς το Βύνασθαι 
πονβΐν, και προς το άΧΚηλοις δέ πραότερους 
elvai αηαθον ηηύτο τους πόνους eivai, οτι και 
οι ίπποι συμπονοΰντες ά\\ηΚοις πραότεροι συν- 
€στηκασι. προς ye μην τους ποΧεμίους p^eya- 
Χοφρονίστεροι yiyvovTai οι άν συνειΒ&σιν έαυτοΐς 
eZ ήσκηκότες. 

30. Κύρος δ' €αυτφ σκηνην μεν κατεσκευάσατο 
ωστ€ Ικανην ίχ€ΐν οίς καΧοίη 4πΙ Βύπνον, eKoKei 
δέ ως τά ττολλά των ταξιάρχων οδ? καιρός αύτφ 
Βοκοίη elvai, βστι δ' ore καΐ των \oxay&v και 

152 



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CYROPAEDIA, Π, i. 27-30. 

order sooner in case they should be thrown into 
confusion ; just as in the case of stones and timbers 
which must be fitted together, it is possible to fit 
them together readily, no matter in how great 
confusion they may chance to have been thrown down, 
if they have the guide-marks to make it plain in what 
place each of them belongs. 28. And finally, he 
thought that comradeship would be encouraged 
by their messing together and that they would 
be less likely to desert one another; for he had 
often observed that even animals that were fed 
together had a marvellous yearning for one another, 
if any one separated them. 

29. Cyrus also took care that they should never Physical 
come to luncheon or to dinner unless they had had a cyms^ ^ 
sweat. For he would get them- into a sweat by discipline 
taking them out hunting ; or he would contrive such 
sports as would make them sweat; or again, if he 
happened to have some business or other to attend 

to, he so conducted it that they should not come 
back without having had a sweat. For this he 
considered conducive to their enjoying their meals, 
to their health, and to their being able to endure 
hardships, and he thought that hardships conduced 
to their being more reasonable toward one another, 
for even horses that work together stand more 
quietly together. At any rate, those who are con- 
scious that they have been well drilled are certainly 
more courageous in the face of the enemy. 

30. And for himself Cyrus had a tent made big cyms's 
enough to accommodate aJl whom he might invite to invitations 
dinner. Now he usually invited as many of the 
captains as he thought proper, and sometimes also 

^oj^e of the lieutenants and sergeants and corporals ; 

153 



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XENOPHON 

των Ζεκα^άργων τινά,ς καΐ των ττεμιτα^άργων 
eKokei, €στί δ' ore καΐ των στρατιωτών, βστι S* 
οτ€ fcal 7Γ εμιτάΒα οΧην καϊ SetcaSa οΧην καΐ 
Χόχον οΧον καΧ τάξιν οΧην. έκάΧβι Sk καϊ βτίμα 
οποτβ τινα<; ϊΒοί τοιούτον τι ττοιησαντας ο αντο^ ^ 
έβονΧετο iroieiv. fjv he τά παρατιθβμενα ael 
ϊσα αύτφ τβ καϊ τοις καΧονμΑνοις βττΐ heirrrvov. 

31. ΚαΙ T0V9 αμφϊ το στράτβυμα he υττηρέτα^ 
Ισομοίρονς ττάντων ael iiroiei' ovhkv yctp ^ττον 
τιμάν άξιον ihofcei αντω elvai τους άμφΐ τά, 
στρατιωτικά, ύιτηρέτας οντ€ κηρύκων ούτ€ ττρέσ- 
βεων, καϊ yap πιστούς η^^Ιτο helv elvai τούτους 
καϊ ίτηστη μονάς των στρατιωτικών καΐ συνετούς, 
ττροσέτι he καϊ σφohpoifς και ταγεΐς και άοκνους 
και άταράκτους, ττρος δ* ίτι α οι βίΧτιστοι 
νομιζόμ€νοι βγρυσιν ε^^γνωσκεν 6 Ίίΰρος heiv 
τους ύττηρέτας e^eiv, καΐ τούτο άσκεΐν ως μηhev 
άναίνοιντο epyov, αλλά ττάντα νομίζοιεν rrrpeTreiv 
αύτοΐς ττράττβιν δσα άρχων ττροστάττοι. 



II 

1 . 'Ael μ€ν oJfv εΐΓβμβΧβτο 6 Ίίΰρος, οττότβ 
συσκηνοϊεν, οττως βύχαριστότατοί τβ αμα Xoyoi 
βμβΧηθησονται και τταρορμωντβς €ΐς τάηαθόν. 
άφίκβτο δέ καΐ βίς τόνΒβ ττοτέ τον X&yov* 

^Αρά ye, ίφη, ω avhpeς, ivh€€στepoί τι ημών 
hia τούτο φαίνονται elvai οι εταίροι δτι ου 
^τerrΓaίheυvτaι τον αύτον τροττον ήμΐν, ή oihkv άρα 

^ avrhs χζ, most Edd. ; iravras y, Gemoll, 



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CYROPAEDIA, II. i. 30-ii. i 

and occasionally he invited some of the privates, 
sometimes a squad of five together, or a squad of ten, 
or a platoon, or a whole company in a body. And he 
also used to invite individuals as a mark of honour, 
whenever he saw that they had done what he himself 
wished everybody to do. And the same dishes were 
always placed before those whom he invited to dinner 
as before himself. 

31. The quartermaster^ in the army he always The 
allowed an equal share of everything ; for he thought maJtera 
that it was fair to show no less regard for the purveyors 
of the army stores than for heralds or ambassadors. 
And that was reasonable, for he held that they must 
be trustworthy, familiar with military affairs, and 
intelligent, and, in addition to that, energetic, quick, 
resolute, steady. And still further, Cjrrus knew that 
the quartermasters also must have the qualities which 
those have who are considered most efficient and 
that they must train themselves not to refuse any 
service but to consider that it is their duty to per- 
form whatever the general might require of theln. 



II 

1 . Whenever C)rrus entertained company at dinner, Cyrus's 
he always took pains that the conversation introduced mrats**'^ 
should be as entertaining as possible and that it 
should incite to good. On one occasion he opened 
the conversation as follows : 

" Tell me, men," said he, '^ do our new comrades 
seem to be any worse off than we because they have 
not been educated in the same way as we, or pray 
do you think that there will be no difference 

155 



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XENOPHON 

hioiaeLV ήμων οντ iv ταΖ? σννονσίαι^ οντ€ όταν 
α^ωνιζεσθαί προ<ζ τον9 ττοΧεμίους Serj ; 

2, ΚαΙ ^Ύστάσττας υττόΧαβων elirev, 'Αλλ' 
οτΓοΐοι μέν τινβς βσορταν eh τους ττόλβμίονς ουττω 
εγωγε έττίσταμαι* iv μέντοι ττ} συνουσία ΖύσκοΧον 
ναί μά, τους θβούς eviot αυτών φαίνονται ττρωην 
μέν je, €φη, Jίυaξάfyης βττβμψβν βίς την τάξιν 
έκάστην iepeca, καΐ iyivcTO κρέα ίκάστφ ήμων 
τρία ή καϊ ττΚβίω τά πβριφβρόμβνα, καΐ ήρξατο 
μβν 6 μάτ/€ΐρος άττ εμού την ιτρώτην irepLohov 
τΓβριφέρων δτ€ Se το Ββύτβρον βίσ'ρει ττβρίοίσων, 
βκέΧβυσα iya> άττό του τελευταίου αργεσθαι καϊ 
άνάτταΧιν φέρβιν. 3. άνακρα^ων ουν τίς των 
κατά μέσον τον κύκΧον κατακβνμένων στρατιωτών 
Μά ΑΓ, βφη, T&vhe μεν ούΒ^ν ϊσον εστίν, etye 
αφ* ήμων ye των iv μέσφ ούΒεΙς ούδβττοτβ αρξεται. 
ftal €γώ άκουσας ήχθέσθην, €Ϊ τ* μείον BoKOiev 
βχειν, καϊ iκάλ€σa ευθύς αύτον προς e/i€. ο δέ 
μάλα ye τοΰτο εύτάκτως ύττήκουσεν. ώς Se tcl 
περιφερόμενα ήκε ττρος ήμας, άτε οΐμαι ύστατους 
λαμβάνοντας, τά μικρότατα ΧεΧειμμένα ήν- εν- 
ταύθα Βη iκεΐvoς πάνυ άνιαθεϊς ΒήΧος ήν καΐ είπε 
προς αυτόν, Ύής τύχης, το ip^ νυν κΧηθέντα Βεΰρο 
τυχεΐν. 4. καϊ iya> είπον. Άλλα μή φρόντιζε• 
αυτίκα yap αφ* ημών αρξεται καϊ συ πρώτος 
Χήψει το μέτ/ιστον. καϊ iv τούτψ περιέφερε το 
τρίτον, όπερ Βή Χοιπον ήν της περιφοράς' κάκεΐ- 
νος εΧαβε, κατ ίΒοξεν αύτω μείον Χαβεϊν κατέ- 
βαΧεν οΰν^ δ ΐΧαβεν ώς έτερον Χηψό μένος, καϊ 

^ κ$τ' . . . οΖρ χζ, Edd. ; /act* 4μ^ Bevrcpos- &s 1^ 6 rplros 
ί\αβ€ καΧ tZolev ahrhv μείζον iaxnov XajSciv κατταβάλΧ^ι y (next 
after me ; and when the third man toaa served, and my man 

i5« 



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CYROPAEDIA, Π. π. 1-4 

between us either in social intercourse or when we 
shall have to contend with the enemy ? " 

2. " Well/.' said Hystaspas in reply, '' for my part, a story 
I cannot tell yet how they will appear in the face of mj^fers 
the enemy. But in social intercourse, by the gods, 
some of them seem ill-mannered enough. The other 
day, at any rate," he explained, " Cyaxares had meat 
sent in to each company, and as it was passed around 
each one of us got three pieces or even more. 
And the first time round the cook began with me as 
he passed it around ; but when he came in the 
second time to pass it, I bade him begin with the 
last and pass it around the other way. 3. Then one 
of the men sitting in the middle of the circle called 
out and said, ' By Zeus, this is not fair at all — at any 
rate, if they are never going to begin with us 
here in the middle.' And when I heard that, I was 
vexed that arty one should think that he had less 
than another and I called him to me at once. He 
obeyed, showing good discipline in this at least. 
But when that which was being passed came to us, 
only the smallest pieces were left, as one might 
expect, for we were the last to be served. There - 
upon he was greatly vexed and said to himself: 
^ Such luck ! that I should happen to have been 
called here just now ! * 4. ^ Well, never mind,' said I. 
'They will begin with us next time, and you, 
being first, will get the biggest piece.' And at that 
moment the cook began to pass around the third 
time what was left of the course; and the man 
helped himself; and then he thought the piece he 
had taken too small ; so he put back the piece he had, 
with the intention of taking another. And the cook, 

thought hU neighhovr had got a bigger piece than Ae, he threw 
doumetc,). 

157 



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XENOPHON 

ό αρταμο^ οΙόμ€Ρθ<; αυτόν ovhev η Βεΐσθαι όψου, 
φχ€Ύ0 τταραφβρων ττρίν Χαββΐν αύτον erepov. 

5. ενταύθα Βη οΰτω βαρέως ηνε^κΕ το ττάθο^ξ 
ωστ€ άνηΚωτο μ^ν αύτω δ βΙΧηφβι οψον, δ Se €τι 
αύτφ ΧοίΤΓον fjv του βμβάπτβσθαι, τούτο ττως ύττο 
του €Κ7Γ€7Γ\ήγθαί τε καΐ τ§ τύγτ) ορ^^ίζβσθαι 
Βυσθβτούμβνος averpe^ev, 6 μίν hrj \ογα^ο<ξ 6 
Ιηηύτατα ημών ΙΖων συνεκροτησβ τω χεΐρβ καΐ 
τφ ηέΚωτι ηύφραίνετο. iyo) μέντοι, βφη, ττροσβ- 
ΐΓΟίούμην βηττβιν ουδέ yap αύτος βΒυνάμην τον 
γέλωτα κατασγβΐν. τοιούτον μεν Βη σοί eva, ω 
Κύρβ, των βταίρων βττιΒείκνύω, 

ΈτγΙ μβν Βη τούτφ ωσττερ βίκος ijekaaav» 

6. αλλθ9 Βέ τίς eXefe των ταξιάρχων. Ούτος μεν 
Βη, ω Κύρε, ώ? εοικεν, οΰτω ΒυσκοΚφ εττετυγεν. 
€γώ Βί, ώς συ ΒιΒάξας ημάς τας τάξεις άττέττεμψας 
καΐ εκέΧευσας ΒιΒάσκειν την εαυτού εκαστον 
τάξιν & τταρα σού εμάθομεν, οΰτω Βη και εγώ, 
ωσττερ /cal οι ά\\οι εττοίουν, ελθων εΒιΒασκον ενα 
Χογρν. και στησας τον Χογα^ον πρώτον καϊ 
τάξας Βη βττ' αύτφ ανΒρα νεανίαν και τους αλΧους 
fi ωμην Βεΐν, έπειτα στας εκ του έμπροσθεν 
βλέπων εις τον Χόχον, ήνίκα μοι εΒόκει καιρός 
είναι, προϊεναι εκεΚευσα, 7. καϊ άνήρ σοι 6 
νεανίας εκείνος προεΧθων του Χογα^ού πρότερος 
επορεύετο. κά^ω ΙΒων είπον, "Ανθρωπε, τι 
ποιείς ; καϊ ος εφη, ΤΙροερχρμαι ωσπερ συ 
κεΧεύεις. κά^σ^ εΙπον, 'Αλλ' ουκ εγώ σε μόνον 
εκέΧευον άΧΧα πάντας προϊεναι. και ος άκουσας 
τούτο μεταστραφείς προς τους Χοχίτας είπεν. 
Ουκ άκούετε, εφη, ΧοιΒορουμένου ; προϊεναι 
πάντας κεΧεύει, καΧ ανΒρες πάντες παρεΧθόντβς 

IS» 



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CYROPAEDIA, II. ii. 4-7 

thinking that he did not want any more to eat, went 
on passing it before he got his other piece. 5. There- 
upon he took his mishap so to heart that he lost not 
only the meat he had taken but also what was still 
left of his sauce ; for this last he upset somehow or 
other in the confusion of his vexation and anger over 
his hard luck. The lieutenant nearest us saw it 
and laughed and clapped his hands in amusement. 
And I," he added, ^* pretended to cough ; for even I 
could not keep from laughing. Such is one man, 
Cyrus, that I present to you as one of our comrades.'* 

At this they laughed, of course. 6. But another a comical 
of the captains said :/* Our friend here, it seems, i^rai** 
Cyrus, has fallen in with a very ill-mannered fellow, obedience 
But as for me, when you had instructed us about the 
arrangement of the lines and dismissed us with 
orders each to teach his own company what we had 
learned from you, why then I went and proceeded 
to diill one platoon, just as the others also did. I 
assigned the lieutenant his place first and arranged 
next after him a young recruit, and the rest, as I 
' thought proper. Then I took my stand out in front 
of them facing the platoon, and when it seemed to 
me to be the proper time, I gave the command to go 
ahead. 7. And that young recruit, mark you, stepped 
ahead — of the lieutenant and marched in front of 
him ! And when I saw it, I said : ^ Fellow, what 
are you doing ? * ^ I am going ahead, as you 
ordered,' said he. ' Well,' said I, * I ordered not 
only you, but all to go ahead.' When he heard this, 
he turned about to his comrades and said : * Don't 
you hear him scolding? He orders us all to go 
ahead.' Then the men all ran past their lieutenant 

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XENOPHON 

τον λοχαγοί/ '^σαν irpo^ έμέ. 8. βττβΐ δέ ο Χοχά^ος 
αυτούς άνβχώρίζεν, 48νσφ6ρονν καϊ ekeyov, 
ΐίοτέρφ 8η ττάθβσθαι γρη ; νυν yap 6 μεν KeXevet 
ττροίέναι, 6 δ' ουκ ia, iy<b μέντοι €ν€τ/κων ταΰτα 
Ίτράως έξ αρχής αΰ καταχωρίσας βίττον μηΒένα 
των οτησθεν κινύσθαι ττρίν αν 6 ττρόσθβν riyriTai, 
άλλα τούτο μόνον οράν ττάντας, τφ ττρόσθβν 
€7Γ€σθαί, 9. «9 δ' €69 ΤΙέρσας τις αίτιων ηΚθε 
ττρος €μ€ καΧ βκέΧβυσέ με την έττιστοΧην rjv 
&γραψα οϊκαΒε Sodvai, Kayco^ 6 yap Χοχατ/ος rjSei 
οτΓον εκείτο η ετηστοΧή, εκέΧευσα αυτόν Βραμόντα 
ενετ^κεΐν την ετηστοΧην, 6 μεν Βη ετρεχεν, 6 δέ 
νεανίας εκείνος είττετο τω XoxayS συν αύτφ τω 
θώρακι καΧ τ§ κοττίΒι, καΐ ο αλλο9 δέ 7ra9 Χόχος 
ϋων εκείνον συνετρεχον καϊ ήκον οι ανορες 
φέροντες την ετηστοΧην. οΰτως, εφη, ο y εμος 
χόχος σοι ακριβοί ττάντα τα πάρα σου. 

10. Οι μ€ν 8η αΧΧοι ως εΙκος εyέXωv εττΐ τη 
Βορυφορία της εττιστοΧής' ό 8ε Κύρος εΐττεν, 
*ί1 Ζεύ και ττάντες θεοί, οΧους άρα ημείς εχομεν 
αν8ρας εταίρους, οι yε ευθερώπευτοι μεν οΰτως 
είσΐν ωστ είναι αυτών καϊ μικρφ οψφ τταμττόΧ- 
Χους φίΧους άνακτησασθαι, πιθανοί ο οΰτως είσί 
τίνες ώστε πριν ε18έναι το προσταττόμενον πρό- 
τερον πείθονται, βγω μεν ουκ οι8α ποίους τ ίνας 
χρη μαΧΧον εΰξασθαι fj τοιούτους στρατιώτας 
εχειν. 

1 1 . Ό μεν 8η Κύρος άμα yεXωv οΰτως επηνεσε 
τους στρατιώτας. εν 8ε τη σκηνή iTOyxavi τις 
&ν των ταξιάρχων ^AyXalτά8aς όνομα, άνηρ τον 
τρόπον των στρυφνότερων ανθρώπων, §9 ούτωσί 
ι6ο 



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CYROPAEDIA, JI. ii. 7-1 1 

and came toward me. 8. But when the lieutenant 
ordered them back to their places, they were 
indignant and said : * Pray, which one are we to 
obey ? For now the one orders us to go ahead, and 
the other will not let us/ I took this good- 
naturedly, however, and when I had got them in 
position again, I gave instructions that no one of 
those behind should stir before the one in front led 
off, but that all should have their attention on this 
only — to follow the man in front. 9. But when a 
certain man who was about to start for Persia came 
up and asked me for the letter which I had written 
home, I bade the lieutenant run and fetph it, for he 
knew where it had been placed. So he started off 
on a run, and that young recruit followed, as he 
was, breastplate and sword ; and then the whole 
fifty, seeing him run, ran after. And the men came 
back bringing the letter. So exactly, you see, does 
my company, at least, carry out all your orders." 

10. The rest, of course, laughed over the military 
escort of the letter, and Cyrus said : ^* Ο Zeus and 
all the gods ! What sort of men we have then as 
our comrades; they are so easily won by kindness 
that we can make many of them our firm friends 
with even a little piece of meat ; and they are so 
obedient that they obey even before the orders are 
given. I, for my part, do not know what sort of 
soldiers one could ask to have in preference to 
these!" 

11. Thus Cyrus praised his soldiers, laughing at objections 
the same time. But one of his captains, Aglaitadas ^^thttorieB 
by name, one of the most austere of men, happened 

to be in Cyrus's tent at the same time and he spoke 
somewhat as follows : " You don't mean to say, 

161 

VOL. I. Μ 



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XENOPHON 

ττω? €ΐΐΓ€ν* *Η yap οϊβν, €φη, ω Kvpe, τούτους 
αΧηθη \eyeiv ταύτα; 

Άλλα τι μην βονλομβνοι, €φη 6 Κΰρος, ψβύ- 
Sovrai; 

Ύί δ' ά\\ο y, €φη, el μη γβλωτα ποιβΐν βθέλον- 
τ€9 ντΓβρ ου Xeyovai ταύτα καΧ άΧαζον€νονται, 

12. ΚαΙ ό Ίίΰρος, Έύφημβί, εφη, μηΒβ Xeye 
άΧαζόνα^ eivai τούτους, ο μεν yctp αΚαζων 
epOiye Sotcei όνομα κείσθαι βττΐ τοί^ ττροσιτοίου- 
μενοι^ καΐ ττΚουσίωτέροι^ elvai ή elal καΐ avSpeio- 
τέροις fcal ττοιησειρ α μη Ικανοί eiaiv ντησγνου- 
μένοις, καν ταντα φανεροί^ yLyvoμ€VOί<ξ οτι του 
Χαβεΐν τι ίνεκα καΐ κβρ^αναι ποιούσιν, οι Se μη- 
γανωμένοι yeKωτa τοι<; συνούσι μήτε εττΐ τφ 
αυτών κερΒει μήτ εττί ζημία των ακουόντων μήτε 
ετά βλαβτ) μηΒεμια, ττώς ούχ ούτοι αστείοι &ν 
καϊ εύχάριτε<ζ Βικαιοτερον ονομάζοιντο μαΧλον ή 
άΤ^^ζόνες; 

13. Ό μεν 8η Κΰρος οΰτως άττβλογ^σατο ττερί 
των τον 7^λΛ)τα τταρασχόντων αύτο^ 8ε 6 ταξί- 
αργρ^^ 6 την του Χόχου χαριτίαν Bιηyησάμεvoς 
εφη, ^ΗτΓου αν, εφη, ω ^AyXaWdSa, εϊ yε κΧαίειν 
ειτειρώμεθά σε ττοιεΐν, σφοΒρ &ν ήμΐν εμέμφου, 
ωσττερ ενιοι και εν ω8αΐ^ καϊ εν Xoyoi^ οικτρά 
τίνα Xoyo^Γoιoυvτε^ ει^ Βάκρυα ττειρωνται &^ειν, 
οττότε yε νυν καϊ αύτος ειΒως οτι εύφραίνειν μεν 
τί σε βουΧόμεθα, βΧάψαι δ' ούΒέν, όμως οΰτως 
εν ΐΓοΧΧη ατιμία ήμας έχεις. 

1 4. ΝαΙ μεΐ ΔΓ, εφη ο ^AyXaiToBa^, και Βικαιως 

^ 6 ταξίαρχοε Zeune, Dindorf , Gemoll, Breitenbach ; 6 
koxayos MSS. ; [6 λοχαγόχ] Bornemann, Marchant. 

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CYROPAEDIA, Π. ϋ. 11-14 

Cyrus, that you think what these fellows have been 
telling is true ? " 

'^ Well,'* said Cyrus, "what object could they have, 
pray, in telling a lie ? " 

"What object, indeed,*' said the other, "except 
that they wanted to raiee a laugh ; and so they tell 
these stories and try to humbug us.** 

12. " Hush ! ** said Cyrus. " Don't call these men 
humbugs. For to me, the name * humbug * seems to 
apply to those who pretend that they are richer than 
they are or braver than they are, and to those who 
promise to do what they cannot do, and that, too, 
when it is evident that they do this only for the sake 
of getting something or makmg some gain. But 
those who invent stories to amuse their companions 
and not for their own gain nor at the expense of 
their hearers nor to the injury of any one, why 
should these men not be called * witty* and 
' entertaining ' rather than ^ humbugs ' ? " 

13. Thus Cyrus defended those who had furnished is it better 
the fun, and the captain himself who had told the men laugh 
anecdote about his platoon said : " Verily, Aglaitadas, *^'* ^eep? 
you might find serious fault with us, if we tried to 

make you weep, like some authors who invent 
touching incidents in their poems and stories and try 
to move us to tears ; but now, although you yourself 
know that we wish to entertain you and not to do 
you any harm at all, still you heap such reproaches 
upon us." 

14. "Aye, by Zeus," said Aglaitadas, "and justly, 

163 



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XENOPHON 

76, €7Γ€ΐ fcal αντοΰ του κΚαίοντα^ ^ καθίζοντος 
τους φίΧους ττοΧΚαχον β/χο^γ^ Sokcl Ικάττονο^ 
άξια 8ιαΐΓράττ€σθαί 6 ΎέΧωτα αυτοΙ<ζ μηχα- 
νώμβνο^, evprjaei^ Sk καΐ συ, ην ορθώς Χο^^ίζη, 
€μέ αληθή Xeyovra. κΧανμασι μέν ye καΐ ττατέρες 
νΙοΐ<; σωφροσύνην μηγανωνται καΧ ΒίΒάσκαΚοι 
τταισίν άγα^ά μαθήματα, καΐ νομοί ye ττοΧίτας 
δ^ά τον κλαίοντας κaθLζeιv eh Βικαιοσννην ττ/οο- 
TpiirovTar τους δέ yeXxuTa μηχανωμ^ους €χοις 
αν ehrecv η σώματα ώφ€λοΰντας ή ψνχ€ίς οίκονο- 
μικωτέρας τι ττοίοΰντας ή ττολιτικωτέρας; 

15. Έα: τούτου 6 'Ύστάσττας ωΒέ ττως είττβ• 
2ι5, €φη, ω ^AyXaiTaBa, ην έμόΐ ^τeiθr|y eU μ^ν 
τους ΤΓολεμίους θαρρών hairavriaeL^ τοΰτο το πολ- 
λού άξιον, και κλαίοντας €Κ€ίνους Trecpaaei καθί- 
ζ€ΐν* ημΐν δέ ττ^άντως, €φη, TOiaSe τοις φίλοις 
τούτου του 6λίyoυ άξιου, του yeλωτoς €7ΓΐΒαψΐ' 
λ€ύσ€ΐ. και yap ο2δ' οτι ττολύς σοι €στιν ά7Γ0Κ€ί•• 
μevoς' oiTe yap αύτος χρώμ€νος άνρσίμωκας αυτόν, 
ουδέ μην φίλοις ούΒ€ ξένοις €κων είναι yeλωτa 
τταρέχεις. ώστε ούΒ€μία σοι ττροφασίς έστιν ως 
ου rrrapeKTeov σοι ημΐν yeλωτa. 

Και 6 Άγλαίτάδα? eiire. Και oUi ye, ω 
^Ύστάσπα, yiλωτa TreptTroieiv εξ 4μοΰ; 

Και 6 ταξίαρχος ^ eiTre, ΝαΙ μά, ΔΓ, ανόητος: 
αρα εστίν* eirel εκ ye σου ττΰρ, οιμαι, ραον αν τις: 
€κτpίψeιev η γέλωτα iξayάyoιτo, 

16. Έττί τούτφ μ€ν 8η οι τε άλλοι eyeλaσavy 
τον τρόπον €lBότeς αύτοϋ, ο τ* ^ Ατ/λαιτάΒας: 
eπeμeιhiaσe. καΐ ό Κύρος 18ών αύτον φαιΒρω- 



* κΧάονταε Cobet, Edd. ; κλαίβίΐ/ MSS. 

2 τα|ία^χοί Philelphus, Edd. ; \oxay6s MSS. 



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CYROPAEDIA, Π. ii. 14-16 

too^ since he that makes his friends laugh seems to 
me to do them much less service than he who makes 
them weep ; and if you will look at it rightly, you, too, 
will find that I speak the truth. At any rate, fathers 
develop self-control in their sons by making them 
weep, and teachers impress good lessons upon their 
pupils in the same way, and the laws, too, turn the 
citizens to justice by making them weep. But 
could you say that those who make us laugh either 
do good to our bodies or make our minds any more 
fitted for the management of our private business or 
of the affairs of state ? " 

15. Hereupon Hystaspas answered somewhat as 
follows : ^^ If you will heed me, Aglal'tadas, you will 
freely expend this very valuable commodity upon 
your enemies and will try to set them to weeping ; 
but upon us and your friends here you will please to 
lavish this cheap article, laughter. And you can, for 
I know you must have a great quantity of it stored 
up ; for you have never spent it upon yourself nor do 
you ever afford any laughter for your friends or for 
your enemies if you can help it. So you have no 
excuse for begrudging us a laugh.'* 

<' What ! " ssCid Aglaitadas ; ^^ do you really think, 
Hystaspas, to get a laugh out of me ? '* 

" Well, by Zeus," said the other captain, ^^ he is a 
very foolish fellow, let me tell you, if he does ; for I 
believe one might rub fire out of you more easily 
than provoke a laugh from you." 

16. At this, of course, the rest laughed ; for they 
knew his character, and Aglaitadas himself smiled at 
the sally. And Cyrus seeing him brighten up said : 



16s 



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XENOPHON 

θέντα, ^AStfceh, βφη, & ταξία/^χβ,^ οτί avhpa ήμϊρ 
τον στΓονΒαιότατον Βιαφθβίρα^ yeXdv άναιτβίθων, 
καϊ ταύτα, ίφη, οντω ττοΧέμιον οντά τω γβλωτί. 

17. Ύαΰγ^ μ€ν 8η ενταύθα βΧηξεν. €κ Se 
^τούτον ^ρϋστίντας ώδβ βλβξεν* 18. Άλλ' iyώ, 
βφη, ω Kvpe καϊ ιτάντβς οΐ ιταρόντες, €ννοω otl 
συνεξεΧηΚύθασί μβν ήμΐν οί μ^ν καϊ βέΚτίον€^, οί 
Be καϊ μβίονος αξωΐ' ήν Be τι ^ενηται αηαθον, 
άξιώσονσίν ούτοι, ττάντε^ ΙσομοιρεΙν, /καίτοι 
€7ω7€ ovBev άνισώτβρον νομίζω iv άνσρώττοις 
elvai ή τον ϊσον τον τβ κακόν καϊ τον ayaOov 
άξίοΰαθαι, J 

Κα6 ό Κύρος eiire προς τούτο, *Α/3' ουν, ττρος 
των Oe&v, ω ανΒρβς, κράτιστον ήμΐν €μβα\€Ϊν 
7Γ€ρΙ τούτον βονΧην 669 το στράτενμα, πότερα 
Βοκ€Ϊ, ήν τι €κ των ΤΓονων Βφ 6 θεός αγαθόν, 
Ισομοίρονς ττάντας ττοιβΐν, ή σκοπονντας τά epya 
έκαστου ττρος ταντα καΐ τας τιμάς έκάστφ προσ- 
τιθέναι; 

19. Καϊ τι Bel, βφη 6 ^ρυσ όντας, ίμβαΧεϊν 
λόγοι/ ττερΧ τούτου, αλλ' ονγΐ Trpoeiireiv δτι οΰτω 
ποιήσεις; ου και τους ά^ωνας ούτω προβΐπας καΐ 
τα αθ\α; 

Άλλα act ΔΓ, €φη 6 Κνρος, ούχ όμοια ταντα 
€Κ€ίνοις' α μλν yhp αν στρατευόμενοι κτήσωνται, 
κοινά οΐμαι εαυτών ή^γήσονται εΙναί' την Βε άργ^ην 
της στρατιάς ίμήν ϊσως ετι οίκοθεν νομίζουσιν 
είναι, ώστε Βιατάττοντα εμε τους επιστάτας ovBkv 
οΐμαι άΒικεΐν νομίζονσιν, 

^ το|ίαρχ6 Philelphus, Edd. ; λοχαγέ MSS. 
1 66 



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CYROPAEDIA, II. ii. 16-19 

" It is not right, captain, for you to corrupt our most 
serious man by persuading him to laugh, and that, 
too," said he, " when he is such a foe to laughter.** 

17. With that, the subject was dropt. But at this 
point Chrysantas spoke as follows: 18. ^* Cyrus,** 
said he, *^ and all you here present, I observe, for my 
part, that some have come out with us who are of 
superior merit, others who are less deserving than 
we. Now, if we meet with success, these will all 
expect to have share and share alike. And yet I The proper 
do not believe that anything in the world is more duwbuting 
unfair than for the bad and good to be awarded priie money 
equal shares.** 

*' Well", then, in the name of the gods, my men,** 
Cyrus replied to this, *' will it not be a very good 
thing for uiS to suggest to the army a debate on this 
question : shall we, in case God gives us any success 
to reward our toils, give to all an equal share or shall 
we take into consideration each man's services and 
bestow increased rewards upon him commensurate 
with them ? ** 

19. "And what is the use,** said Chrysantas, "of 
starting a discussion concerning this matter ? Why not 
rather announce that you propose to do thus and so ? 
Pray, did you not announce the games and offer the 
prizes that way ? ** 

^* Yes, by Zeus,** said Cyrus ; " but this is not a 
parallel case. For what the men obtain by fighting, 
that, I suppose, they will consider their own common 
property ; but the command of the army they still 
consider fairly to be mine, so that when I appoint 
the judges, I am sure they think I am within my 
rights,'* 



^67 



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XENOPHON 

20. *H καΐ οΪ€ΐ, ίφη 6 ^ρνσάντα^, ψηφίσασθαν 
&ν το Ίτλήθος σννέλθον ώστε μη Ισων €καστον 
τν^γχάνειν, άλλα rovs κρατίστον^; καϊ τίμαΐ^ καϊ 
Βώροις TrXeoveKTciv; 

"^Ejmj, €φη 6 Κβρο9, οΐμαι, αμα μίν ημών 
σνναΎορ€ν6ντων, αμα Be καϊ αίσχρον ον αντί- 
Xiyeiv το μη ουχί τον ττλβΖστα καϊ ττονονντα 
καΐ ώφέΚονντα το κοίνον τούτον καϊ μ&^ίστων 
αξωυσθαι, οίμαι Β\ ίφη, καΧ το?9 κακίστοίς 
συμφέρον φαν€Ϊσθαι, του? άτ/αθονς irXeove/cTeiv, 

21. Ό δέ Κύρος έβονΧετο καϊ αύτων eveKa των 
ομότιμων ^^ενίσθαι, τούτο το ψήφισμα• βέλτίονς 
%αρ &ν καϊ αυτούς tfyecTO τούτους elvac, el elSeiev 
OTl• €κ των Ι/ογωι/ καΐ αύτοΙ κρινόμενοι των 
αξίων τεύξονται, καιρός ουν εΒόκει αύτφ είναι 
νυν εμβαΧεΐν ττερί τούτου ψήφον, εν φ και οί 
ομότιμοι ωκνουν την του οχΚου Ισομοιρίαν, όΰτω 
Βη συνεΒοκει τοΙς εν Ty σκην^ συμβαΧέσθαι ττερΙ 
τούτου Χορούς καϊ συνα^^^ρεύειν ταύτα εφασαν 
γρηναι δστισπερ άνηρ οϊοιτο είναι, 

22. ΈτΓ^γβλασας Be των ταξιάρχων τις elirev, 
Άλλ' βγώ, εφη^ ανΒρα οΙΒα καϊ του Βήμου ος 
συνερεΐ ώστε μη είκτ} ούτως Ισομοιρίαν είναι, 

*' Αλλος δ' άντηρετο τούτον τίνα Xiyoi, 6 δ' 
άττεκρίνατο, "Εστ^ νη ΔΓ άνηρ ημΐν σύσκηνος, δς 
εν Ίταντι μαστεύει ττΧέον εχειν. 

*Άλλθ9 δ' εττηρετο αυτόν, *Η καΧ των ττονων; 

Μά ΔΓ, εφη^ ου μεν Βη• άΧΧά τοΰτό yε ψευΒό- 
ΐ68 



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CYROPAEDIA, II. ii. 20-22 

20. " And do you really believe/* said Chrysantas, 
^^that the mass meeting would adopt a resolution 
that each one should not have an equal share^ but 
that the best should have the preference both in 
honours and gifts ? " 

^'Yes/' said Cyrus, ^'I do, partly because we re- Rewards j 
commend it, and partly because it is mean to oppose JJ mwit*^ 
a proposition that the one who suffers the most and r-* 

does the most for the state should also receive the 
highest rewards. And I think/* said he, "that even 
to the worst it mil seem proper that the good should 
have the larger share." 

21. Now Cyrus wished for the sake of the peers 
themselves that this measure should pass ; for he 
thought that even they themselves would be better, 
if they knew that they also should be judged by 
their works and should receive according to their 
deserts. And so it seemed to him to be the proper 
time to bring this matter to a vote now, while the 
peers also were questioning the commoners* claims 
to equality. Accordingly, those in the tent agreed 
to submit the question to a discussion and they said 
that whoever thought himself to be a man ought to 
advocate it. 

22. But one of the captains said with a laugh : 
^' Well, I know a man of the commoners, too, who 
will support the proposition not to have share and 
share alike in that indiscriminate fashion.'* 

Another asked him whom he meant ; and he 
answered : " By Zeus, he is a messmate of ours, who 
in everything does his best to get the largest share.** 

'^ What ! the largest share of hard work, too } ** 
asked another. 

" No, by Zeus,** said he ; " not by any means ; but 

169 



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XENOPHON 

μ€νο<ζ €αΧωκα, καϊ yap ττονων καΧ των αΧΚων 
των τοιούτων ορω ητάνυ θαρράλέως βονλόμενον 
μ€Ϊον ίχ€ΐν Trap οντίναονν. 

23. 'Αλλ' iyo) μέν, ίφη 6 Κύρος, ω άνΒρβς, 
^ί^νώσκω τους τοιούτους ανθρώπους οίον καϊ 
ούτος νυν Xeyei, etirep Sei ivepybv καΐ ττβιθό- 
μβνον €χ€ΐν το στράτβυμα, βξαιρβτβους ^ elvai 
€κ της στρατιάς. Soxei yap μοι το μ€ν ττολν 
των στρατιωτών eivai οίον βπεσθαι fj αν τις 
rjyrYTar. ayeiv δ* οΐμαι βττιχβιροΰσιν οί μβν 
καΧοΙ KayaOol iirl τλ καΧίί KayaSa, οι δέ ττονηροϊ 
€7γΙ τα πονηρά, 24. καΐ ττοΧΧάκις τοίνυν ττΚβίονας 
6μoyvώμovaς \αμβάνουσιν οί φαύλοι ή οί σίτου- 
haloi, η yhp πονηρία Βια των παραυτίκα ήΒονων 
' πορ€υομ€νη ταύτας βγει συμπ€ΐθούσας ποΧΚούς 
αύττ) όμoyvωμov€Ϊv^ η Β* άρβτη προς ορθιον 
ay ούσα ου πάνυ Βεινη εστίν iv τφ παραυτίκα 
eiKfj συνεπισπάσθαι, αΧλως τε καϊ ην αΧλοι 
ωσιν €πΙ το πρανβς καϊ το μαΧακον αντιπαρακα- 
λοβι/τ69. 25. καΧ τοίνυν όταν μέν τινβς βΧακεία 
καΧ άπονία μόνον κακοΧ ωσι, τούτους eyta νομίζω 
ωσπερ κηφήνας Βαπάντ^ μόνον ζημιοΰν τους 
κοινωνάς•^ οί δ* &ν των pkv πόνων κακοΧ ωσι 
κοινωνοί, προς δέ το πΧβονβκτβΐν σφοΒροΧ καΧ 
αναίσχυντοι, ούτοι καΧ ήy€μovικoί βίσι προς τά 
πονηρά' ποΧΧάκις yap Βύνανται την πονηρίαν 
πΧεονβκτοΰσαν άποΒεικνύναι* ωστβ παντάπασιν 
βξαιρβτέοι ήμΐν οί τοιοΰτοί βίσι, 

^ i^atp€r4ous Stephanus, Kdd. ; 4ξαιρ4του5 MSS. {cfioice), 
^ rohs Koiy&yas rantazides, Hertlein, most Edd. ; tqIs 
Koivuvohs xy ; t^s κο^νω^Ιαχ ζ, Diixdorf, Sauppe. 

l^Q 



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CYROPAEDIA, II. ii. 22-25 

here I have been caught in a falsehood. For my 
observation is that he very good-naturedly consents 
to have a smaller share of hard work and other 
things of that sort than anybody else. 

23. Well, men," said Cyrus, ^^ I am convinced that The vicious j 
such fellows as this one of whom our friend has just have no I 
been telling us must be weeded out of the ranks, if aJj^*'**" f 
we are to keep our army industrious and obedient. 
For it seems to me that the majority of the soldiers 
are the sort to follow wherever any one leads ; and 
the good and noble, I think, try to lead only to 
what is good and noble, and the vicious to what is 
vicious. 24. And therefore the base oftentimes find 
a larger following of congenial spirits than the noble. 
For since vice makes her appeal through the pleas- 
ures of the moment, she has their assistance to 
persuade many to accept her views ; but virtue, lad- 
ing up hill, is not at all clever at attracting men 
at first sight and without reflection ; and especially 
is this true, when there are others who call in the 
opposite direction, to what is downhill and easy. 
25. And so, when people are bad only because of lazi- 
ness and indolence, I believe that they, like drones, 
damage their associates only by the cost of their 
keeping. But those who are poor companions in toil, 
and also extravagant and shameless in their desire 
for any advantage, these are likely also to lead others 
to what is vicious ; for they are often able to demon- 
strate that vice does gain some advantage. And so 
we must weed out such men at any cost. 



171 



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XENOPHON 

26. ΚαΙ μη μέντοι ^ σκοττεΐτβ 07Γω<; έκ των 
^"' ΤΓοΧιτων άντΐ7Γ\ηρώσ€Τ€ τ€ί<ζ τάξ€ΐς, αλλ' ωσττβρ 

ίΤΓΤΓΟί οΐ &ν άριστοι &σιν, ονχ οΐ &ν ττατριώται, 
Τούτους ζΊ;τ6ΑΤ€, οΰτω καϊ ανθρώττου^ έκ ττάντων} 
οΐ &ν νμΐν Βοκωσι μάΧιστα συνισγνριβΐν τ€ υμα^ 
καΐ σν^γκοσμησειν, τούτου? \αμβάν€Τ€, μαρτυρεί 
Se μοι καϊ ToSe ττρος το ayaOop' οντ€ y&p 
άρμα Srprov ταχύ yevocT αν βραχέων ϊτητων 
ενόντων οντ€ Si/caiov άΖίκων avve^evj μένων, ovSk 
ol/co<; SvvacT αν ei οίκεΐσθαι ττονηροΐ^ οίκβταις 
χρώμβνος, άλλα καΐ βνΒεομβνος οίκετων fJTTOV 
σφάλΧ€ται ή υττο άΖίκων ταραττόμβνος, 

27. Εδ δ' ϊστ€, ω ανΒρβς, βφη, φίΧοι, οτι ovSk 
τοΰτο μόνον ωφβΚησ^ουσίν οι κακοί άφαφ€θ€ντ€<ί 
δτί κακοί άπέσονται, αλλά καϊ των καταμενοντων 
οΐ μεν άνβττίμττλαντο ή8η κακίας, άττοκαθαροννται 
ττάΚιν ταύτης, οί ίέ ayaOol τού<ζ κακούς ihovTe^ 
άτιμασθ€ντα<ζ ττοΧν βύθυμ^τερον τή^ αρετής άνθι- 
ξονται, 

28. Ό μεν όντως είττε* τοΐς δέ φίΧοις ττασι 
σννίΒοξε ταύτα, καΐ όντως εττοίονν. 

'ΕΙλ: δέ τούτου ττάλιν αντοΐς σκώμματος ήρχετο 
6 Κνρος. κατανοησας ηάρ τίνα των Χοχαηων 
σννΒειττνον καϊ τταρακ'Χίτην ττειτοιημένον avSpa 
νιτερΒασύν τ€ καϊ νττεραισχρον, άνακαΧεσας τον 
Xoxayov ονομαστί είττεν ώδβ• *ί1 ΧαμβανΧα, εφη, 
αλλ' ή καϊ συ κατίΐ τον 'Έ,ΧΧηνικον τρόττον, οτν 

^ καί μ^ι μίντοι Hug, GemoU, Marchant; μ•η^\ μ^ντοι ζ, 
Dindorf, Sauppe, Breitenbach ; καί μ•η^\ μ^ντοι yC ; καί μίντοι 
μ•η^\ Ε. 

2 After Ίτάνταν Hug omits ίνθρώΐΓών ; GemoU brackets 
ivepdnrovs. 

172 



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CYROPAEDIA, II. ii. 26-28 

26. '^ Do not, however, endeavour to fill up their How to fiu 
places in the ranks with your own countrymen only r places in 
but, just as in selecting a team you seek out not horses ^^^ "*"^ 
that are home-bred but those which are best, so also 

in the case of men, take them from all sources — who- 
ever you think will be most likely to contribute to 
your strength and to your honour. And I have the 
following illustrations to prove the worth of my sug- 
gestion : a chariot would never go fast, I am sure, if 
slow horses were attached to it, nor would it be 
serviceable if horses unfit for service were harnessed 
to it ; nor yet could a house be well managed if it 
employed vicious servants, but it would suffer less 
from having no servants at all than from being kept 
in confusion by incapable servants. 

27. *^ Let me assure you of this, too, my friends," 
he added, '^ that the weeding out of the vicious will 
bring not only this advantage, that the vicious will be 
out of the way, but also among those who remain the 
ones that have already been infected with vice will 
be purged of it, while the virtuous seeing the vicious 
disgraced will cleave more eagerly to virtue." 

28. With that he concluded ; and all his friends 
agreed that what he said was true, and they began 
to act upon that principle. 

After that Cyrus began again to jest with them ; The ugly 
for he had observed that one of the lieutenants had ^^^^""^^ 
brought along as a guest and companion at table an 
exceedingly hairy and exceedingly ill-favoured man ; 
and addressing the lieutenant by name he spoke as 
follows : " Well, Sambaulas," said he, " so you also 
have adopted the Greek fashion, have you, and take 



173 



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XENOPHON 

καΧόν €στί, Trepiayet ^ τοντο το μβιράκιον το 
^ ,^^^Ι τταρακατακβίμβνον σοι; 

. ,, t \ ' Ν^ τον ΔΓ, ίφη 6 %αμβαυΚα^, ηΒομαι yovp και 
( , , ^γώ συνών τ€ και θβώμβνος τούτον, 
** * ' Ι^ 29. *Ακονσαντ€ς ταντα οι σύσκηνοι ττροσ- 
'/ '' ββλβψαν* ών δε elSov το ττρόσωττον του avSpo^ ψ 

ρ^ νίΓβρβάΧλον αϊσχ€ΐ, iyikaaav ττάντβ^*. και τις 
\ yt^ eiire, Π/309 των θέων, ω ^αμβανΚα, ττοίω ττοτβ 
ι σ€ epytp 6 άνηρ ούτος άνήρτηται; ^ 

30. Και δ? eiirev, 'ΕΙγώ νμΐν νη τον Δια, ώ 
avSpe^, ip&, οττοσάκις yap αυτόν ίκαΚεσα €Ϊτ€ , 
νυκτός €Ϊτ€ ημέρας, οιπτώττοτί μοι οΰτ άσχοΧίαν 
ττρουφασίσατο ούτε βάΒην υτη)κουσεν, αλλ' aeX Γ^ 
τρέχων οτΓοσάκις τε αύτφ ττράξαί τι ττροσε- 
ταξα, ούΒεν άνιΒρωτί ττοτε αύ'τον εΐίον ττοιουντα, 
ΊτετΓοίηκε 8ε καΧ τους ΒεκαΒέας ττάντας τοιούτους, 

ου X6yφ αλλ' εpyψ άττοΒεικνύς οίους Βεΐ είναι. 

31. Καί τις εΐττε, Καττειτα τοιούτον οντά ου 
φιλεϊς αύτον ωσττερ τους συyyεvεις; 

ΚαΙ ό αισχρός εκείνος ττρος τούτο εφψ Μα 
Δία• ου yap φιΚόττονός εστίν εττει ήρκει άν αύτφ, 
ει εμε ήθεΧε φιΚεΐν, τούτο αντί ττάντων των^ 
yυμvaσίωv, 

* Tcpiayei Juntine ed., Cobet, most Edd. ; ν^ριά-γη (above 
the line -€i) F ; T^piayeis xzD, Dindorf. 

* atrfiprrirai Muretus, Edd. ; ayiirpo-E^fnrrai MSS. 

^ των xyGH, Gemoll, Marchant ; not in A, Dindorf, et al. 
{oUl kinds of exercises), 

174 



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BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Gail : Xenophon, CEuvres Completes, traduites en FraD9oie 

et accompagn^es du texte Grec, de la version Liatine, de 

notes critiques, des variantes des manuscrite de la Biblio* 

thdque Royale, etc., par J. B. Gail. VII. Tomi. Paris : 

1797-1815. 
GemoU : Xenophontis Institntio Cyri, recensuit Gulielmus 

GremoU. fklitio Maior. Leipzig : 1912. 
Hertlein: Xenophons CyropSdie. Erkl&rt von Friedrich 

Karl Hertlein. Berlin: 1853; (V.-VU.) 3te Aufl. 

1876 ; (I.-IV. Nitsche) 1886. 
Holden: The Cyropaedeia of Xenophon with Introduction 

and Notes. By the Rev. HuTOrt A. Holden. 4 voll. 

Cambridge: 1887-1890. 
Hug : Xeno^ontis Institntio Cyri, recensuit Amoldus Hug. 

Lipsiae : 1905. (The basis of the present text. ) 
Hutchinson: Xenophontis de Cyri Institutione Libri VIII. 

Graeca recognovit, cum cod. Oxon. et omnibus fere 

libriseditiscontulit, pluribus in locis emendavit, versione 

Latina reformavit, et^ Th. Hutchinson. £d. VI. 

Oxonii (Londini) : (1727) 1765. 
MarcJiant: Xenophontis Opiera Omnia recognovit brevique 

adnotatione critica instruxit E. C. Marchant. Oxonii : 

1910. 
Poppo: Xenophon. Cyrus. Denuo recensuit adhibita cod. 

Medico-Laurent, collatione Emestus Poppo. Lipsiae : 

1819 ; 1823. 
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torum fide et virorum doctorum coniecturis recensuit et 

interpretatus est Joannes Gottlob Schneider. 6 voll. 

Lipsiae: 1790-1849. 
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veterum exemplarium opera purgata . . . cum Latina 

interwetatione F. Filelfi . . . Genevae: 1561; 1581. 
Weiake: Aenophontis Scripta, in usum lectorum, Graecis 

litteris tinctorum ad rerum et verborum intelligentiam 

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Zeune^ Xenophontis Opera, ed. I. C. Zeune. 6 voll• 

Lipsiae: 1778-1782.. 



XVI 



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BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The most important manuscripts of Xenophon are ascribed 
to three families, x, y, and z. The following are cited in the 
notes : — 



R 
zM 



Parisinus C 

Etonensis 

Bodleianus 

Erlangensis 

Bremensis 

Parisinus A 

Guelferbytanus 

Escorialensis 

Vaticanus 



Paris 

Eton 

Oxford 

Erlangen 

Bremen 

Paris 

Wolfenbiittel 

Escorial 

Rome 



1Γ2 Fragmenta Oxyrrhynci 
m Amorosianus (ΙΛ 

III. VMilan 



Fourteenth century 
Fifteenth century 
Fifteenth century 
Fifteenth century 
Fifteenth century 
Fifteenth century 
Fifteenth century 
Twelfth century 
.Twelfth century 
Third century 

Tenth century 



V. 7-14; 

iii. 44-45) j 

The earliest printed edition of Xenophon is the Latin 
version of Francis Philelfus, l^TM- 

The Princeps of the Greek t^t was published by Giunta 
at Florence in 1516 (second edition, 1527), printed from a 
good manuscript now lost. The title-page runs : τάδβ 
ίν^στιν iv τρδ€ tJ βίβλφ Β€νοφώντο$ Κύρου IlaiScias βιβλία i/j 
κ. τ. λ. Haec in hoc libro continentur : Xenophontis Cyripedias 
Libri VIII. ; Anabaseos Libri VII. ; Apomnemoneumaton ; 
de Venatione ; de Re Equestri ; de Equis Alendis ; Lacedae- 
moniorum Respublica ; Atheniensium Respublica ; Oecono- 
mica ; Hieron ; Symposium ; de Graecorum Gestis Libri VIL 
In aedibus P. Juntae : Florentiae, 1516. 

Bomemann : Xenophontis Opera Omnia recensita et com- 

mentariis instructa. 4 voll. Lipsiae : 1838-1863. 
Breitenbach : Xenophons Kyropaedie fiir den Schulgebrauch 

erklart von Ludwig Breitenbach. Leipzig : 1858. 3te 

Aufl. (I.-IV.) 1875, (V.-VIII.) 1878 ; 4te Aufl. (I.-IV. 

Buchsenschutz), 1890. 
DwMUor/*: Xenophontis Institutio Cyri, ex Recensione et cum 

Annotationibus Ludovici Dindorfii. Oxonii : 1857. 

(Referred to in the notes as Dindorf or Dindorf'.) 
Diiidorf'. Xenophontis Institutio Cyri, recensuit et praefatus 

est Ludovicus Dindorfius. Editio IV. emendatior. 

Lipsiae : 1875. (Referred to in the notes as Dindorf'*.) 



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CYROPAEDIA, II. ii. 28-31 

about with you ever3nvhere this youngster who is 
now beside you, because he is so handsome ? *' 

^^ Yes, by Zeus/* said Sambaulas ; *' at all events I 
enjoy both his company and his looks." 

29. When his messmates heard this, they looked 
at the man ; and when they saw that his counte- 
nance was exceedingly ugly, they all laughed. And 
one of them said : ^^ In the name of the gods, 
Sambaulas, what has this fellow done to make such 
a hit with you } " 

30. '^ By Zeus, fellows," he answered, " I will tell 
you. Every time that I have called him, whether by 
day or by night, he has never made any excuse saying 
that ' he had not time,' nor has he answered my call 
slowly, but always on a run. And as often as I have 
bidden him do anything, I have never seen him per- 
form it without sweat; and besides, by showing 
them not by precept but by example what sort of 
men they ought to be, he has made his whole squad 
of ten just like himself." 

31. "And yet," said one of the men, ^^ although 
he is such an excellent fellow, you don't kiss him as 
you do your relatives } " 

And the homely man answered this and said : " No, 
by Zeus, for he is not fond of hard work ; for if he 
wished to kiss me, that would be an ample substitute 
for all his drill-work." 



175 



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XENOPHON 



III 



1. Ύοίαντα μβν 8η καΐ yeXoia καΐ σ'ττονΒαΐα 
καΐ ikeycTO καΐ βττράττβτο ev rfj σκηντ), τβλο? 
δε τάς τρίτα^ζ σττονΒά^ ττοίησαντβς καΐ βνξάμενοΰ 
το?9 θεοΐ^ Tayadh την σκηνην βίς κοίτην SUXvov. 
Tfj δ' ύστεραία 6 ΚΟ/οο? σννέΧβξβ ττάντα^ τους 
στρατίώτα<ζ καΐ eXefe roidSe' 

2. *Άι/δ/0€9 φίΧοί, 6 μ^ν ay ων iyyvς ημΐν 
ττροσέρχονταί yap οι ττοΚέμωί, τα δ' αθΧα της 
νίκης, ην μεν ημ€Ϊς νικωμβν (τοντο yap, €φη. 
Set και Xeyeiv καΐ iroieiv), SrjXov on οι re 
ΤΓοΧίμιοι ημέτεροι καϊ τα των ποΧεμίων ayaOh 
ττάντα' ην δέ ημβΐς al• νικώ μέθα, καϊ οντω τίι 
των νικωμένων ττάντα τοις νικωσιν aei αβΧα 
7Γρόκ€ΐται, 3. οντω Βη, βφη, Βεΐ ν μας yiyva- 
σκ€ΐν ως όταν μεν ανθρωττοι κοινωνοί ττοΧβμου 
y€v6p£voi ev εαυτοΐς έκαστοι εχωσιν ώς, el μη 
αυτός τις ττροθυμησεται, ovBev εσομενον των 
Βεοντων, ταχύ ττοΧΧά και καΧα διαπράττονται* 
ovSev yap αντοΐς apyeiTai των ττράττεσθαι δβο- 
μενων όταν δ' έκαστος Βιανοηθγι ώς αΧΧος εσται 
6 Ίτράττων καΧ 6 μαγρμενος, καν αντος μαΧακί- 
ζηται, τούτοις, ίφη, ευ ϊστε οτι ττασιν άμα 
^άντα TjKei τα χαλβττά φερόμενα, 4. καΐ ό θεός 
ούτω ττως εττοίησε* τοις μη θέΧουσιν εαυτοΐς 
7Γροστάττ€ΐν CKiroveiv TayaOa άΧΤ^νς αύτοΐς 
επιτακτήρας ΒίΒωσι. νυν οΰν τις, εφη, λεγβτω 



176 



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CYROPAEDIA, Π. iii. 1-4 



III 

1. Things of this sort, both grave and gay, were 
said and done at the dinner party. And finally when 
they had made the third libation ^ and prayed to the 
gods for their blessings, the party broke up, and 

they all went to bed. Then on the morrow, Cyrus The mass 
called all his soldiers together and spoke as follows : "meeting 

2. " Friends, the conflict is at hand ; for the 
enemy are approaching. As for the prizes of victory, 
if we are victorious — ^and we must assume that we 
shall be and work to that end — it is evident that the 
enemy and all that is theirs will belong to us. But, 
on the other hand, if we are defeated — in this case, 
too, all the possessions of the vanquished are invari- 
ably the prizes set for the victors. 3. Accordingly," 
sai^ he, ^^ you must realize that when men who are 
united as comrades in war are fully persuaded that 
nothing will come out as it should unless each individ- 
ual man exerts himself, then many splendid achieve- 
ments are speedily accomplished ; for nothing that 
needs to be done is neglected. But when each one 
assumes that there will be some one else to do and 
to fight, even if he proves a weakling, let me 
assure you," said he, ^^that to such men, all alike, 
all that is grievous comes in a flood. 4. And God 
has ordained it in some such way as this : in the 
case of those who will not compel themselves to 
work out their own good, he assigns others to be 

^ Xenophon here introduces a Greek custom ; the Persians 
poured no libations. But at the conclusion of a dinner, the 
Greeks poured three libations : the first, to the gods ; the 
second, to the heroes ; the third to Zeus, or to Hermes. 

177 

VOL. I. Ν 



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XENOPHON 

evOahe άναστας irepl αύτου τούτου ττοτέρως αν 
την άρ€την μάΧλον οΪ€ται άσκ€Ϊσθαι τταρ* ήμΐν, 
el μέΧΧοι 6 ττΧύστα καΧ iroveiv καΐ Kivhvvevecv 
έθέλων ττλάστης καΐ τιμη<ξ τ€νξ€σθαι, ή αν 
€ΐ8ώμ€ν δτι ovSev ίιαή>έρ€ΐ κακόν elvar ομοίως 
. yap 7ravT€^ των ϊσων τβνξόμεθα. 

5. ^ΈίΡτανθα Βτ) άναστας Χρνσάντα^, eh των 
ομότιμων, άνηρ οΰτε p^ya^ οΰτ€ ισχυρός ίΒβΐν, 
φρονησβι Be Βι,αφέρων, βλβξβν, 'Αλλ' οίμα^ μέν, 
εφη, ω ϊίΰρ€, ovBe Βι,ανοούμ€ν6ν σβ ώ9 Bei ϊσον 
βχβιν τους κακούς τοις ά^αθοίς €μβα\€Ϊν τούτον 
τον \6yov, αλλ' άτΓοτΓβιρώμβνον €Ϊ τις αρα βσται 
άνηρ όστις βθβΧησ^ι ίττιΒεΙξαι ίαυτον ώς Βιανοεΐται 
μηΒβν καΧον KayaOov ττοιών, αν άΧΧοί ττ} apeTrj 
καταττράξωσι, τούτων Ισομοιρβίν. 6. βγω Β , €ή>η, 
οντ€ τΓοσίν €ΐμι ταχύς οντ€ χ€ρσΙν Ισχυρός, 
yίyvώσκω τ€ δτι ίξ ων αν iyo) τφ €μφ σώματι 
ΐΓοιησω, ου κριθβίην οΰτ€ αν ττρωτος οΰτ€ αν 
Ββύτερος, οΐμαι δ' ούδ' αν χιλιοστός, ϊσως δ' ούδ' 
αν μυριοστός' αλλά καΐ €Κ€Ϊνο, βφη, σαφώς επί- 
σταμαι οτι el μβν οί ΒυνατοΙ ίρρωμενως άντιΚη- 
yfrovTai των lΓpayμάτωv, ayaOou τινός μοι μετέσται 
τοσούτον μέρος όσον αν Βίκαιον y' el δ' οί μεν 
κακοί μηΒεν ττοιήσουσιν, οΐ δ' ayadoX καΐ ΒυνατοΙ 
άθύμως εξουσι, ΒεΒοικα, εφη, μη αΧλ,ου τίνος 
μαΧΚον η του ayaOou μεθέξω ττΧεΐον μέρος η €γώ 
βούΧομαι, 

7. Χρυσάντας μεν Βη ούτως είττεν, ανέστη 
δ' €7γ' αύτφ Φεραύλας, ΤΙέρσης των Βημοτων, 
178 



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CYROPAEDIA, II. iii. 4-7 

their commanders. Now, therefore, let any one Cynis 
stand up, and speak to this question before us, rewwd^on 
whether he thinks that valour would be more of mSit^ 
cultivated among us, if the one who will do and dare 
most is also to receive the greatest rewards, or if we 
know that it makes no difference whether a man be 
a coward or not, as we shall all share and share 
alike." 

5. Hereupon Chrysantas, one of the peers, a man Chrysantas 
neither large nor powerful to look upon, but pre- pro^eai*^^ 
eminent in understanding, stood up and spoke : 
'^ Well, C)n'us,*' said he, ^^ I think that you are intro- 
ducing this discussion not because you think that 
the bad ought to have an equal share with the good, 
but because you wish to prove whether a single man 
will really be found who will care to let it be known 
that he thinks that, even if he himself does nothing 
good and noble, he should have an equal share of 
that which others win by their valour. 6. Now I," 
he went on, " am neither fleet of foot nor strong of 
arm, and I know that in view of what I shall 
accomplish by my bodily strength I should not be 
judged either the first or the second, or even, I 
suppose, the thousandth, and perhaps not even the 
ten thousandth. But on this point I am perfectly 
dear, that if those who are powerful men take 
matters vigorously in hand, I shall have as large a 
share of any good fortune that may come as I deserve. 
But if the bad do nothing and the good and strong 
lose heart, I am afraid," said he, "that I shall have 
a larger share than I wish of something other than 
good." 

7. Thus spoke Chrysantas. And after him ^^«f^^^^« 
Pheraulas stood up, one of the Persian common- support 

179 

Ν 2 



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XENOt^HOK 

Κύρφ ττως €tc οίκοθεν συνήθης /cal άρβστος 
άνήρ, καΙ το σώμα ^ καϊ την ψν'χ7)ν ουκ ayevvei 
avhpl €θίκώς, καΐ eXefe τοιάΒβ' 8. 'Εγώ, βφη, 
ω Kvpe καΐ ττάντβς οι τταρόντες ΤΙέρσαι, r/yov- 
μαι μ€ν ημάς ττάντας ίκ του ίσου νυν ορμα- 
σθαι €ίς το ά^γωνίζεσθαι ττερί αρετής' ορω yap 
ομοία μεν τροφτ) ττάντας ημάς το σώμα άσ χούν- 
τας, όμοιας δέ συνουσίας ττάντας άξωυμενους, 
ταύτα δέ ττάσιν ημίν ττρόκειται. το τε yap τοις 
άρχουσι ττείθεσθαι ττάσιν εν κοινψ κείται, καν ος 
αν φαντ) τούτο άττροφασίστως ττοιών, τούτον ορώ 
τταρά Κύρου τιμής τυyχάvovτa' τό τε^ ττρος τους 
τΓοΧεμίους αλκιμον είναι ου τφ μεν προσήκον τφ 
δ' ου, άΧΚα ττάσι και τούτο ττροκεκριται κάΚ- 
Χιστον είναι, 

9. Τ^ύν δ', εφη, ήμΐν και Βείκνυται^ f^XV> 
ην iyo) ορω ττάντας άνθρώττους φύσει εττιστα- 
μένους, ωσττερ yε καϊ ταλλα ζφα εττισταταί τίνα 
μάχην έκαστα ούΒε trap ενός άΧλου μαθόντα η 
τταρα τής φύσεως, οίον 6 βούς κερατι τταίειν, 6 
ΐτητος oirXy, 6 κύων στοματι, ο κάττρος οΒόντι. 
και φυΧάττεσθαί y , εφη, ατταντα ταύτα εττι- 
σταταί άή> ων μάλιστα δβΖ, καΐ ταύτα εις ού- 
Βενος ΒιΒασκάΧου ττώττοτε φοιτησαντα, 10. και 
βγώ, εφη, εκ τταιΒίου ευθύς προβαλΧεσθαι ήτη- 
στάμην ττρο τούτων 6 τι ω μην TΓ\ηyήσεσθaι^ ει δέ 
μη aWo μηΒεν εχοιμι, τώ χεΐρε ττροεχων ενεττό- 

^ rh σώμα χζ, Marchant; rh σώμα ουκ ίφυ^ι^ y, most Eldd. 
{not phyaicaUy unfit), 

2 r6 T€ C, Breitenbach, Marchant ; r6 r* al yG, Dindorf, 
GenioU. 

* htUvvrai X, Marchant, GemoU ; ^iZuKrai yz, most Edd. 

l8o 



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CYROPAEDIA, II. iii. 7-10 

ers, but a man who for some reason or other had 
from the beginnmg won Cyrus's confidence and 
affection ; besides he was well-favoured in body and 
a gentleman at heart. His speech was as follows : 
8. " I think, Cyrus," said he, " and all you Persians 
here assembled, that we are all now starting on an 
equal footing in a contest of merit ; for I observe 
that we are all taking the same bodily exercise, that 
we all have the same rations, that we are all considered 
worthy to move in the same society, and that the prizes 
are offered alike to all. For obedience to the officers 
has been enjoined equally upon us all> and whoever 
shows himself prompt to comply, I observe that he 
receives honour from Cyrus. Again, to be brave 
in the face of the enemy is not a thing to be ex- 
pected of one and not of another, but it is considered 
far the noblest thing for all alike. 

9. " And now," he continued, *^ we have been ini- 
tiated into a method of fighting, which, I observe, all 
men naturally understand, just as in the case of other 
creatures each understands some method of fighting 
which it has not learned from any other source than 
from instinct : for instance, the bull knows how to 
fight with his horns, the horse with his hoofs, the 
dog with his teeth, the boar with his tusks. And all 
know how to protect themselves, too, against that 
from which they most need protection, and that, too, 
though they have never gone to school to any teacher. 
10. As for myself, I have understood from my very 
childhood how to protect the spot where I thought I 
was likely to receive a blow ; and if I had nothing 
else I put out my hands to hinder as well as I could 



181 



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XENOPHON 

8ίζον ο τι βΒννάμην τον τταίοντα' teal τούτο iiroiovv 
ον ΒιΒασκ6μ€νο<;, αλλά καΐ ίττ αύτω τοντφ τταιό- 
μ€νο<;, el ττροβαΧοίμην: μάγαιράν y€ μην €ύθν<: 
τταίΒίον ων ηρτταζον οττον ϊΒοιμι, ovBe irap ένος 
ουδέ τοντο μαθών δττω? Set Χαμβάνβιν tf irapcL 
τη<; φύσ€ω<;, ώς €γώ φημι. iiroiovv yovv /cal 
τοντο κωΧνόμβνος, ου ΒιΒασ)ί6μ€νος' ωσττβρ /cal 
αλΤ^Μ εστίν α €lpy6μ€V0<ζ και νττο μητρός καϊ χπτο 
πατρο<ζ ύτΓο τή<; φύσεως ττράττβίν ηνα^καζόμην. 
κα\ ναΧ μα Δία €παών ye ττ} μαχαίρα πάν ο τι 
Βυναίμην Χανθάνειν. ου ycLp μόνον φύσει fjv, 
ωσττερ το βαΒίζειν καϊ τρέχειν, αλλά καΐ ήΒύ 
7Γ/>09 τω ττεφυκεναι τοντο εΒόκει μοι elvai, 

11. ΈττεΙ δ' οΖν, εφη, αντη ή μάχη κατά- 
Χείττεται, εν ^ ττροθνμίας μάΧΚον fj τέχνης Ipyov 
εστί, ττώς ήμΐν ονχ ήΒέως ττρος τούσΒε τονς 
ομότιμους άyωvLστεov; οττον ye τα μεν αθλα της 
αρετής ϊσα πρόκειται, τταραβάλΧόμενοι Βε ονκ 
ίσα εΙς τον κίνΒννον ϊμεν, αλλ' οντοι μέν εντιμον, 
οσπερ μόνος ήΒιστος, βίον, ημείς Βε εττίττονον μεν, 
ατιμον Βε, δσττερ όΐμαι χαΧειτώτατος, 

12. Μάλίστα Βε, ω άνΒρες, τοντό με [ενθύ- 
μως]^ εΙς τον άτ/ωνα τον προς τονσΒε παρορμά 
ΟΤΙ Κΰρος 6 κρίνων εσται, &ς ου φθόνφ κρίνει, 
αλλά (συν θέων ορκω \έyω) fj μην εμοί Βοκεΐ 
Ιίνρος οΰστινας &ν ορα^ άτ^αθούς φιλεϊν ούΒ^ν 
ήττον έαυτοΰ' τούτοις yoOv 6 ρω αύτον ο τι αν εχτ) 

^ €νθύμω5 MSS. ; bracketed or omitted ])y most Edd. ; 
ίύθύ νω5 GemoU {straight on). 
^ hv δρ^ y, most Edd. ; opq. xz, GemoU. 

182 



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CYROPAEDIA, 11. iii. 10-12 

the one who was trying to hit me. And this I did 
not from having been taught to do so, but even though 
I was beaten for that very act of putting out my hands. 
Furthermore, even when I was a little fellow I used 
to seize a sword wherever I saw one, although, I 
declare, I had never learned, except from instinct, 
even how to take hold of a sword. At any rate, I 
* used to do this, even though they tried to keep me 
from it — and certainly they did not teach me so to 
do— just as I was impelled by nature to do certain 
other things which my father and mother tried to 
keep me away from. And, by Zeus, I used to hack 
with a sword everything that I could without being 
caught at it. For this was not only instinctive, like 
walking and running, but I thought it was fun ih 
addition to its being natural. 

11. ^*Be that as it may,'* he went on, ^^ since 
this method of fighting awaits us, which demands 
courage more than skill, why should we not gladly 
compete with the peers here ? For the prizes pro- 
posed for excellence are equal, but we shall go into 
the trial not having at stake interests equal with 
theirs ; for they have at stake a life of honour, which 
is the most happy of all, while we risk only a life of 
toil unhonoured, which I think is most burdensome. 

12. "And this, comrades, gives me the most 
courage for the competition with these gentlemen, 
that Cyrus is to be the judge; for he decides not 
with partiality, but (I swear it by the gods) I 
verily think that Cyrus loves no less than himself 
those whom he recognizes as valiant. At any rate, 
I observe that, whatever he has, he is much 
more pleased to give it to them than to keep it 



183 



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ΧβΝΟΡΗΟΝ 

TjSiov^ SiBSvra μαλΧον ή αντον βχοντα. 13. καί- 
τοι, εφη, οΙΒα οτι οντοι μέ^γα φρονοΰσιν οτι 
ireTraiSevvrai Βη καϊ ιτρος Χιμον καΐ Βίψαν και 
7Γ/0Ο9 plyo^ KapT€p€CV, κακώς €ΐΒ6τ€^ οτι καϊ ταύτα 
ημ€Ϊς ντΓο κρβίττονος ΒώασκάΧον ττβτταιΒβνμβθα 
ή ούτοι, ου yctp βστι ΒιΒάσκαΧο<: ονΒεΙς τούτων 
κρβίττων της ανάτ/κης, τ) ημάς καΧ Χίαν ταύτ* 
ακρφονν ίΒίΒαξβ. 14. και irovelv ούτοι μβν τα οττΧα 
φ€ρορτ€ς έμέλέτων, α έστιν ίττασιν άνθρώττοις 
ην ρη μένα ώς &ν βνφορώτατα €Ϊη, ημείς Be %, €φη, 
iv μ&^άΧοις φορτίοις και βαΒίζειν καϊ τρίγειν 
ηvayκaζ6μ€θa, ωστ€ νυν €μοϊ Βοκ€Ϊν το των οττΧων 
φορημα τττβροΐς μαΧΧον ioiKevai ή φορτίφ, 

15. 'ίΐ9 οΰν €/Μθν y€ και ά'^ωνιουμένου καϊ 
οποίος αν Tt9 ώ κατίί την άξίαν μ€ τιμάν 
άξιώσοντος, όντως, βφη, ω KC/^e, ^ί^νωσκ€, 
καϊ υμίν y\ εφη, ω ανΒρβς Βημόται, παραινώ 
εις epiv 6ρμασθαι ταύτης της μάχης προς τους 
πεπαιΒεν μένους τούσΒε* νυν yap ανΒρες^ ειΧημ- 
μένοι είσϊν εν Βημοτικτ} άyωvίa, 

16. Φβ/οαυλα? μ^ν Βη οΰτως είπεν. άνίσταντο 
Be καϊ αΧΚοι ποΧΚοϊ εκατερων συνα^ορεύοντες, 
εΒοξε κατά την άξίαν τιμασθαι Ικαστον, ISSipov 
Bk τον κρίνοντα είναι, ταΰτα μλν Βη οντω 
προυκεχωρηκει, 

17. ^ΕκάΧεσε δ' επϊ Βεΐπνον 6 Κνρος καϊ οΧην 
ποτ^ τάξιν συν τφ ταξιάρχφ, ιΒων αύτον τους 
μέν ημίσεις των ανΒρων της τάξεως άντιτάξαντα 
εκατέρωθεν εις εμβοΧην, θώρακας μεν αμφότερους 



^ 9ιΒιον y, most Edd. ; not in xz, Gemoll. 
3 ivBp^s Schneider, Edd. ; &vZpes MSS. 



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CYROPAEDIA, II. iii. 12-17 

for Iiimself. 13. And yet I know that these men 
pride themselves upon having been trained, as they 
say, to endure hunger and thirst and cold, but they 
do not know that in this we also have been trained 
by a better teacher than they have had ; for in these 
branches there is no better teacher than necessity, 
which has given us exceedingly thorough instruc- 
tion in them. 14. And they have been in train- 
ing for hard labour by carrying weapons, which 
all men hav^e so devised that they may be as easy 
as possible to bear ; while we, on our part, have 
been obliged to walk and to run with heavy burdens, 
so that the carrying of arms now seems to me more 
like having wings than bearing a burden. 

15. ^^Let me inform you, therefore, Cyrus," said 
he, " that I, for one, shall not only enter this contest, 
but I shall also expect you to reward me according 
to my deserts, whatever I am, for better or worse. 
And you, my fellow-commoners," he concluded, " I 
recommend you to enter with alacrity into the 
competition with these gentlemen in this sort of 
warfare ; for now they have been trapped in a 
contest with commoners." 

16. Thus Pheraulas spoke. And many others 
from both orders rose to speak in favour of the 
measure. They decided that each one should 
receive rewards according to his deserts, and that 
Cyrus should be the judge. Thus, then, the matter 
>vas satisfactorily settled. 

17. And once Cyrus invited a captain and his whole a sham 
company to dinner, because he had noticed him cudgels 
drawing up one half of the men of his company ^'• 
against the other half for a sham battle. Both sides 



i8S 



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XENOPHON 

€χοντας καΐ yippa ev τα?9 άριστβραΐς, eh δέ τας 
Sefta? νάρθηκας τταχβΐς τοις ήμίσβσιν βΒωκβ, 
ΎοΙς δ' έτέροίς etirev on βάΧλβιν Ββησοι αναιρού- 
μενους ταΐς βώΚοις, 

18. ΈττεΙ δέ ιταρβσκβυασμένοι οΰτως έστησαν, 
βσημηνβν αντοΐς μάγεσθαί, ivravOa Βη ο Ι μ^ν 
€βα\\ον ταϊς βώλοις καΐ βστιν οι ίτύ^χανον 
καϊ θωράκων καΐ ηέρρων, οι he καΐ μηρού καί 
κνημΐΒος. iirel Se ομού eyevovro, οι τους νάρθηκας 
έχοντες hraiov των μεν μηρούς, των hk χείρας, 
των δέ κνημας, των Be και ετΓίκυτττόντων εττΐ 
βώλους eiraiov τους τράχηλους καϊ τα νώτα, 
τέλος Se τρεμάμενοι εΒίωκον οι ναρθηκοφόροι 
τταίοντες συν ττόλΧφ ^έλωτι καϊ τταιΒια. εν 
μέρει ye μην οι έτεροι Χαβοντες ττάΧιν τους 
νάρθηκας ταύτα εττοίησαν τους ταΐς βώλοις 
βάΧΚοντας, 

19. Ύαΰτα δ' ά^ασθείς 6 Κύρος, τού μεν 
ταξιάρχου την εττίνοιαν, των δέ την ιτειθώ, οτι 
άμα μεν έ^υμνάζοντο, άμα Be ηύθυμούντο, άμα 
Βε ενικών οι εικασθέντες ττ} των ΐίερσών οττΧίσει, 
τούτοις Βη ήσθεις εκάΧεσε τε hn Βεΐττνον αυτούς 
καϊ εν ττ} σκηντ) ιΒών τινας αυτών εττιΒεΒεμένους, 
τον μεν τίνα άντικνημιον, τον Βε χείρα, ήρώτα 
τι ττάθοιεν, οι δ' ΐΚε^ον οτι ττΧη^εΐεν ταις βώ- 
Χοις. 20. ό Βε ττάΧιν εττηρώτα ττότερον εττει 
ομού iyivovTO ή οτε ττρόσω ^σαν, οι δ' iXeyov 
οτε ττρόσω ήσαν, εττεΙ Βε ομού ε^ενοντο, τταιΒιάν 
Ιφασαν είναι καΧΤύστην οι ναρθηκοφοροι* οι Bk 
ι86 



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CYROPAEDIA, II. iii. 17-20 

had breastplates and on their left arms their shields ; 
in the hands of the one side he placed stout cudgels, 
-while he told the other side that they would have to 
pick up clods to throw. 

18. Now when they had taken their stand thus 
equipped, he gave the order to begin battle. Then 
those on the one side threw their clods, and some 
struck the breastplates and shields, others also 
struck the thighs and greaves of their opponents. 
But when they came into close quarters, those who 
had the cudgels struck the others — some upon 
the thigns, others upon the arms, others upon the 
shins ; and as still others stooped to pick up clods, 
the cudgels came down upon their necks and 
backs. And finally, when the cudgel-bearers had 
put their -Opponents to flight, they pursued them 
laying on the blows amid shouts of laughter and 
meiTiment. And then again, changing about, the 
other side took the cudgels with the same result to 
their oppononts, who in turn threw clods. 

19. In this Cyrus admired both the captain's 
cleverness and the men*s obedience, and he was 
pleased to see that they were at the same time 
having their practice and enjoying themselves and 
also because that side was victorious which• was 
armed after the fashion of the, Persians. Pleased 
with this he invited them to dinner; and in his 
tent, observing some of them wearing bandages 
—one around his leg, another around his arm — he 
asked them what the matter was ; and they answered 
that they had been hit with the clods. 20. And 
he inquired further, whether it had happened when 
they were close together or far apart. And they 
said it was when they were far apart. But when 
they came to close quarters, it was capital fun — so 

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XENOPHON 

σν^γκ€Κομμένοί τοΐ<; νάρθηξιν άνέκρατ/ον ore ου 
σφίσι 8οκοίη iraiSia elvai το όμ6θ€ν TraieaOar 
&μα δβ ίττε^βίκνυσαν των ναρθήκων τά? ττλί/γά? 
καϊ έν χ€ρσΙ καΐ iv τραχτ^Χοις, eviot Se καΐ iv 
ττροσώτΓοι^. και τ6τ€ μ€ν ωστΓβρ βίκο^ ί'^ίΧων 
€7Γ ά\Χη\οί<ζ, 

Ύτ) δ' υστβραία μ€στον ην το ireBlov ττάν των ^ 
τούτους μιμούμενων καϊ el μη aWo τι σίτου- 
Βαιοτβρον TTpaTTOLeVt ταύττ) ttj τταιΒια ί'χρωντο, 

21. "Αλλοί' δε 7ΓΟΤ6 ΙΖων ταξίαρχον ayvTa την 
τάξιν άτΓο του ττοταμου iirl το άριστβρον i<f> ενός, 
καϊ 07γΟτ€ Βοκοίη αύτφ καιρός elvai, TrapayyeX- 
Χοντα τον ΰστβρον Χόχον παρώγβιν, καΐ τον τρίτον 

* Ίταν των Stephanas, Edd. ; νάντων MSS. 

« The manoeuvre here described is perfectly pimple : they 
are coming up from the river, from the left, thus (letting . 
stand for private, ΐ for corporal, f ^or sergeant, * for 
lieutenant [in command of a division of twenty-five], § for 
captain) : — 

>]g > > > Mrst Formation— 

..J t : t• t t : t• : t : t• t t t. 



fourth diTision third division second division flrst division 

The first division halts, and the other three, in succession, 
line up abreast with the first ; the second formation has the 
four lieutenants abreast in front and is twenty-five men 
deep : 

^ > Second Formation— 

t t i t • 

: t : f • 

ί t : t • 

: t t t • § 

Then each division doubles up, and the third formation, 
with the eight sergeants abreast in front, and the eight 
corporals abreast further back is 

1 88 



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CYROPAEDIA, Π. iii. 20-21 

the cudgel-bearers said ; but those who had been 
thoroughly drubbed with the cudgels cried out 
that it did not seem any fun to them to be beaten 
at close quarters, and at the same time they showed 
the marks of the cudgels on their arms and their 
necks and some also on their faces. And then, as 
was natural, they laughed at one another. 

On the following day the whole plain was full of 
men following their example ; and if they had nothing 
more• important to do, they indulged in this sport. 

21. And once he saw another captain leading his MUitary 
company up from the river left about in single file pie^i^® 
and ordering when he thought it was proper, the 
second division ^ and then the third and the fourth 

y^ > Tidrd Foiination— 

: t 

: t • 

: + 

: t • 

: t 

: t • 

: t 

— • : t * § 

With another doabling up of ranks, they assume a front 
of sixteen men and a depth of six : 
Fourth Fwmation— 



. . ... t • 8^ 

Finally in these groups of six each, they are led, single 
file, in to dinner. 

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XENOPHON 

ΛταΙ TOP τέταρτον, eh μέτωττον, βττβΐ δ' iv μβτώττω 
οί \oxayol iyevovTo, Trafyqyywqaev έΐς 8ύο ayetv 
τον Χόχον €κ τούτον Βη τταρη^ον οί ΒβκάΒαρχοι 
669 μέτωτΓον όττότβ δ' αΰ iBo/cec αύτφ καιρός 
elvai, Trap^yyeiXev eh τέτταρας τον λόχοι/• οντω 
Βη οί ττεμπάΒαρ'χρι αΰ iraprjyov €Ϊς τύτταρας' iirei 
Be iirl θύραις της σκηνής eyevovTo, ^Γapayyeί\aς 
αΰ εις eva όντως ^ eiarjye τον πρώτον Χόχον, καΐ 
τον Βεύτερον τούτον κατ ονραν CKiXevaev hre- 
σθαι, και τον τρίτον και τον τέταρτον ωσαύτως 
'πapayyeί\aς rjyelTo €Ϊσω' οντω δ' eισaya>yωv 
κατ€κ\ιν€ν €ιγΪ το BeiTTvov ωσττερ εισεττορεύοντο* 
τούτον οΰν 6 ϊίνρος ay ασ θ εις της τ€ ιτραότητος 
της ΒιΒασκαΤύας και της επιμελείας εκάΚεσε ταύ- 
την την τάξιν επι το Βεΐπνον σνν τω ταξιάρχω. 

22. ΤΙαρων Βέ τις επΙ τφ Βείπνφ κεκΧη μένος 
αΧΚος ταξίαρχος, Ύην Β εμην, εφη, τάξιν, ω 
KO/oe, ον κα7<<^ις εΙς την σκηνήν; καΧ μην όταν ye 
παρίτ) επΙ το Βεΐπνον, πάντα ταύτα ^ ποιεΐ* καϊ 
όταν τέλος ή σκηνή εχτ}, εξά/γει μ^ν 6 ovpay6ς, 
εφη, 6 τον τεΧενταίον Χόχον τον Χόχον, νστά- 
τονς έχων τονς πρώτονς τετayμέvovς εις μάχην 
έπειτα 6 Βεύτερος τονς τον ετέρ(ίν Χόχον επι τού- 
τοις, και ό τρίτος καΐ ό τέταρτος ωσαύτως, όπως, 
εφη, καΐ όταν άπώγειν Βέτ/ άπο πολεμίων, 
επίστωνται ως Βεΐ άπιέναι, επειΒαν Βέ, εφη, 
καταστωμεν επι τον Βρόμον ένθα περίπατου^ 
μεν, όταν μεν προς εω ϊωμεν, iyo) μεν r^yovpui, 

* o0Tft)s Weiske, Breitenbach ; Utnuv MS8., Dindorf ; 
\16ντων\ (jemoll, Marchant. 

'^ τούτλ Dindorf, Edd. ; ravra MSS. 

190 



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CYROPAEDIA, II. iii. 21-22 

to advance to the front; and when the lieutenants 
were in a row in front, he ordered each division 
to march up in double file. Thus the sergeants 
came to stand on the front line. Again, when 
he thought proper, he ordered the divisions to 
line up four abreast ; in this formation, then, the 
corporals in their turn came to stand four abreast in 
each division ; and when they arrived at the doors ot 
the tent, he commanded them to fall into single file 
again, and in this order he led the first division into 
the tent; the second he ordered to fall in line 
behind the first and follow, and, giving orders in like 
manner to the third and fourth, he led them inside. 
And when he had thus led them all in, he gave them 
their places at dinner in the order in which they 
came in. Pleased with him for his gentleness of 
discipline and for his painstaking, Cyrus invited this 
company also with its captain to dinner. 

22. Now there was present another captain who 
,had been invited to the dinner and he said : ^' Cyrus, 
wUl you not invite my company to your tent } My 
company, too, does all this when we go to mess, and 
when the meal is finished the rear-guard leader of 
the last division leads that division out, keeping in 
the rear those whose place in the battle line is in 
front ; then, next after them, the second rear-guard 
leader brings out the men of the second division, and 
the third and the fourth in like manner, in order 
that,*' he explained, " they may also know how to 
withdraw, if ever it is necessary to retreat before 
the enemy. And when we take our places on the 
parade-ground, I take the lead, when we marcli 
toward the east, and the first division of the company 



191 



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XENOPHON 

καΐ 6 ττρωτος λόχο? ιτρωτος, καΐ 6 Bevrepo^ ώς 
Set, καΐ 6 τρίτος καΧ 6 τέταρτος, καΧ αϊ των λό- 
'χ^ων ΒβκάΒβς καν τΓβμττάΒβς, €ως &ν irapayyeWw 
€γώ• δταν Β\ εφη, ιτρος έσττέραν ϊωμεν, 6 ον- 
ρα^ος τ€ καί οι τελευταίοι πρώτοι αφηγούνται' 
€/iot μεντοι ούτω ττεισονται υστερφ ιοντι, , ινα 
εθίζωνται κα\ εττεσθαι καί η^εΐσθαι ομοίως 
Ίτειθόμενοι, 

23. ΚαΙ 6 Κύρος εφη, *Η καΐ άεϊ τούτο ττοιεΐτε; 
^ΟτΓοσάκις ^ε, εφη, καΐ Βειπνοττοιουμεθα, νη 

Αία. 

Καλώ ToivvVy εφη, υμάς, α μα μεν οτι τας 
τάξεις μεΧετατε καΐ ττροσιόντες και άττιοντες, 
αμα δ' οτι καΐ ημέρας και νυκτός, αμα δ' οτι 
τα τε σώματα ιτεριττατούντες ασκείτε και τάς 
ψυχας ώφεΧεΐτε ΒιΒάσκοντες. εττεί ούν ττάντα 
δίττλα τΓΟίεΙτε, ΖιττΧην ύμΐν Βικαιον καΐ την ευ- 
ωχίαν τταρέχειν, 

24. Μά ΔΓ, εφη 6 ταξίαρχος, μητοι γ' εν μια 
ημέρα, ει μη και Βιττλάς ήμϊν τάς γαστέρας 
τταρέξεις. 

Και τότ€ μεν Βη οντω το τέΧος της σκηνής 
ετΓΟίησαντο, ττ} δ' ύστεραια 6 Κύρος εκάΧεσεν 
εκείνην την τάξιν, ωσττερ εφη, κ αϊ τη αλλτ/. αι- 
σθόμενοι Βε ταύτα και οι αΧΧοι το Χοιττον πάντες 
αυτούς ε μι μουντό, 

1. ^Έίξέτασιν Βέ ττοτε πάντων τού Κύρου ποιού- 
μενου εν τοις οπΧοις και σύνταξιν ήΧθε πάρα 
Κυαξάρου αγ^εΧος Χέ^ων οτι ^ΙνΒων παρείη πρεσ- 

192 



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CYROPAEDIA, IL iii. 22-iv. i. 

goes firsts the second in its proper order^ and then 
the third and the fourth and the squads of 4;en and 
nve in each division^ until I give the order for some 
change of formation; then," said he, "when we 
march toward the west, the rear-guard leader and 
the rear-guard lead off first. Still, even so, they 
have to look to me for the commands, though I 
march last, so that they may get into the habit of 
obepng just the same whether they follow or whether 
they lead." 

23. " Do you always do that way ? " asked Cyrus. 
" Yes, by Zeus," said he, " as often as we go to 

dinner." 

" Well then," said Cyrus, " I will invite you, 
because you give your lines practice both in coming 
and in going, by night and by day, and also because 
you give your bodies exercise by marching about, and ,' 
improve your minds by instruction. Since, therefore, : 
you do aJl this doubly, it is only fair that I should I 
furnish you a double feast also." ,> 

24. "No, by Zeus," said the captain, "at any rate! 
not on the same day, unless you will furnish us with! 
double stomachs as well." 1 

Thus they brought that dinner to a close. And on 1 
the following day Cyrus invited that company, as he \ 
had promised, and again the next day. And when I 
the others heard about it, they all followed, in the / 
future, the example of that company. / 

IV 

1. Once when C)nrus was holding a general review An embassy 
and parade of all his men imder arms, a messenger '^^ '"**"* 
C£une from Cyaxares sa3ring that an embassy had 

193 

VOL. I. Ο 



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XBNOPHON 

βέία* l^ekevei otfv σ€ iXOelv ώ<ζ τάχιστα, φέρω 
Si σοι, €φη 6 ayyeXo^, καΐ στοΧην την καΧ- 
Χίστην τταρα Κναξάρον ββούΧβτο yap σ€ ως 
Χαμπτροτατα καΐ ^ύκοσμοτατα ττροσάτ^βιν^ ως 
οψομένων των *ΙνΒων οττως &ν Ίτροσίχις, 

2. ^Ακουσας δέ ταντα 6 Κνρος iraprjyyeCke τω 
πρώτφ T€τayμέvφ ταξιάρχφ εΙς μέτωττον στήναι, 
€φ* βνος ay οντά την τάξιν, iv Ββξια βχοντα ίαντόν, 
και τφ Ββντέρφ έκέΧενσβ ταντο τούτο irapay- 
yeTKai, καΧ Βιά ττάντων οντω τταραΒιΒόναι βκβΧεν- 
σ€ν. οί δέ 7Γ€ΐθ6μ€νοι ταχύ μ^ν iraprjyyeXXov, 
ταχύ δέ τά irapayyeXKop^eva iiroiovv, iv 6Xίyφ 
Se χρονφ iyivovTO το μεν μέτωπον iirl τριακοσίων,^ 
τοσούτοι yhp ^σαν οί ταξίαρχοι, τέ Be βάθος βφ* 
ίκατόν, 3. iireX Bk κατέστησαν, €ΤΓ€σθαι ίκίΧευ- 
σεν ώς &ν αντος riytfrai* καί ευθύς τροχάζων 
9^y€iT0, iwei δέ κατενόησε την arfviav t}jv ττρος 
το βασιλέων φέρουσαν στενοτεραν οΖσαν tj ως 
εττΐ μετώπου ττάντας Βιιέναι, 7ΓapayyείXaς την 
ττρώτην χιΧιοστύν ίττεσθαι κατά χώραν, την δέ 
Βευτεραν κατ ούρά,ν ταύτης άκοΧουθεΐν, καϊ δ^ά 
Ίταντος οΰτως, αύτος μ^ν ήyεΐτo ουκ άνατταυό- 
μένος, αϊ δ' αΧΧα^, χιΧιοστύες κατ ούρίιν εκάστη 
της εμττροσθεν εΐττοντο, 

4. "Εττεμψε Bk καΐ ύττηρέτας Βύο εττΐ το στόμα 
της ώγυιας, οττως ει τις άγνοοίη, σημαίνοιεν το 
Βέον ΤΓΟιεΐν, ώς δ' άφίκοντο iiri τάς Τίναξάρου 
θύρας, ΊΓapηyyειXε τφ ττρώτφ ταξιάρχφ την τάξιν 

^ τριακοσίων Muretus, £dd. ; hiaKoaloov MSS. (^i^ hundred), 
194 



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CYROPAEDIA, II. iv. 1-4 

arrived from India. " He therefore bids you come 
as soon as possible. Moreover," said the me|ssenger, 
^^I am bringing you a very beautiful robe from 
Cyaxares ; for he expressed the wish that you appear 
as brilliant and splendid as possible when you 
come, for the Indians will see how you approach 
him." 

2. And when C3rrus heard this, he gave orders to 
the captain who was stationed iirst to take his stand 
at the head of the line, bringing up his company in 
single file and keeping himself to the right ; he told 
him to transmit the same order to the second captain 
and to pass it on through all the lines. And they 
obeyed at once and passed the order on, and they all 
executed it promptly, and in a little while they were 
three hundred abreast on the front line, for that was 
the number of the captains, and a hundred men deep. 
3. And when they had got into their places, he 
ordered them to follow as he himself should lead. 
And at once he led them off at a double quick step. 
But when he became aware that the street leading to 
the king's headquarters was too narrow to admit all 
his men with such a front, he ordered the first regi- 
ment in their present order to follow him, the second 
to fall in behind the first, and so on through them all, 
while he himself led on without stopping to rest, 
and the other regiments followed, each the one 
before it. 

4. And he sent also two adjutants to the entrance 
of the street, to tell what was to be done, if any one 
did not understand. And when they arrived at 
Cyaxares's doors, he ordered the first captain to draw 
up his company twelve deep, while the sergeants 



195 



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XENOPHON 

βίς 8ώΒ€ί€α τάττ€ίν βάβο^, τους Bk ΒωΒβκάρχονς iv 
μβτώττφ καθίστάναι irepX το βασιΚειον, καΧ τφ 
Ββντέρφ ταύτίυ ixiXevae wapayyeikaL^ καΧ Bik 
τταντος οντω<ζ. 5. οι μ^ν Bif ταΰτ έττοίονν 6 δ' 
€la7)€L• TTpbs τον Κναξάρην iv τ§ IlepaiKy στοΧ^ 
ούΒίν τι νβρισμέντ/, ΙΒων Bk αντον 6 Κ.ναξάρη<$ 
τφ μ^ν τάχ€ν, ήσθη, Ty Bk φαυΧοτητι. της στοΧής 
ήχθέσθη, καΧ elire. Τι τοντο, ω Kvpe; οίον 
7Γ€7Γθίηκας οΰτω φανβΐς τοις ^ΙνΒοΐς; €γώ δ', ίφη, 
έβουΧόμην ae ως Χαμττροτατον φανηναί' και 
ηίιρ έμοϊ &ν κόσμος ^ν τοντο, βμης 6ντα άΒέΧφης 
νίον ΟΤΙ μ6τγαΧοτΓρ€ΊΓέστατον φαίν€σθαι. 

6. Κ.αί 6 Κ,νρος ττρος ταύτα βίττβ, ΚαΙ ποτέ- 
ρως αν, ω Κναξάρη, μαΧΧόν σ€ έκόσμουν, eiirep 
ΊΓορφνρίΒα ενΒύς καΐ ψέΧια Χαβά>ν kcu στρβ- 
ΤΓτον 7Γ€ριθ€μ€νος σχοΧ^ κβΧβνοντι ύττήκονόν σοι, ή 
νυν δτ€ συν τοιαντρ και τοσανττ) Βννάμει οΰτω 
σοι οξέως υττακονω Bici το σέ τιμαν ιΒρωτι καϊ 
στΓουΒγι καΐ-αύτος κβκοσμημένος και τους αΧΧους 
έΐΓΐΒβικννς σοι οΰτω ireid ο μένους; 

Κΰρος μ^ν οΰν ταύτα ehrev, 6 Bk Κυαξάρης 
νομίσας αύτον ορθώς Xeyeiv έκάΧβσβ τους ^ΙνΒούς. 
7. οί Bk Ίϊ/δοΙ €ΐσ€Χθ6ντ€ς ΙΧβξαν δτι ιτέμψβιβ 
σφας 6 ^ΙνΒών βασιΧ€ύς κβΧβύων έρωτάν έξ ότου 
6 ΤΓοΧβμος €Ϊη ΜηΒοις τ€ καϊ τφ ^Κσσυρίφ* ΈττβΙ 
Bk σού άκούσαιμεν, ίκέΧευσεν ίΧθόντας αύ προς 
τον ^Ασσύριον κάκβίνου ταύτα, ττυθέσθαΐ' τέΧος 
S* άμφοτέροις enrelv ύμΐν οτι 6 ^ΙνΒων βασιΧβύς, 
το Βίκαιον σκβψάμενος, φαίη μ€τά τού ήΒικημένου 
βσβσθαι. 

8. ΙΙο09 ταύτα 6 Κ.ναξάρης elirev, ^Εμού μλν 
196 



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CYROPAEDIA, II. iv. 4-8 

were to take their places on the front line about the 
king's headquarters. He bade him transmit the same 
orders to the second captain^ and so on to all the 
rest ; 5. and they proceeded to do so, while he pre- Oyrus 
sented himself before Cyaxares in his Persian dress, himl^and 
which was not at all showy. When Cyaxares saw 1^ a™ay 
him, he was pleased at his promptness but displeased 
with the plainness of his dress and said : " How is 
this, Cyrus ? What do you mean by appearing thus 
before the Indians? Now I wished you to appear 
with as much magnificence as possible, for it would 
have been a mark of respect to me to have my 
sister's son appear in all possible grandeur." 

6. '^Should I be showing you more respect, 
Cyaxares," Cyrus made reply to this, " if I arrayed 
myself in purple and adorned myself with brace- 
lets and put on a necklace and at my leisure obeyed 
your orders, than I have in obe3ring you with such 
dispatch and accompanied by so large and so 
efficient an army } And I have come myself adorned 
with sweat and marks of haste to honour you and 
I present the others likewise obedient to you." 

Thus Cyrus spoke, and Cyaxares recognizing that 
he was right summoned the Indians. 7. And when The 
the Indians came in they said that the king of India *" ®°^® 
had sent them with orders to ask on what ground 
the Medes and the Assyrians had declared war. *' And 
he has ordered us," they said, ^^ when we have heard 
your statement, to go also to the Assyrian and ask 
him the same question ; and finally, he bade us;, say 
to both of you that the king of India declares that 
when he has weighed the merits of the case, he will 
side with the party wronged." 

8. ^^Well, then," Cyaxares made reply to this, 

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XENOPHON 

τοίννν άκον€Τ€ δτί ουκ άΒικονμεν τον ^Ασσνριον 
oviiv' i/e€Lvov S\ el BeiaOe, ikOopre^ vvv Ίτύθβσθβ 
δ τι Xeyei, 

ΤΙαρων δέ ο Κ,νρος ηρετο τον Κναζάρην, *Η 
καΐ εγώ, ίφη, βϊττω 6 τι ηυγνωσκω; /cal ό 
Κναξάρης ixikevaev. 

'Ύμ€Ϊς τοίννν, ίφη, aira^eikaTe τφ ^IvS&v 
βασιΚ^ί τάδε, ei μη τί α\\ο Κυαξάρτ} 8οκ€Ϊ, otl 
φαμ^ν ήμ€Ϊς, €Ϊ τί φησ^,ν υφ^ ημών άΖικβΙσθαι 6 
Άσσύ/Οίος, αίρεΐσθαι αύτον τον ^ΙνΒων βασιΧέα 
Βίκαστην. 

Οί μ€ν Βη ταΰτα άκούσαντΒ^ ωχοντο, 9. βττεί 
δέ ίξη\θον οί ^IvSoi, 6 Κνρος ττρο^ζ τον Κναξάρην 
ήρξατο Xoyov τοιοΰΒβ' 

*ί1 Κναξάρη, βγώ μ€ν TfKBov ουΒίν τι ττολλά 
€γων ϊΒια γρηματα οίκοθεν οττόσα δ' fjv, τούτων 
ττάνυ oXiya Χοιττά βγω* άνηλωκα Be, ίφη, eh 
τους στρατΰώτας• καΐ τοντο ϊσως, ίφη, θαυ- 
μάζεις συ ττως €ya> άνήΧωκα σου αυτούς τρέφον- 
το9• ei δ' ϊσθι, ίφη, otl ούΒ^ν αΧΚο ποιων ή 
τιμών καΙ γαριζο μένος, δταν τινί ά/γασθω των 
στρατιωτών, 10. Βοκεΐ yap μοι, ίφη, ττάντας 
μ^ν ούς αν τις βούληται ά/^αθούς συvepyoύς ποι- 
εΐσθαι οποίου τίνος oirv ^Γpάyμaτoς, fjBiov elvai ei 
re XerfovTa καΧ ei ττοιοΰντα παρορμαν μαΧΚον η 
ΧυτΓουντα κα\ άvayκάξovτa^ ους Be Βη των εΙς τον 
'ϊΓοΧεμον ίρ^ων ττοιησασθαί τις βούΧοιτο σννερ- 
yoύς πρόθυμους, τούτους παντάπασιν ίμοίτ/β Βοκεΐ 
άyaθoΐς θηρατέον eivai καΐ X6yoις καΐ ίρ^οις. 
φίΧους yap, ουκ εγθρούς, Bei elvai τους μέΧΧοντα^ 
άπροφασίστους συμμάχους ίσεσθαι καΐ μήτε τοις 
ατ/αθοϊς του άρχοντος φθονήσοντας μήτε εν τοις 



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CYROPAEDIA, II. iv. 8-10 

^^ let me tell you that we are not guilty of doing any 
wrong to the Assyrian ; but go now, if you wish, and 
ask him what he has to say." 

Cyrus, who was present, asked Cyaxares, ^' May I 
also tell them what I think } " And Cyaxares bade 
him say on. 

" Well then," said he, ^^ if Cyaxares has no objec- 
tion, tell the king of India that we propose, in case 
the Assyrian says he has been wronged by us, to 
choose the king of India himself to be our 
arbitrator." 

Upon hearing this, they went away. 9. And 
when they had gone out, Cyrus addressed Cyaxares 
as follows : 

" Cyaxares, I came from home without very much Oynie calls 
money of my own, and of what I had I have ^xares 
very little left. I have spent it," he said, ^^ upon for funds 
my soldiers. Now you wonder, perhaps, how I have 
spent it upon them, when you are maintaining them ; 
but I want you to know that it has gone for nothing 
else than rewards and entertainments, whenever I 
am pleased with any of my soldiers. 10. For," said 
he, "in the case of all those whom one wishes to 
make efficient coadjutors in any enterprise of any 
sort whatsoever, it seems to me pleasanter to draw 
them on by kind words and kind services rather than 
by compulsion and force ; but in the case^ of those 
whom one wishes to make enthusiastic followers in 
his plans of war, one must by all means try to 
capture them with kind words and kind offices. 
For those men who are to be trusty comrades, who 
will not envy their commander in his successes nor 
betray him in his adversity, must be his friends and 

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XENOPHON 

Kafcoi^ ττροΒώσ οντάς ,^ 11. ταντ oiv εγώ οΰτω 
ιτρο^ί^νώσκων χρημάτων 8οκω ττροσΒβΐσθαι, irpb^ 
fjbkv οΐτν σέ ττάντα οράν hv αισθάνομαι ττολλά 
Βαττανώντα ατοττόν μοι Soxei elvar σκοττβΐν δ* 
άξιω KOLvfi καΐ σέ καΐ €μ^ όπως σέ μη iirCKeiy^eL• 
χρήματα, ihv yhp σν άφθονα ίχτ^ς, olSa οτι καΐ 
€μοΙ &ν €Ϊη \αμβάν€ΐν οττοτε Ββοίμην, άΧΧως τ€ 
καΐ el eh τοιούτον τι Χαμβάνοιμι h μέλΧοι καΐ σοΙ 
Βατταιη^θ^ν βέΧτιον είναι, 

12. "Ένα^χος oirv ττοτέ σον μέμνημαι άκου- 
σας ώς 6 ^Αρμένιος καταφρονοίη σον ννν^ οτι 
ακούει τονς ττόλεμίονς ιτροσιοντας ήμίν, καϊ άντε 
το^ στράτενμα ττέμττοι οντε τον 8ασμ6ν ον εΒει 
άττάτγοι, 

ΤΙοιεΐ γάρ ταύτα, ίφη, ω Κνρε, εκείνος* ώστε 
βγωγε άττορώ ττότερόν μοι κρειττον στρατενεσθαι 
κα\ ττειρασθαι άνάηκην αντφ προσθεΐναι ή^ εασαι 
εν τφ τταρόντι, μη καΐ τοντον ττοΧέμιον ττρος τοις 
αΧΧοις ττροσθώμεθα. 

13. ΚαΙ 6 Κνρος εττήρετο, Αι δ' οικήσεις αντφ 
ττότερόν iv εχνροΐς χωρίοις εισίν ή και πον εν 
ενεφόΒοις; 

Καϊ 6 Κναξάρης είττεν, Αι μεν οικήσεις ου 
Ίτάνν iv έχνροΐς• iyoo yhp τοντον ονκ ημέΧουν 
δρ%μέντοι εστίν ίνθα Βύναιτ tiv άττεΧθων iv τφ 
Ίταραχρημα iv άσφαΧεΐ είναι τον μη αντος γε 
ντΓοχειριος γενέσθαι, μη8^ ο σα ivτavθa Βνναιτο 

* ΐΓροδώσοντα$ χΑΗ, Edd.; ipp<»d'fi(roifrasyG{8hrinkin/ear), 
a rh Schneider, Edd. ; not in MSS. 

* fj Hug, et al. ; fi \υσιτ€\€'ΐ(-η Ε) xF, Dindorf ; λυβτιτβλβΤν 
DG3 ; νυρ ζ. 

2Q0 



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CYROPAEDIA, II. iv. 10-13 

not his enemies. 11. Accordingly, as I recognize 
this in advance, I think I need more money. How- 
ever, it seems to me unreasonable for every one to 
be looking to you, who, I observe, are put to great 
expense ; but I think that you and I should together 
lay plans that funds may never fail you. For if 
you have plenty, I am sure it would be possible 
for me to draw money whenever I needed it, 
especially if I should take it to spend for some- 
thing that would be more to your advantage also. 

12. "Now I remember hearing you say one day The 
recently that the Armenian king despises you now, defecticS* 
because he has heard that the enemy are coming 
against you, and that therefore he is neither sending 
troops nor paying the tribute which is due." 

'^ Yes, Cyrus," he answered ; ^^ that is just what 
he is doing; and so> for my part, I am in doubt 
whether it is better to proceed against him and try 
to enforce allegiance or to let him alone for the 
present, for fear we bring him also upon us as an 
enemy, in addition to the others." 

13. '* But his residences," asked Cyrus, "are they 
all in fortified places or are perhaps some of them in 
places easy of approach ? " 

" His residences," answered Cyaxares, "are in 
places not very well fortified ; I did not fail to attend 
to that. However, there are mountains where he 
could take refuge and for a time be safe from falling 
into our hands himself, end where he could insure 
the safety of whatever he could have carried up 



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XENOPHON 

ίηΓ€ΚΚομίσασθαι, el μη τις ιτοΚίορκοίη Ίτροσ- 
καθηβΐ€νο^, ωσττβρ 6 €βΐ6ς ττατηρ τούτο ^ιτοίησεν, 

14. Έ /c τούτον 8η 6 Κνρο^ Xeryet τάδε• 'Αλλ* 
€1 θέΧοις, Ιφη, έμβ ττέμψαι, ίτητία^ζ μοι προσ- 
θ€ΐ<: οτΓοσοι Βοκονσί μέτριοι elvai, οΐμαι tiv συν 
τοΐ<ζ θβοΐ<ζ ΤΓΟίησαι αύτον καΧ το στράτβνμα 
7Γ€μψα4. καΙ airoSovvai τον ίασμον σοΐ' h'l δ' 
ίλ,ττίξω καΐ φίΧον αύτον μαΧΧον ήμΐν γ€νησ€σθαι 
fj νυν €στι. 

15. Καϊ δ Κναξάρη<ζ εΖττβ, ΚαΙ iyώ, €φη, 
βΧιτίζω iKeivovs iXOeiv αν 7rpo9 σέ μαΧλον ή 
ττρος €μ€' ακούω yap καΐ σι/νσηρβντάς τινας των 
τταίΒων σοι γενέσθαι αύτον• ωστ ϊσω^ αν καΐ 
ττάΧιν βΧθοιεν ττρος al• ύιτοχ^ιρίων δέ γενομένων 
αντων πάντα ττραχθβίη &ν ^ ήμ€Ϊ^ βονΧομεθα. 

Ούκονν σοι Soxei, ίφη 6 Κνρος, σύμφορον 
elvai το ΧβΧηθέναι ή μας ταντα βονΧβύοντας; 

ΜάΧΧον y^p αν, βφη 6 Κναξάρης, καϊ ΐΧθοι 
TLS αύτων βίς χ^εΐρας, κσΧ el τις δρμωτο eir* 
αυτούς, ά^Γapάσκevoι ^ &ν Χαμβάνοιντο, 

16. "Plkovc τοίννν, €φη 6 Κνρος^ ην τι 
σοι Βόξω Xiyeiv, iyo) ττοΧΧάκις St) σνν ττασι. 
τοις μ€τ €μου TedripaKa άμφΐ τά όρια της τβ 
σης χώρας και της των *Αρμ€νίων, καϊ ίτητέας 
τινά,ς ή8η ττροσΧαβων των ivOevBe €ταίρων 
άφικόμην, 

Τά μ^ν τοίννν όμοια ττοιων, €φη 6 Κναξάρης, 
ούκ &ν υ^Γoπτeύoιo* ei δέ ττοΧν ττΧείων ή Βύναμις 
φαίνοιτο ^ς €χων €Ϊωθας θηραν, τοντο ήΒη 
ντΓοτΓτον άν yivoiTO. 

* ά.ΊΓαράσκ€υοι Dindorf, Breitenbach ; άπαρβισκίύαστοι ζ, 
Marchant, Gemoll ; άταρασκ^υαστότίροι y. 

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CYROPAEDIA, Π. iv. 13-16 

there secretly, unless some one should occupy the 
approaches and hold him in siege^ as my father did/* 

14. ''Well/* Cyrus then made answer, "if you 
would give me as many horsemen as you think 
reasonable and send me there, I think that with the 
help of the gods I could make him send the troops 
and pay the tribute to you. And besides, I hope that 
he will be made a better friend to us than he now is." 

15. 'Ί also have hopes," Cyaxares repUed, "that 
they would come to you sooner than to me ; for I 
understand that some of his sons were among your 
companions in the chase ; and so, perhaps, they 
would join you again. And if they should fall into 
your hands, everything would be accomplished as we 
wish." 

" Well then," said Cyrus, " do^ you think it good 
policy to have this plan of ours kept a secret .»* " . 

" Yes, indeed," said Cyaxares ; "for then some of 
them would be more likely to fall into our hands, 
and besides, if one were to attack them, they would 
be taken unprepared." 

16. "Listen then," said Cjrrus, "and see if you Oyme's 
think there is anything in what I sa}^. Now I have Σ^ΐΓβρ^ϊβ 
often hunted with all my forces near the boundary Armenian 
between your country and the Armenians, and have 

even gone there with some horsemen from among 
my companions here." 

. " And so," said Cyaxares, " if you were to do the 
same again, you would excite no suspicion ; but if 
they should notice that your force was much larger 
than that with which you used to hunt, this would at 
once look suspicious."" 



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XENOPHON 

17. *Αλλ* ίστιν, ίφη 6 Κΰρος, Kai ττρο- 
φασιν κατασκενάσαι καΐ ivOoZe ουκ αττιστον, 
καΐ ην τις ixeiae i^ayyetKy, ώς «γώ βουΧοίμην 
μ£τ^ά\ην θηραν ττοίήσαί• καΐ ίτητέα^, ίφη, αϊτοί- 
ην αν σ€ ίκ τον oavepov. 

Κάλλιστα λβ/€*9, €φη ο Κναξάρη^' βγω Bi 
σοι ουκ έθβΧήσω SiBovac ττλην βΐ€τοίον^ rtva^, 
ώς βούλόμενος ιτρο^ τά φρούρια iXJoeiv τά ττρός 
τ§ ^Ασσυρία. teal yhp τφ δντι, ίφη, βούλομαι 
ίλθων /€αταχΓΚ€νάσαι αντά ώς εχνρώτατα. όττοτβ 
δέ σν 7Γρθ€\η\νθοίη<ζ συν ζ βχοις Βυνάμει καΐ 
θηρφης καΐ Βη Βύο ημέρας, ττέμ-ψαιμι αν σοι 
Ικανούς Ιτητέας καΧ ττβξονς των τταρ ίμοί ήθροισ- 
μένων, οϋς σν Χαβών €νθνς αν ϊοις,^ καΐ αντος 
δ' &ν ϊγων την αΧΚην Βνναμιν ττβφωμην μη 
Ίτροσω νμων elvai, ΐνα, €Ϊ ττον καιρός €Ϊη, 
ίτΓίφανβίην, 

18. Οΰτω Βη 6 μλν Κναξάρης βνθέως ττρος 
τά φρούρια ήθροιξβν ίτητέας καΙ ττεζούς, καΐ 
άμαξας Bk σίτον ττρούτΓβμτΓβ τί^ν eirl τά φρούρια 
οΒον. 6 Bk Κνρος €θύ€το iirl ttj iropeia, και 
άμα ιτέμιτων iirl τον Κναξάρην ^τ€ΐ των νβω- 
τέρων Ιτητέων. 6 δέ ιτάνν ττοΧΧών βονΧομένων 
ΙτΓβσθαι ον ττοΧΧονς βΒωκβν αντφ, 

ΤΙροβΧηΧνθοτος δ' ήΒη τον Κναξάρον σνν 
Βνναμει ττβξ^ καϊ ιτητικτ} την ττρος τά φρούρια 
οΒον yir/verac τφ Έ,νρφ τά lepa iirl τον ^Αρμένιον 
Ιέναι^ καΧά' καί όντως €ξότ/€ΐ Βη ώς εΙς θηραν 
7Γαρ€σκ€νασμ€νος, 

^ hy Uis Stephanus, Edd. ; iwlois MSS. 
^ i4vai xy, Breitenbach, et al. ; omitted by Dindorf, et al. ; 
[Uvai] Marohant, GemolL 

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CYROPAEDIA, Π. iv. 17-18 

17. "But/* said Cyrus, "it is possible to devise 
a pretext that will be credited both here and also 
there, if some one bring them word that I wish to 
institute a great hunt ; and horsemen I should ask of 
you openly." 

. '^ A very clever scheme I " said Cyaxares ; '^ and I 
shall refuse to give you more than a reasonable 
number, on the ground that 1 wish to visit the 
outposts on the Ass3rrian border. And that will be no 
lie, for in reality,'* said he, " 1 do wish to go there 
and to make them as strong as possible. And when 
you have gone ahead with the forces you have and 
have already been hunting for two days, I will send 
you a sufficient number of the cavalry and infantry 
that are mustered with me, and you may take them 
and make an inroad at once. And I myself, with 
the rest of my forces, will try to be not far away 
from you, to make my appearance upon the scene, 
should occasion require it." 

18. Thereupon Cyaxares at once proceeded to get 
his cavalry and infantry together for visiting the 
outposts, and to send out wagon-loads of provisions 
on the road to the outposts. But Cyrus proceeded 
to offer sacrifice in behalf of his expedition, and at 
the same time he sent to Cyaxares and asked for 
some of his younger horsemen. But, although very 
many wished to go along, Cyaxares would not give 
him many. 

Now after Cyaxares with his forces of cavalry and 
infantry had already started off on the road to the 
outposts, Cyrus's sacrifice turned out favourable for 
proceeding against the Armenian. Accordingly, he 
led his men out equipped as if for hunting. 



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XENOPHON 

19. ΤΙορβνομέρφ S* αντω βύθύς iv τφ ττρωτφ 
γωρίφ νττανίσταται λαγώς• άβτος δ' έτηιττόμενο^^ 
αίσιος, κατιΒων^ τον λαγώ φ^ίτ/οντα, έτηφβρό- 
μένος erraiai re αντον καϊ σνναρττάσας ίξηρ€, 
KaweveyKODV iirl Χόφον τινά ο ν ττροσω βγρητο 
Ty α/γρα δ τι fiOekev. iScbv οΰν 6 Κνρος το 
σημειον ήσθη τ€ και 7Γροσ€κννησ€ Δ/α βασιλέα, 
καΐ ehre ττρος τους ιταρόντας, Ή μ^ν θήρα καΧη 
βσται, & ανΒρ€ς, ήν 6 θ€6ς θβΧήστ). 

20. Ώς δέ 7Γ/509 τοις ορίοις iyivovTO, βνθύς 
ωστΓβρ βίώθει έθήρα' καΐ το μλν ττΧηθος των 




εζοΧ- καΧ ιτητεΐς Βιέστασαν καΐ τανιστάμενα 
ντΓβΒέχοντο καΐ ίΒίωκον καΐ ypovv ττοΧΧονς καΧ 
συς και ίΧάφους καί ΒορκάΒας καΐ όνους αγρίους* 
ΤΓοΧΧοΙ yap iv τούτοις τοις τοττοις 6νοι καΧ νυν 
€τι yiyvovrai. 

21. ΈτΓβΙ δ' ΙΧηξ€ της θήρας, ττροσ μίζας ττρος 
τά 6ρια των ^Αρμβνίων βΒβιτΓνοττοιησατο' καΐ 
TTj ύστβραία αΖθις έθήρα ιτροσελβων ττρος τά 
ορη ων ώ/οβγβτο. hrei δ' ai εΧηξεν, iBenrvo- 
7Γθΐ€ΐτο. το δέ ττα/οά Κυαξάρου στράτευμα ώς 
'ρσθβτο ττροσιόν, ύττοιτέμψας ιτρος αυτούς elirev 
αΐϋέχοντας αύτοΰ ΒβΐΊτνοτΓΟίεΐσθαι ώς Βύο τταρα- 
σώγ^γας, τοϋτο ττροϊΒών ώς συμβαΧεΐται ττρος το 
Χανθάν€ΐν* hrel Bk Βειιτνησειαν,^ eiire τφ αργρντι 
αυτών irapeivai προς αυτόν, μετά δέ το Beiirvov 

' ίτιιη'όμΜνοί Oobet, most Ekld.; hriirra^tvos MSS., GemolL 
^ Kwrih^v Dindorf, Edd. ; %s κατΛίον xz ; &s «caretSev z. 
^ h^iirv4\truav Dindorf, Breitenbach, etal.; δ«ινκ^σαΐ€νΜ8δ., 
Marohant, GemoU. 

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CYROPAEDIA, Π. iv. 19-21 

19. And as he proceeded on his way, in the very 1 
first field a hare started up. And an eagle flying up 1 
from the east ^ caught sight of the hare as it ran and I 
swooping down struck it, seized it, and carried it up, j 
then bore it away to a hill not far off and disposed of "^ 
his prey at his pleasure. Then Cyrus, observing the 
omen, was delighted and did homage to Sovereign 
Zeus and said to those who were by: 'Our hunt, 
comrades, please God, will be successful." 

20. When they arrived at the frontier, he at once The hunt 
proceeded to hunt, as he used to do ; and the most of ^S^^nian 
his men, on foot and oil horseback, were marching in frontier 
a straight line before him, in order to start up the 
game as they approached. But the best of his foot 

and horse stood at intervals and lay in wait for what 
was started up, and pursued it in relays. And they 
took many boars, deer, antelope, and wild asses ; for 
many wild asses breed in those regions even unto 
this day. 

21. And when he stopped hunting, he marched up 
to the Armenian border and dined ; and On the follow- 
ing day, he went up to the mountains toward which 
he was aiming and hunted again. And when again 
he stopped, he sat down to dinner ; but when he saw 
the army from Cyaxares approaching, he sent to 
them secretly and bade them take their dinner at a 
distance of about two parasangs, for he foresaw that 
this also would contribute to the secrecy of his 
design ; but he ordered their commander to come to 
him when they had finished their dinner. Then, 



^ oiiaios mesLUBf strictly speaking, "auspicious," "bringing 
(good) omens ; " and good omens came from the east, the 
home of tight. 

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XENOPHON 

τους ταξιάργρυς irape/cdKer i'lrel δέ τταρησαν, 

22. "Avhpe^ oiXoL, 6 ^Αρμένιος ττροσθεν μ€ν 
καΐ σύμμαχος ην καΐ υττηκοος Κυαξάρτ)• νυν S* 
ώς 'ρσθετο τους ττόΚ^μίους ίττιοντας, καταφρονεί 
καΧ οντ€ το στράτευμα 'ττέμτΓβί ήμΐν οΰτ€ τον 
8ασμον άττοδιδωσ^. νυν oiv τούτον θηρασαί, 
ήν Βυνώμεθβ, ήΧθομεν, ώδ' oiv, ^φη, 8οκ€Ϊ 
7Γ0ί€Ϊν, σύ μέν, & Χρυσάντα, iireihav αττοκοι- 
μηθ^ς όσον μέτρων, Χαβων τους ημίσεις ΤΙβρσων 
των συν ήμΐν ϊθι την opetvtjv καΐ κατάΧαββ τά 
δρη, βίς^α φασίν αύτον, όταν τι φοβηθ^, κατά- 
φβύ^ειν* ή'^βμονας 84 σοι eyo) δώσω. 23. φασί 
μ^ν oiv καΐ Βασ4α τά 6ρη ταύτα elvai, ωστ 
ίΧττίς υ μας μη οφθήναί• όμως δέ el ΤΓροττέμτΓΟίς 
Ίτρο του στρατβύματος εύζώνους ανΒρας Χ^σταΐς 
€0ΐκ6τας καΙ το ΐΓΧήθος καϊ τάς στοΧάς, οΰτοί 
αν σοι, €Ϊ τινι ivTuyxavoiev των ^Αρμβνίων, 
τους μεν ^ν συΧΧαμβάνοντβς αύτων κωΧύοιεν 
των β^αγγελίάϊ/, οΰς δέ μή Βύναιντο Χαμβάνειν, 
άτΓοσοβούντες &ν βμττοϊων ylyvoivTO τοΰ^Ιμί) 
οραν αυτούς το οΧον στράτευμα σου, άΧΧ ώς 
ττερΧ κΧωττων βουΧεύεσθαι. 24. fcal σύ μεν, 
εφη, ούτω ττοίει* βγω δέ άμα τ^ ήμερα τους 
ήμίσεις μ^ν των ττεζων ^χων, πτάντας ok τους 
ίτητέας, ττορεύσομοΛ Βιά του πτεΒίου ευθύς ττρος 
τά βασιΧεια. καϊ rjv μ^ν άνθιστηται, iffXov δτι 
μάχεσθοΛ Ζεήσει* fjv δ* αδ υποχωρώ του ττεΒίον, 
ΒήΧον δτι μεταθεΐν Βεήσεί' ην δ' εις τά 6ρη 
φ^^ν» ενταύθα Βη, ίφη, σον ipyov μηΒενα 

^ τον MSS., most Edd. ; rh Dinilorf, Hug. 

208 



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CYROPAEDIA, Π. iv. 21-24 

after dinner, he called together his captains; and 
when they had come he addressed them as follows : 

22. ** My friends, the Armenian king formerly was Cyrus lays 
both an ally and a dependent of Cyaxares ; but JS^^ 
now since he has seen the enemy coming upon before his 
us, he is insolent and neither sends us his com- *^p^°® 
plement of soldiers nor pays his tribute. Now, 
therefore, he is the game we have come to catch, 
if we can. And here is the plan that I think 
we should pursue : do you, Chrysantas, when you His instruc- 
have had as much rest as you reasonably need, take c^^switae 
half of the Persians who are with us, and following 
the mountain road take possession of the heights 
to which they say he flees for refuge when any- 
thing alarms him. I will furnish you with guides. 
23. Now they say that these mountains are thickly 
wooded, and so I have hopes of your not being seen. 
Nevertheless, suppose you send ahead of your army 
some active men, in the guise of brigands both as to 
nimibers and accoutrements ; these, if they met any 
Armenians, would capture them and so prevent their 
spreading any reports ; or, if they failed to capture 
them, they would frighten them away and so prevent 
their seeing the whole of your army, and woidd thus 
cause them to take precautions as against only a 
band of thieves. 24. Do you, then," said he, " do 
this ; but I, at break of day, with half the infantry 
and all the cavalry, will proceed through the plain 
straight toward the capital. And if he resists, we 
shall have to fight, of course ; and if he abandons the 
field, of course we shall have to chase him ; but if he 
flees to the mountain, then it is your business not to 
let any one of those who come your way escape. 

209 
VOL. I. ρ 



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XENOPHON 

άφιέναί των ττρος σ€ άφικνονμένων. 25. ν6μίζ€ 
δέ ωστΓβρ iv θήρα ημάς μβν τους έιτιζητουντας^ 
ίσ€σθαι, σέ δέ τον iirl ταΐς αρκυσι* μέμνησο 
ουν €Κ€Ϊνο ΟΤΙ φθάνβίν Set ττεφρα/γ μένους τους 
ΊΓορους ττρίν κινείσθαι την θήραν, καΐ Χεληθέναι 
δέ Bet τους iirl τοΐς^στομασιν, el μέΧΧουσι μη 
άίΓΟτρέψειν τα ττροσφβρόμβνα. 26, μη μέντοι, 
Ιφη, & ^ρυσάντα, οΰτως αχ) iroiei ωσττβρ ivioTC 
Slit τ^ν φίΧοθηρίαν ττοΧΧάκις γά/ο ολ/ην την 
νύκτα αυττνος ττρα^ματεύβΐ' αλλά injv icUrat χρη 
τους ανΒρας το μέτρων αττοκοιμηθηναι, ως &ρ 
Βύνωνταί ύττνομαγβίν. 

27. 'i /ίηΜ ye, otl ούχ ήyeμ6vaς ίχων άνθρώττους 
Ίτλανα ανά τά ορη, αλλ' oirrj άν τά θηρία ύφη^η- 
Tac, ταύτΎΐ μβταθβΐς, μητι καΐ νυν οΰτω τά δνσ- 
βατα 7Γορ€ύου, αλλά κ€λ€υ€ σοι τους ήyeμόvaς, ehv 
μη ΤΓοΧύ μάσσων η οΒος ζ, την ράστην rfyelaear 
στρατιά yctp ή ράστη ταχίστη, 28. μηΒέ ye, δτν 
συ eϊθίσat Tpiyetv ανά, τά ορη, μητι Βρόμφ ήγήστί, 
αλλ' ως &ν Βυνηταί σοι 6 στρατός €^τeσθaι, τφ 
μέσφ της σττουΒής riyoij, 29. άyaθov Bk καΐ των 
Βυνατωτάτων καΧ πτροθύμων ύιτομένοντάς τινας 
evioTe ΊΓapaκ€Xeύeσθar eireiBav δέ TrapeKOri το 
κέρας, ιταροξυντικον €ΐς το σ^Γ€ύBeιv ιτάντας ττα/οά 
τους βαΒίζοντας τρέχοντας οράσθαι, 

30. Χρυσάντας μ^ν Brj ταύτα άκουσας καΐ 
e^nyaυpωθ€ις τ§ έντοΧ^ του Κύρου, Χαβων τους 
'ψγ€μ6νας, ά^ΓeXθωv και ΊΓapayyeιkaς α eBei τοις 
άμα αυτφ μέΧΧουσι 7Γορ€ύ€σθΜ, avewa6eT0, eirel 

^ hri(fiTovwras Stephanus, Edd.; hriCnrfioOpTas MSS. 
2IO 



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CYROPAEDIA, II. iv. 25-30 

25. And bear in mind that^ just as in huntings we 
shall be the ones beating out the game^ you the man 
in charge of the nets. Remember this, then, that the 
runs must be blocked before the game starts ; and 
those at the entrance to those runs must keep out of 
sight, if they are not to turn the animals aside as 
they come on. 26. However," he added, *^ do not in 
this case do as you sometimes do, Chrysantas, in your 
fondness for hunting : you often keep yourself busy 
all night without sleeping ; but now you should let 
your men rest long enough, so that they may be able 
to resist drowsiness. 

27. "Again, do not, because you personally are 
accustomed to wander up and down the mountains 
without following human guides but running after the 
game wherever it leads you^-do not now go into such 
dangerous and difficult places, but order your guides 
to lead you by the easiest road, unless it is much too 
long ; for the easiest road is the shortest for an army• 
28. And do not lead your men at a run because you 
are used to running up mountains, but lead with 
moderate haste, that your army may be able to follow 
you easily. 29. And it is a good thing for some of 
the strongest and most zealous to fall back sometimes 
and encourage the rest ; and when the column has 
passed by them, it is an incentive to all to hasten 
when these are seen running past them as they walk." 

30. On hearing this, Chrysantas was elated with 
his commission from Cyrus ; he took his guides and 
went away, and after giving what orders he thought 
necessary to those who were to go with him he went 

211 
ρ 2 



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XENOPHON 

8k άτΓβκοιμηθησαν όσον iSoKei. μέτρων eivai, iiro- 
pevero iirX τά otyq. 

31. Kt)/909 δε, iireiBrf ημέρα iyiv€TO, ayyekovp/kv 
7Γ/οου7Γ€/Α7Γ€ 7Γ/0Ο9 Tov ^Αρμένίον, άττων αντφ Xiyeiv 
ώ䀕 Kvpo^y & ^Αρμένίβ, KcXevcL• οΰτω iroielv σβ 
ΟΊτως ως τάχιστα Ιχωνοϊσβι^^ καΐ τον Βασμον καΐ 
το στράτευμα, ήν δ' ερωτά δττον ειμί, Xέyε τάΧηθή 
ΟΤΙ ετΓί τοί<ζ opioid, ην ο ερωτφ ει και αντος 
έρχομαι, Xέyε κάντανθα τάΧηθη οτι ουκ οίσθα, 
εάν δ' οΊΓοσοι εσμ^ν ττννθάνηται, συμίΓεμιτειν τινά 
κέΧευε καΐ μαθεΐν. 

32. Ύον μ^ν Βη ar/yεXov εττιστείΧα^ ταύτα 
^τεμψε, νομίζων φιΧικώτερον όντως ^είναι η μη 
ΊτροείΊτοντα Ίτορενεσθαι. αυτός δέ συνταξάμενος 
ζ άριστον καΧ προς το άνύτειν την 68ον καΐ ιτρος 
το μάχεσθαι, εϊ τι Βέοι, εττορεύετο, Ίτροεΐιτε δέ 
τοις στρατιώταις μηΖένα άΒικειν, καΧ εϊ τις ^Αρμε- 
νίων τφ εvτυyχάvoι, θαρρεΐν τε 7ΓaparfyέXXειv καϊ 
a/yopav τον θέλοντα άyειv ο^του &ν ωσιν, εϊτε σΐτα 
εϊτε τΓοτά Tuyxavoi πωΤ^^ΐν βουΧομενος. 

^ ίχων οίσ€ΐί F^, Dindorf ; ίκών οϊσ€ΐ5 Pantazides ; Ιίχων 
οίσοΐ5 ΑΗ ; Ιίχων άτΐη! DF^ ; ίχ<ι>ν Μη5 κάΙ οίσ€ΐ5 EC^ (^χω^ 
άιτίηε κβά οίσηε C^) {thcU you go away with and bring) ; Ιίχων 
^Ισίχίε GemoU {that you come in with) ; Ιίχων άτίρ IMiidorf *, 
Hug, Marchant, Breitenbach {t?iat he [Cyrus] may return 
loith). 



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CYROPAEDIA, II. iv. 30-32 

to rest. And when they had slept as long as he 
thought reasonable^ he started for the moontains. 

31. And when it was day, Cyrus sent forward a Cyrus's 
messenger to the Armenian with instructions to * "°^ 
speak to him as follows : " * King of Armenia, Cyrus 

bids you take steps as quickly as possible to deliver 
to him the tribute and the troops.' • And if he asks 
where I am, tell the truth and say that I am at the 
frontier. And if he asks whether I also am coming 
in person, tell the truth in that case also and say that 
you do not know. But if he inquires how many men 
we are, bid him send some one along with you and 
find out." 

32. With such instructions he sent the messenger 
off, for he thought that this was a more friendly 
course than to march upon him without notice. And 
he himself set out with his army in the formation 
which he thought best adapted both for covering 
distance and for fighting if necessary. He ordered 
his soldiers to molest no one, and, if any one met 
any Armenians, to bid them have no fear but to say 
that if any one of them wished to sell food or drink, 
he should feel free to bring it wherever they were 
and open a market. 



213 



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BOOK III 



THE CONQUEST OF ARMENIA AND 
SCYTHIA 

The First Great Battle 



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1. Ό μ^ν Sif Κύρος iv τούτοις fjv 6 hk ^ΚρμΑ- 
νιος ως ήκουσβ τον ayyiXov τά τταρ^ Κνρον, 
έξεττΧώγη, έννοησας οτι άΖικοίη καϊ τον Βασβίον 
λβίττωι/ teal το στράτευμα ου ιτίμττων, κα\ το 
μ&^ιστον, ίφοββΐτο, οτι οφθήσβσθαι ίμεΧΚε τλ 
βασιΚβια οικοΒομβΐν αρχόμενος ώς &ν ifcavci άττο- 
μάχεσθαι €Ϊη. 2. δ^ά ταντα δ^ πάντα οκνων αμα 
μ^ν ΒιέτΓβμτΓβν άθροίζων τίιν εαυτού Βύναμιν, αμα 
δ' εττεμπεν εις τά δρη τον νεώτερον υίον Χάβαριν 
teal τάς ^γυναίκας, την τε έαντοΰ καϊ τ))ν τον υίον, 
και τ^ς θυγατέρας* καΧ κόσμον δε καί κατασκευ- 
ήν t})v ττΚείστου άξίαν συναΊτέττεμ'ΤΓε πτροττομίΓούς 
Ζονς αυτοις. αύτος δέ αμα μλν κατασκεψομενονς 
ίττεμιτε τι ιτράττοι Κνρος, άμα δέ σχτνίταττε τους 
irapayiyvo μένους των * Αρμενίων καί ταχύ iraprj- 
σαν αΧΚοι 'Kέyovτες οτι καΐ Β)) αύτος ομον, 
3. ενταύθα Bif ούκέτι ετΧη εΙς χείρας ελθεΐν, αλλ' 
νττεχώρει. ώς δέ τοΰτ εΙΒον ττοιήσαντα αύτον οι 
* Αρμένιοι, ΒιεΒίΒρασκον ήΒη έκαστος επΙ τά εαυ- 
τού, βουΧόμενοι τά οντά έκττοΒων ττοιεΐσθαι, 

2ΐ6 



yGooQle 



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BOOK III 



I 



1. Cyrus was thus employed ; but when the The 
Armenian king heard from the envoy the message hSr^ *^ 
of Cjnois, he was alarmed^ for he knew that he was Cyrue'e 
doing wrong in withholding the tribute due and in *pp"^ 
failing to send the troops, and he was afraid most of 
all because he saw that he was sure to be detected in 
the act of beginning to -build his palace in such a 
way as to render it strong enough for armed resistance. 
2. Disturbed by the consciousness of all these 
faults, he sent around and collected his forces, and 
at the same time he sent away to the mountains his 
younger son, Sabaris, and the women, both his 
queen and his son's wife, and his daughters. And 
he sent along with them his most valuable jewels and 
chattels and gave them an escort. At the same time 
he sent scouts to spy out what Cyrus was doing, 
while he went on assigning positions in his service to 
the Armenians as they came in to him. Presently 
still others arrived with the news that the man him- 
self was quite near. 3. Then he no longer had the 
courage to join battle with him but retreated. 
When the Armenians saw him act thus, they dis- 
persed at once, each to his own possessions, wishing- 
to get their belongings out of the way. 

217 



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XENOPHON 

Ό Se Κΰρος ώ<ζ iiuf^a BiaOeovrmv και iXavvop- 
των το irehiov μβστον, υττοιτίμπτων SXjeyev δτί ου- 
δβι/Ι ΊΓολέμιος €Ϊη των μενόντων, el Βέ τίνα 
φενγοντα Χηψοιτο, ττροηγόρβνβν οτι ώ? ττολβμίφ 
γρήσοίτο, οΰτω Ζη οί μλν ίγοΧΚοΪ κατέμενον, fjaav 
δ' of υτΓ€γωρουν συν τφ βασιΚβΐ. 

4. ΈτΓβΙ δ' oi συν ταϊς ψ)ναιξ\ Ίτροωντβς eveire- 
σον eU τους iv τφ δρ€ΐ, κραυγην Τ€ ευθύς εττοίουν 
κα\ φεύγοντες ηΧίσκοντο troWoi ye αύτων. τέλος 
8k καΐ οτταΐς^καΐ αί γυναίκες κα\ αί θυγατέρες 
εάΧωσαν, καΐ τά ^χρήματα οσα συν αύτοΐς άτγό- 
μένα ετυχεν. 

Ό δέ βασιΧεύς αυτός} ως '^σθετο τλ ηιηνόμενα^ 
ατΐορων ττοΐ τράττοιτο iirl Χόφον τινά καταφεύγει, 
5. 6 δ' αδ Κΰρος ταΰτ-α ΙΒων πτεριίσταται τον 
Χόφον τφ τταρόντι στρατεύματι, καΧ ιτρος Χρυ- 
σάνταν ττέμψας 4κέΧ6υε φυΧακην του ορούς κατά- 
Χιττόντα ήκειν, το μ^ν Βη στράτευμα ηθροίζετο 
τφ Κύρφ. 

Ό Βέ ιτέμψας ιτρος τον ^Αρμένιον κήρυκα ήρετο 
ώδε• ΈιΙττέ μοι, εφη, ω ^Αρμένιε, πότερα βούΧει 
αύτοΰ μένων τφ Χιμφ καΐ τφ Βίψει μάχεσθαι 
ή εις το ΙσόττεΒον καταβάς ήμΐν Βιαμάγεσθαι; 

^Αττεκρίνατο ο * Αρμένιος οτι ούΒετεροις βούΧοιτο 
μάγεσθαι* 6. ιτάΧιν ο Κΰρος ιτέμψας ήρωτα 
Ύί οΰν κάθησαι ένταΰθα και ου καταβαίνεις; 

* Απορων, ίφη, δ τι χ/ο^ ποιεΐν. 

^ αύτ05 Pantazides, most Edd.; adrSi' MSS., Dindorf, 
Breitenbach. 

ai8 



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CYROPAEDIA, III. i. 3-6 

And when Cyrus saw the plam full of men running 
about and driving away, he sent secretly to say that 
he had no quarrel with any who remained ; but he 
declared that if he caught any one trying to get 
away, he should treat him as an enemy. Accordingly, 
the most of them remained, but some retreated with 
the king. 

4. Now as those with the women in charge went Chryeantae 
forward they came upon the forces in the mountain. S5n of ^ 
At once they raised a cry and as they tried to escape '"fi^**^®* 
many of them were caught. And finally the young 
prince and the wives and daughters were captured 
and all the treasure that happened to be in the 
train• 

When the king himself learned what was going on, 
he was in a quandary which way to turn and took 
refuge upon a certain hill. 5. And when Cyrus saw The idn» 
this he surrounded the hill with the troops he had ^"^'^pp^ 
with him and sent orders to Chrysantas to leave a 
guard upon the mountains and come. Thus Cyrus's 
army was being brought together. 

Then he sent a herald to the Armenian to ask him 
the following question : " Tell me, king of Armenia," 
he said, "whether you prefer to remain there and 
fight against hunger and thirst, or to coipe down into 
the plain and fight it out with us ? " 

The Armenian answered that he had no wish to 
fight against either. 6. Again Cjrrus sent to him and 
asked : " Why then do you sit there and refuse to 
comedown?" , 

"Because," he answered, "I am in a quandary 
what to do." 



219 



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χεν•ρη•ν 

*Αλλ* ovSiv, (ίφη 6 Κνρος, αττορβΐν ae Set* 
^ξβστι yap σοι im Βίκην καταβαίνβιν. 

Tt9 ί, €φη, ίσταυ 6 Βικάζων; 

ΑηΚον ΟΤΙ φ 6 θ€ος eSm/ce καΐ avev Βίκης χρή- 
σθαί σοι, S τι βούλοντο, 

^Κνταΰθα δ^ ό ^Αρμένιος γ,γρώσκων τ))ν άνάτ/- 
κην καταβαίνει* καϊ 6 Έίΰρος Χαβων eh το αέσον 
κάκ€ΐνον καΧ ταΧΚα πάντα ΊΓ€ρΐ€στρατο7νσατο, 
ομού 7^8η ττασαν ^χων τί)ν Βύναμιν, 

7. Έι/ τούτφ Bk τφ χρονφ 6 ιτρβσβύτβρος ^ τταΓ? 
τον ^Αρμενίου Ύι^ράνη^ €ξ αττοΒημία^ τίνος ιτροσ- 
Tfeiy δ? καΧ σύνθηρός ΤΓΟΤβ iyivcTO τφ Κ,νρφ' καΐ 
ώς ηκουσ€ τά ^&^€νημ^.να, βύθνς ιτορβύβται ωσιτβρ 
βίχε προς τον Κνρον, ως δ' elBe πατέρα re καϊ 
μητέρα καί αδελφούς^ χαΐ τί^ν ίαντοΰ yvvaixa 
αΙχααΧώτονς y€y€vημ€Voυς, έΒάκρ\)σ€ν, &σπ€ρ 
βίκος, 8. 6 Bk Κνρος ΙΒων αντον α\\ο μέν ovBkv 
έφιΧοφρονήσατο αντφ, βΖττε δ' οτι ΈΙς καιρόν 
ήκβις, €φη, όπως της Βίκης άκουσας ^ πάρων της 
άμφΐ τον πατρός, 

Καϊ ευθύς σννβκάλβι τους ήy€μ6vaς τους τ€ 
των ΤΙβρσων καΐ τους των ΜηΒων προσβκάΧβι 
δέ καΐ €Ϊ τις ^Αρμενίων των εντίμων παρην, 
καϊ τάς yυvaΐκaς iv ταΐς άρμαμάξαις παρούσας 
ουκ άπήΧασεν, άΧΧ* €Ϊα ακούβιν. 

9. Όττότβ Bk καΧως βϊχεν, ήρχετο του Xoyov, 
*ί1 ^Αρμένΐ€, ίφη, πρώτον μέν σοι συμβάν" 
Χεύω iv τ§ Βίκχι τάΧηθή λίγε^ι/, ίνα σοι & ye 

^ ιτρ€σβύτ€ρο9 ζ, Edd. ; wptirfiOTaros xy {oldest). 
^ a^eXipobs Weieke, later Edd. ; rits ά9€\ψά$ MSS. 
' ίκούσχιί zzD, Dindorf ', Breitenbach, GemoU, Marohant, 
et aL ; ίίκούσ^ι$ F. ; &κα^σ€ΐ Dindorf \ Hug. 

220 



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CYROPAEDIA, III. i. 6-9 

" But," said Cjnrus, "there is no occasion whatever 
for that ; for you are free to come down for trial." 

** And who," said he, " will be my judge ? " 

" He, to be sure, to whom God has given the 
power to deal with you as he will, even without a 
trial." 

Then the Armenian, recognizing the exigency of 
his case, came down. And Cjnrus received both the 
king and all that belonged to him into the midst 
and set his camp round them, for by this time he 
had all his forces together. 

7. Now at this juncture Tigranes, the king's elder 
son, returned from a journey abroad. He it was who 
had been Cyrus's companion once on a hunt ; and 
when he heard what had occurred, he came at once, 
just as he was, to Cyrus. And when he saw his father 
and mother and brothers and sisters and his own 
wife all made prisoners, he wept, as might be expected. 
8. But Cyrus, when he looked upon him, showed him 
no token of friendship, but merely remarked : " You 
have come just in time to attend your father's trial." 

And immediately he called together the officers of The court- 
both the Medes and the Persians and all the the king 
Armenian nobles who were present. And the 
women who were there in their carriages he did not 
exclude but permitted them to attend. 

9. When eve^hing was in order, he began his 
examination : '* King of Armenia," said he, " I advise 
you in the first place in this trial to tell the truth. 



221 



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XENOPHON 

άτΓΤ) το €νμι<τητ6τατον το yap ψ€υ86μ€νον φαί- 
νέσθαι ev ϊσθυ οτι καΐ του σχτγψ^ώμ/η<; τινο^ 
τυγχάν€ΐν βμτΓοΒών μάΧιστα άνθρώττοις yiyvercu' 
€ΤΓ6ΐτα Β\ €φη, συνίσασι, μέν σοι καΧ οι 'τταΐΒβς 
καϊ αί yvvaifce^ αύται ττάντα οσα Ιιτραξα^, καΐ 
*Αρμ€νίων οι ΐΓαροντες* ήν Se αίσθάνωνταί σε 
aWa η τά yevopjsva XeyovTa, νομιονσί σε καϊ 
αύτον καταίικάζειν σβαυτον ττάντα τά ίσχατα 
τταθύν^ ην €γα) τάΧηθή ττύθωμαι, 

'Αλλ' φώτα, €φη, & Kvpe, ο τι βονλει, ώς 
τάΧηθή βρονντος. τούτον eveKa καΧ y€veσθω ο 
η βον\€ται, 

10. Λέγε Βή μοι, ίψη, βττολβμησάζ ττοτε Άστι;- 
ώγ€ΐ τψ της €μής μητρός πατρι fcal τοις αΧΚοις 
ΜήΒοις; 

"E^wy, €φη. 

Κρατηθείς S* νττ αντοϋ συνωμοΧίτ^ησας Βασμορ 
οϊσειν καϊ συστρατενσβσθαι ^ οττοι ^ i'lrayyiXXoi, 
καϊ βρνματα μη βξειν; 

*Ηϊ/ ταύτα. 

ΝΟί' οίν Βιά τι οντ€ τον Βασμον ά^Γηy€ς 
οντ€ το στράτευμα ίΐΓβμιτβς, ίτείχιζίς τ€ τά 
€ρνματαζ 

'ΚΧενθβρίας εττεθύμονν καΧον yap μοι iBoxei 
εΙνοΛ κ<ά αυτόν ΙΧεύθερον elvai καϊ τταισϊν 
εΧευθερίαν καταΧιττεΐν. 

11. ΚαΙ yap εστίν, εφη 6 Κύρος, καΧον 
μάχεσθαι, οττως μήττοτε τις ΒονΧος μεΧΧοι yεvή' 
σεσθαΐ' ην Bk Βη ή ττοΧέμφ κρατηθεϊς η καΧ 

^ σνστρατ^ύσ^σθΜ Stephanus, Edd. ; συστρντ^ύ^σΒαι xy ; 
συστρατ^ύσασθΜ ζ. 
2 iwoi Dindorf, later Edd. ; «τον MSS. 

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CYROPAEDIA, III. i. 9-1 1 

that you may be guiltless of that offence which is 
hated more cordially than any other. For let me 
assure you that being caught in a barefaced lie 
stands most seriously in the way of a man's receiving 
any mercy. In the next place/' said he, "your 
children and your wives here and also the Armenians 
present are cognizant of ever3rthing that you have 
done ; and if they hear you telling anything else 
than the facts, they will think that you are actually 
condemning your own self to suffer the extreme 
penalty, if ever I discover the truth." 

"Well, Cyrus," said he, "ask what you will, and 
be assured that I will tell the truth, let happen what 
will as a result of it." 

10. "Tell me then," said the other, "did you ever 
have a war with Astyages, my mother's father, and 
with the rest of the Medes ? " 

" Yes," he answered, " I did." 

^^ And when you were conquered by him, did you 
agree to pay tribute and to join his army, wherever 
he should command you to go, and to own no 
forts ? " 

"Those are the facts." 

"Why, then, have you now failed to pay the 
tribute and to send the troops, and why have you 
been building forts ? " 

" I longed for liberty ; for it seemed to me to be a 
glorious thing both to be free myself and to bequeath 
liberty to my children." 

11. "You are right," said Cyrus ; "it is a noble 
thing to fight that one may never be in danger of 
becoming a slave. But if any one has been conquered 



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XENOPHON 

aWov Ttvci TpoTTOV ΒονΚωθβϊς ίττιγειρων Tt9 
φαίνηται τον? δβσττότα? airoarepeiv ίαντον, τοδ- 
τον σν ττρώτος irorepov ώ? ayaOov avhpa καΧ 
καΧλ Ίτράττοντα τιμάς fj ως άΒικονντα, ην Χάβι^ς, 
κόλάζβίς; 

Κολάζω^ ^Φν ^^ Ί^Ρ ^9? ^^ ψβύΒβσθαί, 

12. Λέ/€ 8η σαφώς, ίφη 6 Κΰρος, καθ^ 
^ν ifcaarov ην άρχων τις τνχυ σοι και άμάρτ^, 
TTorepov €ας άργ^ιν ή αΧΧον καθιστής άντ 
αύτον; 

"Αλλοι/ καθίστημι. 

Ύί Bi, ην χρήματα ττολλά βχτ}, €^ς π\οντ€Ϊν 
ή Ίτένητα ποιβΐς; 

* Αφαιρούμαι, ίφη, hv ίχων τυγχάνχι. 

*Ηι; δέ καΧ ττρος ιτοΧεμίους ηιηνωσκχις αύτον 
άφιστάμενον, τι ττοιβίς; 

Ίίατακαίνω, ίφη' τί ycip Sei €Χ€γχθέντα 
ΟΤΙ ψβνΒομαι ώιτοθανβΐν μαΧΚον ή τάΧηθη λ^- 
ηοντα; 

13. "Έίνθα Βη 6 μλν τταΐς αύτον ως ήκονσβ 
ταύτα, ττβριβσττάσατο την τιάραν καΧ τους ττέ- 
Ίτλονς κατ€ρρηξατο, αί δέ ^^νναΐκζς άναβοήσασαι 
iBpvTTTOVTo, ως οιχομένου τον Ίτατρος καΧ απτό- 
λωλότωι/ σφων^ ήΒη. καί 6 Κύρος σιωττησαι 
κβΧεύσας eiirev,^ ΈΙβν τά μβν Βη σά Βίκαια 
ταύτα, ω *Αρμένΐ€' ημΖν Bk τί σνμβονΧβνβις 
€κ τούτων TTOieiv; 

Ό μ^ν Βη * Αρμένιος έσιώττα άττορων 'Ίτοτερα 

^ σφ&ρ CKjt^F^, most Edd. ; vAvrwv νφ&¥ xyz, Dindorl 
' elirey z, moet Edd. ; itaXiy €lvty xy, G^emoll. 

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CYROPAEDIA, ΠΙ. i. 11-13 

in war or in any other way reduced to servitude and 
is then caught attempting to rob his masters of him- 
self, are you the first man to reward him as an honest 
man and one who does right, or do you punish him 
as a malefactor if you catch him ? " 

^^ I punish him/' said he ; " for you will not let me The Wng 

4.^11 „ 1•^ »» convlcte 

tell a Ixe. himeeif 

12. ^^ Answer each of these questions explicitly 
then," said Cyrus; *^if any one happens to be an 
officer under you and does wrong, do you permit him 
to continue in office or do you put another in his 
place ? " 

" I put another in his place." 

"And what if he has great possessions — ^do you 
allow him to continue rich, or do you make him 
poor?" 

'' I confiscate all that he may happen to possess," 
said he. 

^' And if you find out that he is tr3dng to desert to 
the enemy, what do you do ? " 

"I put him to death," said he; "I may as well 
confess, for why should I convict myself of lying 
and be put to death for that, instead of telling the 
truth?" 

13. Then his son, when he heard this, stripped ofi* 
his turban and rent his garments, and the women 
cried aloud and tore their cheeks, as if it were all 
over with their father and they were already lost. 
But Cyms bade them be silent and said : "Very 
well, king of Armenia ; so that is your idea of justice ; 
in accordance with it, then, what do you advise us to 
do?" 

Then the Armenian was silent, for he was in a 



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σνμβονΧβνοι τφ Κ,νρφ κατακαίνβιν αυτόν rj τα- 
ναντία SiBaafcoL• ων αυτός- βφη ττοιβΐν. 14. ο δε 
τταϊς αύτοΰ Ύΐ'γράνης εττηρετο τον Κϋρον, ΈΐτΓβ 
μοί, €φη, ω Κΰρ€, iirel 6 ττατηρ άιτοροΰντί 
€0iK€v, ^ συμβουΧεύσω irepl αυτού h οΐμαί σοι 
βέΧτίστα elvai; 

ΚαΙ 6 Κβ/009, 'μαθημένος, &τ€ συνβθηρα αύτφ 
ο Ύι^γράνης, σοφίστην τίνα αύτφ συνόντα καΐ 
θαυμαζομενον υττο του Ύι,^ράνου, ττάνυ ειτεθύμει, 
αυτού άκούσαι, ο tl τγοτ εροίψ καΐ ιτροθύμως 
€Κ€\€υσ€ \€τγ€ίν δ TL ^ι^νώσκοι, * 

15. Έγώ τοίνυν, ^φη 6 Ύί'γράνης, el μεν 
ayaaai του πατρός ή οσα βεβούΧευται rj οσα 
ΊτέτΓραχε, ττάνυ σοι συμβουΧεύω τούτον μιμεΐ- 
σθαΐ' el μέντοι σοι 8οκ€Ϊ ττάντα ήμαρτηκέναι, 
συμβουΧβύω τούτον μη μιμύσθαι» 

Ούκούν, €φη 6 Κύρος, τα Βίκαια ττοιων 
ήκιστ &ν τον άμαρτάροντα μιμοίμ'ήν. 

EtστLV, ίφη, ταύτα, 

ΚοΧαστέον αρ άν εϊη κατά ye τον σον Xoyov 
τον iraTcpa, elirep τον άΖίκούντα ^^fcaiov κο- 
Χάζαν. '^>^ 

^Πότερα δ' ήτγεϊ, ω Κύρε, αμεινον είνα^^ζ^^ 
τφ σφ αηαθφ τάς τιμωρίας ττοιβΐσθαι ή σύν\β 
σ^ ζημία; \^ 

"Εμαυτον αρα, εφη, οΰτω y άν τιμωροίμην. 
^ 16. 'Αλλά μέντοι, ίφη 6 Ύι^ράνης, με^άΧα 
7 ^ν ζημιοϊο, εΐ τους σεαυτού κατακαίνοις τ6τ€ 
οίγ6τ€ σοι ττΧβίστου άξιοι εϊεν κβκτήσθαι. 

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CYROPAEDIA, III. i. 13-16 

quandary whether to advise C3mis to put him to 
death or to propose to him a course opposite to that 
which he admitted he himself always took. 14. But Tignmes 
his son Tigranes put a question to' Cyrus, saying : ^^^.J*^ 
'^Tell me, Cyrus, since my father seems to be in 
doubt, may I advise you in regard to him what I 
think the best course for you ?" 

Now Cyrus had observed when Tigranes used to 
go hunting with him that there was a certain 
philosopher with him who was an object of 
admiration to Tigranes ; consequently he was very 
eager to hear what he would say. So he bade him 
express his opinion ivith confidence. 

15. '^Well," said Tigranes, ^4f you approve either 
of my father's theory or his practice, then I advise 
you by all means to imitate him. But if you think 
he has done wrong throughout, I advise you not to 
imitate him.'' 

^^Well then," said Cyrus, ^^if I should do what is 
right, I should surely not be imitating the one who 
does wrong." 

"That is true," said he. 

"Then, according to your reasoning, your father 
must be punished, if indeed it is right that the one 
who does wrong should be punished." 

^^ Which do you think is better for you, Cyrus, to 
mete out your punishments to your benefit or to 
your own injury?" 

"In the latter case, at least," said he, *^I should 
be punishing myself.*' 

16. "Aye, but you would be doing yourself a 
great injury," said Tigranes, "if you should put your 
friends to death just at the time when it was of the 
greatest advantage to you to have them•" 

227 

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XENOPHON 

Πώ? δ' ap, ίφη 6 Κΰροζ, τότ€ irXeiarov 
αξιοί yiyvoiVTO ανθρωττοι όττότβ άΒικονρτβς ά\ί- 
σκοιντο; 

Έα τ6τ€, οιμαι, σώφρονβς yiyvotvro. Bo/cei yap 
μοί, ω Kvp€, οΰτως ίχει,ν, avev pL• σωφροσύνης 
j ονδ' αλλ?79 άρ€της ovBkv δφέλος elvar τι ykp αν, 
ίφη, γρήσαιτ αν τις Ιθ"χνρφ ή άνΒρβίφ μη 
σώφρονί {rj Ιιηηκφ],^ τί Se Ίτλουσίφ, τι δέ 
δίΦαστι; €v ττολβι; συν δέ σωφροσύνη κα\ φίλος 
ιτάς γρησιμος και θβράττων ττάς α/γαθ6ς. 

17. Ύοΰτ οΰν, ίφη, Xiyec^ ώς καΐ ό σος 
πατήρ iv TySe τ§ μια ημέρα €ξ άφρονος σώφρων 
y€y€vητaι; 

ΤΙάνυ μ^ν oifv, ίφη. 

ΤΙάθημα αρα της ψι^ή^ συ \€y€ις elvai 
rifv σωφροσννην, ωσ7Γ€ρ Χνττην, ου μάθημα* ου 
yhp &ν ΒήτΓου, elye φρόνιμον Bei y€vέσθaι τον 
μέΧΚοντα σώφρονα ίσβσθαι, παραχρήμα ίξ άφρο- 
νος σώφρων αν τις yhfoiTO^ 

18. Ύί 8\ €φη, ω Kvpe, ονττω ^σθου καΐ 
€va avBpa Si άφροσννην μ^ν ίττιγειρουντα κρβίτ- 
τονι iavTOv μάχβσθαι, iireiSciv δέ ήττηθ'ρ, βύθνς 
Ίτεπαυμένον της προς τούτον αφροσύνης; πάΧιν 
Β\ ίφη, οΰπω ίώρακας ποΧιν άντιταττομένην 
προς πόΧιν ίτέραν, ής hreihhv ηττηθ^ παραγρημα 
ταύτρ άντΙ του μάγ€σθαι πβίθεσθαι iOeXei; 

^ [1^ ίιπΓίκφ] Schneider, most Edd. ; 1ΐ Ιιηηκφ M8S. ; τί 9* 
ΐΈΤίκφ Dindorfy Sauppe, et aL 

228 



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CYROPAEDIA, III. i. 16-18 

"How," said Cyrus/' could men be of the greatest 
advantage to me just at the time when they were 
caught doing wrong?" 

"They would be, I think, if at that time they The 
should become discreet. For it seems to me to be ^^ϊ^^βΙΤ 
true, Cyrus," said he, " that without discretion there 
is no advantage at all in any other virtue ; for what," 
he continued, "could one do with a strong man or a 
brave man, or what with a rich man or a man of 
- power in the state if he lacked discretion ? But 
every friend is useful and every servant good, if he 
be endowed with discretion." 

17. "Do you mean to say, then," Cyrus answered, 
"that in one day's time your father has become 
discreet when he was indiscreet before?" 

"Yes," said he, " I do, indeed." 

"By that you mean to say that discretion is an 
affection of the soul, as sorrow is, and not an 
acquisition.^ For I do not suppose that a man could 
instantly pass from being indiscreet to being discreet, 
if indeed the one who is to be discreet must first 
have become wise." 

18. "What, have you never observed, Cyrus," said 
he, "that when a man indiscreetly ventures to fight 
a stronger man than himself and has been worsted, he 
is instantly cured of his indiscretion toward that 
particular man? And again," he continued, "have 

.you never seen how when one state is in arms against 
another it is at once willing, when defeated, to 
submit to the victor instead of continuing the 
fight?" 

^ Xenophon makes Cyrus apparently accept the Socratic 
doctrine that wisdom and the other virtues are matters for 
learning, the results of study and practice— not a mood, like 
sorrow, anger, or any other emotion. 

229 



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XENOPHON 

19. ΤΙοίαν δ*, €φη 6 Κνρος, καΐ συ του 
Ίτατρος fJTTav Xeywv οΰτω^ζ ίσχυρίζα σ€σωφρθ' 
νίσθαι αντρν; 

^Ηι; νη ΔΓ, (ίφη, σύνοιΖεν ίαυτφ ίλενθβρίας 
μλν έτΓίθυμήσας, ΒονΧος δ' ώς ovSerrayrrore yevo- 
μ€Ρθ^, h δέ ωηθη γρηνοΛ XaOelv fj φθάσαι 
fj^ ατΓοβίάσασθαι, ovhhf τούτων ίκανος yevo- 
μβνος Βίαττράξασθαι* σ€ δέ olBev, α μ^ν ίβου- 
\ηθη<ζ βξαττατήσαι αυτόν, όντως βξαττατη^αρτα 
ωσίΓβρ αν τι^ τνφΧον^ καΐ κωφούς καϊ μη^ οτιοΰν 
φρονουντας €ξαπατήσ€ί€ν' & Bk φηθης Χαθβΐν 
χρήναι, οντω σ€ olBe Χαθόντα ωστ€ α ίνομ^ζεν 
ίαντω €χνρίί X'^picb αττοκύσθαι, ταύτα συ βίρκτίίς 
αύτφ ^ ίΚαθβς ιτροκατασκευάσας' τάγ€ΐ Be τοσού- 
τον 7Γ€/0ί€7€ΐΌΐ; αύτοΰ ώστε ττρόσωθβν εφθασας 
ΙΚθων συν ιτοΧΚφ στοΚφ ιτρίν τούτον την τταρ 
€αυτφ Βύναμιν άθροίσασθαι, 

20. *Έι7Γ6^τα Bofcei σοι, €φη 6 Κνρος, καϊ 
η τοιαύτη ^ττα σωφρονίζβιν ίκανη elvai αν- 
θρώπους, το yv&vai αΧΚους εαυτών βέλτίονας 
οντάς; 

Πολύ 7^ μαΧΚον, βφη 6 Ύιypάvης, ή όταν 
μάχη τις ηττηθη. 6 μ^ν yap ίσχύι κρατηθείς 
εστίν δτε ωηθη σωμασκησας άναμαχεΐσθαι* καϊ 
ΤΓολείς yε άλοΰσαι συμμάχους ττροσΧαβοΰσαι 
οϊονταί άναμαχέσασθαι αν* οί>ς Β* &ν βεΧτίους 
Τίνες εαυτών ηγησωνται, τούτοις ττοΧΚάκις καϊ 
άνευ άvάyκης εθέΚουσι ττείθεσθαι. 

' ^ xy, most Edd. ; not in ζ, Zeune, Sauppe, Hug. 
2 αύτφ xFD^, GemoU ; ^αυτφ D^ ; σοι ζ (in G marked for 
erasure) ; σαυτφ Ed. ; σί» Sauppe, Dindorf . 

230 



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CYROPAEDIA, ΠΙ. i. 19-20 

19. ^^Το what defeat of your father's do you 
refer," said Cyrus, "that you are so confident that 
he has been brought to discretion by it?" 

"Why that, by Zeus/VTigranes answered, "which How the 
he is conscious of having sustained, inasmuch as Amelia 
when he aimed at securing liberty he has become learned 
more of a slave than ever, and as he has not been 
able to accomplish a single thing of all that he 
thought he should effect by secrecy or by surprise or 
by actual force. And he knows that when you 
desired to outwit him, you did it as effectually as one 
could do who set out to deceive men blind or deaf or 
deprived of all their senses ; and when you thought 
you ought to act secretly, you acted with such 
secrecy that the fortified places which he thought he 
had provided for hjs own safety you had secretly 
turned into prisons for him in advance. And so 
much did you surpass him in dispatch, that you came 
from a distance with a large army before he could 
muster the forces he had at home." 

20. " Well," said Cyrus, " do you really think that 
such a defeat is adequate to make men discreet — I 
mean, when they find out that others are their 
superiors ? " 

" Yes," said Tigranes, " much more than when 
they are defeated in combat. For the one who is 
overcome by strength sometimes conceives the idea 
that, if he trains his body, he may renew the combat. 
Even cities too, when captured, think that by taking 
on new allies they might renew the fight. But if 
people are convinced that others are superior to 
themselves, they are often ready even without com- 
pulsion to submit to them." 



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XENOPHON 

21. Έ,ν, ίφη, €θΐκας ουκ οΐβσθαι, του<ζ νβρίστίίς 
'γι<γνώσκ€ΐν τους ίαυτων σωφρονβστέρονς, ovSk 
T0U9 κ\€7Γτας τον^ μη κΧβτττόντας, ovBe τους 
ψβνΒομένους τον*; τάΧηθή Χέγοντας, ovSe τους 
aSiKovvra^ τον^ τά Βίκαια ττοίοΰντας* ουκ οίσθα, 
ίφη, δτί fcal νυν 6 σο9 ττατηρ βψενσατο καΐ 
ονκέτ ημπέΒον^ τάς ττρος ήμά^ συνθηκας, €ίΒως 
ΟΤΙ ημεί^ οέδ' οτωΰρ ων 'Αστυάγη? σννέθετο 
Ίταραβαίνομεν; 

22. Ά\\' ούδ' εγώ tovtq Χέ^γω ως το yv&vai 
μόνον τους ββΧτίονας σωφρονίζει avev του Βίκην 
ΒιΒόναι ύτΓο των ββΧτωνων, ωσττερ 6 ίμος ττατηρ 
νυν ΒίΒωσίν. 

'Αλλ', €φη 6 Κΰρος, δ y€ σος ττατηρ ireirovOe 
μ^ν ονδ' οτίονν ττω κακόν φοβείται ye μέντοί 
e5 οίδ' ΟΤΙ μη ττάντα τά έσχατα ΤΓάθτ}, 

23. Οϊεί οΰν τι, εφη 6 Ύcypάvης, μαΧΧον 
καταΒουΧονσθαι ανθρώπους του Ισχυρού φόβου; 
ουκ όΐσθ* δτι οΐ μεν τφ Ισγυροτάτω κοΧασματι 
νομιζομενφ σιΒηρφ τταιομενοι όμως εθέΧουσι καΧ 
ττάΧιν μάγεσθαι τοις αύτοϊς; οϋς δ' &ν σφοΒρα 
φοβηθώσιν άνθρωττοι^ τούτοις oiBk τταραμυθου- 
μενοις ετι άντιβΧέττειν Βύνανται; 

A4yεις συ, εφη, ώς 6 φόβος του εpyφ κακού- 
σθαι μαΧΧον κοΧάζει τους ανθρώττους* 

24. Καί σύyε, εφη, οισθα οτι άΧηθή Xεyω' 
επίστασαι yelp οτι οι μεν φοβούμενοι μη ώύyωσι 
ττατρίΒα καΐ οι μεΧΧοντες μάχεσθαι ΒεΒιοτες μη 
ήττηθωσιν [άθνμως Bιάyoυσι, καΐ οι ττΧέοντες 
μη vaυayησωσι,}^ καΐ οΐ ΒουΧείαν καΧ Βεσμον 

^ ούκ4τ* ί}μν4^ου Cobet, Edd. ; ούκ ^ξημ7Γ4^ου MSS. 

2 Bracketed by Madvig and most later Edd. {are despond- 

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21. '^You seem to think/' said the other, ^^that 
the insolent do not recognize those more discreet 
than they, that thieves do not recognize honest men, 
that hars do not recogfaize the truthful, and wrong- 
doers those who do right. Do you not know," he 
continued, *'that even now your father has played 
false and has not kept his agreement with us, 
although he knew that we have not been violating 
any of the agreements made by Astyages ? ** 

22. "Yes; but neither do I mean that simply 
recognizing their superiors makes people discreet, 
unless they are punished by those superiors, as my 
father now is." 

" But," said Cyrus, " your father has not yet suflTered 
the least harm ; but he is afraid, to be sure, that he 
will suffer the worst." 

23. "Do you think, then," said Tigranes, "that Fear of 
anything breaks a man's spirit sooner than abject thaiTthe"* 
fear ? Do you not know that those who are beaten reality 
with the sword, which is considered the most potent 
instrument of correction, are nevertheless ready to 

iight the same enemy again ; but when people really 
fear anyone very much, then they cannot look him 
in the face, even when he tries to cheer them ? " 

"You mean to say," said he, "that fear is a Τ 
heavier punishment to men than real correction;" ^J 

24. "And you," said he, "know that what I 
say is true ; for you are aware that, on the one 
hand, those who are afraid that they are to be 
exiled from their native land, and those who on the 
eve of battle are afraid that they shall be defeated, 

ewi, and tJiose who at eea fear that they are going to be 
wrecked,) ; [καΐ . . . ναυαγίισωσι] Gemoll. 

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XENOPHON 

ι 

φοβούμενοι, οΰτοι μ€Ρ οντ€ σίτου ούθ* ΰττνου hv- 
νανταί Xayydveiv Stci τον φόβον οί δέ ηίη μ^ν φν- 
γαδ€9, ^&7 ο ηττημένοι, ήοη δέ SovXevovre^, βστιν 
δτ€ Βύνανται κα\ μαΧΚον των €ύ8αιμόνων έσθίβιν 
\ τ€^ καΧ fcaOevSeiv. 25. ere δέ φαν€ρωτ€ρον καΐ 
j iv τοΖσδε οίον φόρημα 6 φόβος• evioi ycip φοβού- 
μενοι μη Χηφθέντβς άττοθάνωσι Ίτροαττοθνησκονσιν 
υίΓΟ τον φόβου, οί μ^ν ρηττουντες εαυτού^:, οί δ' 
άπα^χόμενοι, οί δ' άττοσφαττόμενοί' οΰτω ττάντων 
των Βεινων 6 φόβος μάΧιστα καταττληττει τείς 
ψυχάς. τον δ' εμον ττατέρα, εφη, νυν ττως Βοκεΐς 
οιακεΐσθαι την ψυχην, δ? ου μόνον ιτερί εαυτού, 
άΧλΛ fcal περί εμοΰ καΐ ττερϊ γυναικός κα\ ττερϊ 
ττάντων των τέκνων [ΒουΧείας] ^ φοβείται; 

26. ΚαΙ ό Κύρος είπεν. Άλλα νυν μεν εμoίyε 
ovBkv ατΓίστον τούτον οΰτω Βιακεισθαι* Βοκεΐ 
μεντοι μοι του αύτοΰ ανΒρος είναι καΧ εύτυγρυντα 
εξυβρίσαι καϊ ττταίσαντα ταχύ τττήξαι, καΐ 
άνεθέντα γε ττάΧιν αυ μεηα φρονησαι καϊ ττάΧιν 
αΐί Ίτράηματα τταρασγεΐν. 

27. 'Αλλά ναΙ μλ Αι, εφη, & Κΰρε, έχει pkv 
προφάσεις τά ημέτερα αμαρτήματα ωστ άττιστεΐν 
ήμΐν εξεστι Βέ σοι καϊ φρούρια εντειχίζειν καϊ 
τά εχυρεί κατέχειν κ αϊ αΧΧο δ τι &ν βούΧτι 
ττιστον Χαμβάνειν. καϊ μεντοι, εφη, ημάς μεν 
έξεις ούΒέν τι τούτοις μέ^γα Χυττουμενους' μεμνη- 
σόμεθα yap οτι ημείς αύτων αϊτιοί έσμεν εί Βέ 
τινι των άναμαρτητων τταραΒούς την άρχην 

* iaOUiv TC χ, most Edd. ; iaeUiv τ€ καί iriv€iv yz, GemoU 
(both eat and drink). 

2 SovKeias xyz, Dindorf. ; not in Vatioanus 987 ; [iowAeias] 
most Edd. 

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CYROPAEDIA, III. i. 24-27 

and those who fear slavery or bondage^ all such 
can neither eat nor sleep for fear; whereas those 
who are already in exile or already defeated or 
already in slavery can sometimes eat and sleep better 
than those enjojring a happier lot. 25. And ^m the 
following considerations it is still .clearer what a 
burden fear is: some, for fear that they ivill be 
caught and put to death, in terror take their own 
lives before their time — ^some by hurling themselves 
over a precipice, other by hanging themselves, others 
by cutting their own throats; so does fear crush 
down the soul more than all other terrors. As for 
my father,'* he added, "in what a state of mind 
do you think he is ? For he is in dread not only 
for himself, but also for me, for his wife, and for all 
of his children." 

26. *' Well," answered Cjrrus, " it is not at all un- 
likely, I suppose, that he is for the moment in such 
a state of mind. However, it seems to me that we 
expect of a man who is insolent in success and 
abject in failure that, when set on his feet once more, 
he will again wax arrogant and again cause more 
trouble." 

27. " Well, by Zeus, Cyrus," said he, " our wrong- Tigranes 
doing does, no doubt, give you cause to distrust us ; ρ}^'*'!^ 
but you may build forts in our country and occupy adjustment 
the strongholds already built and take whatever else 

you wish as security. And yet," he added, "you 
will not find us very much aggrieved by your doing 
so ; for we shall remember that we are to blame for 
it all. But if you hand over our government to some 
one of those who have done no wrong and yet show 



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XENOPHON 

ατΓΐ,στων αυτοΐ<ζ φανεί, δρα αη αμα τ€ εδ 7Γ0ίησ€ΐ<ξ 
fcal αμα ου φίΧον νομιονσι σβ' el δ' αΰ φυλατ- 
τομενο^ το αιτεγθάνβσθαι μη βττίθησεις αντοΐ<ί 
ζχίτγά τον μη νβρίσαι, ορα μη βκβίρους ai Βεησει 
σ€ σωφρονίζείν en μαΧΚον rj ημάς νυν ίΒέησεν. 

28. 'Αλλά wil μΛ τους θεούς, εφη, τοιοντοις 
μ^ν Ιγωγβ ύττηρέταις, οϋς εϋείην avdy/crf υττηρε- 
τοΰντας, άηΒως αν μοι Βοκω χρήσθαΐ' οδς Se 
^^υγνώσκειν Βοκοίην οτι εύνοια καΐ φΐΚια τη εμρ 
το Βέον συΧΚαμβάνοιεν, τούτους αν μοι Βοκω 
καΐ αμαρτάνοντας ραον φέρειν ή τους μισουντας 
μέν, ΙκττΧεω Βε ττάντα ανάγκη Βιαττονουμένους. 

Καϊ 6 Ύί'γράνης είττε προς ταύτα, ΦιΧίαν Βε 
iraph τίνων ανττοτε Χάβοις τοσαύτην δσην σοι 
Trap ημών ίξεστι κτήσασθαι νύν; 

Hap εκείνων οΐμαΐ, εφη, [τταρά] ^ των μηΒέττοτε 
ΤΓοΧεμίων f^er /ενη μένων, ει εθελοιμι εύερ^ετειν 
αυτούς ωσττερ σύ νυν με κεΧεύεις εύερ^ετεΐν ύμας. 

29. Ή και Βύναιο αν, εφη, ω Κΰρε, εν τφ 
τταρόντί νυν εύρεΐν οτφ &ν γαρίσαιο οσαττερ τφ 
εμφ ττατρί; αύτίκα, εφη, ην τίνα εας ζην των 
σε μηΒεν ήΒικηκότων, τίνα -σοι τούτου χάριν 
οϊει αύτον εϊσεσθαι; τι Β\ ην αυτού τέκνα καΐ 
γυναίκα μη άφαιρρ, τις σε τούτου ένεκα φΐΚησει 
μαΧΧον ή 6 νο μιζών ττροσηκειν αύτω άφαιρε- 
θηναι; την δ' ^Αρμενίων βασιΧείαν ει μη εξει, 
οίσθά τίνα, εφη, αΧΚον μαΧΚον Χυττούμενον 
fj ημάς; ούκούν καΐ τοΰτ, εφη, ΒηΧον οτι ό 
μαΧιστα Χυττούμενος εΐ μη βασιΧεύς εϊη ούτος 
καΐ Χαβων την αρχήν με^ίστην αν σοι χάριν 

^ vapk MSS., Dindorf, Hug; [παρά] Cobet, Marchant, 
GemoU. 

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CYROPAEDIA, III. i. 27-29 

that you distrust them, see to it lest they regard you 
as no friend, in spite of your favours to them. But if 
again, on your guard against incurring their hatred, 
you fail to place a check upon them to keep them 
from rebellion, see to it lest you need to bring them 
to discretion even more than you did in our case 
just now." 

28. ^^ Nay, by the gods," said he, *^ I do not think"! 
I should like to employ servants that I knew served ^ 
me only from compulsion. But if I had servants who 
I thought assisted me, as in duty bound, out of good- 
will and friendship toward me, I think I should be 
better satisfied with them when they did wrong than 
with others who disliked me, when they performed 
all their tasks faithfully but from compulsion." — ' 

To this Tigranes replied : ^^ From whom could you 
ever get such friendship as you now can from us .^ " 

^^From those, I presume," said he, "who have 
never been my enemies, if I would do them such 
favours as you now bid me do you." 

29. "But, Cyrus," said he, "as things now are, He argues 
could you find any one to whom you could do as great Sn^uance 
favours as you can to my father ? For example, if you f^. 
grant any one of those who have done you no wrong reign 

his life, what gratitude do you think he will feel 
toward you for that ? And again, who will love you 
for not depriving him of his wife and children more 
than he who thinks that it would serve him right to 
lose them ? And do you know of any one who would 
be more grieved than we, not to have the throne of 
Armenia? Well, then," he added, "it is evident 
that he who would be most grieved not to be king, 
would also be most grateful for receiving the throne. 



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XENOPHON 

εΙΒβίη. 30. el Se τι σοι, βφη, μίΧει καΧ του 
ώ? ηκιστα τβταρα^μένα τάδε καταΧίττβίν, όταν 
άττίτ)^, σκοτΓβι, ίφη, ττότερον αν οΐβι ήρβμβστέρως 
€χ€ίν τά ivOahe και,νη^ ^βνομβνη^ ^PXV^ V '^V^ 
βίωθυία^ καταμβνούσης' el 8έ τι σοι μέΧεν καΐ 
τον ώ<ζ πΧβίστην στρατιών βξώγβιν, τίν* &ν οΪ€ΐ 
μαΚΧον €ξ€τάσαι ταντην 6ρθω<ξ του ττοΧΚάκι^ 
αύτβ κεχρημένου; el δέ καΐ χρημάτων Ββησει, 
τίνα &ν ταύτα νομίζ€ί<ζ κρβίττον έκττορίσαι του 
καΐ elSoTO^ καΐ βχοντος πάντα τά οντά; ω^αθέ, 
βφη, Kvp€, φύ\aξaL μη ημα<ζ άττοβάλων σαυτον 
ζημιώστι^ ττΧβίω η 6 ττατηρ έΒυνηθη σβ βΧάψαι, 

Ό μ€ν τοιαύτα eXeyev. 31. ο δέ Κ,ΰρος άκούων 
ύτΓβρηΒετο, ΟΤΙ ίνομιζβ περαΧνεσθαι ττάντα αύτφ 
οσαΐΓβρ ιπτέσχετο τφ Κυαξάρ'ρ ττράξβίν έμέμνητο 
yctp άττων οτι καΙ φίΧον οϊοιτο μαΧΧον η ττρόσθ^ν 
7Γ0ίησ€ΐν. 

ΚαΧ etc τούτου 8η τον * Αρμενων έρωτα, *Ηϊ/ 
he 8η ταύτα ττάθωμαι ύμΐν, Xeye μοι, ίφη, συ, 
ώ ^Αρμένιε^ ττόσην μ^ν στρατιάν μοι συμ7Γ€μψ€ΐς, 
πόσα δέ χρήματα συμβαΧβΐ eh τον ποΧβμον; 

32. Π/ο09 ταύτα Βη Xeyei ο ^Αρμένιος, ΟύΒβν 
€χω, ω Κύρ€, βφη, άπΧούστβρον βΐπβΐν oihk 
Βικαωτβρον ή Ββΐξαι μεν €μ^ πασαν την ούσαν 
δύναμιν, σέ δέ ΙΒόντα δσην μεν αν σον 8οκρ 
στρατιών ayevv, την δΙ καταΧιπεΐν τη^ χώρα<$ 
φνΧακήν. ώ? δ' αντω? π^ρΐ χρημάτων 8ηΧωσαι 
μ^ν εμε δίκαιον σοι πάντα τά οντά, σε 8ε τούτων 
αύτον γνόντα οπόσα τε αν βούΧτ^ φέρεσθαι καϊ 
όπόσα Αν βούΧγ καταΧιπεΐν, • 

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CYROPAEDIA, III. i. 30-32 

30. And if you care at all to leave matters here in 
as little confusion as possible when you go away, 
consider whether you think the country would be 
more tranquil under the beginning of a new adminis- 
tration than if the one we are used to should continue. 
And if you care to take with you as large an army as 
possible, who do you think would be in a better 
position to organize the troops properly than he who 
has often employed them ? And if you need money 
also, who do you think could supply Jt better than 
he who knows and commands all the sources of 
supply } My good Cyrus," he added, ^^ beware lest 
in casting us aside you do yourself a greater injury 
than any harm «ly father has been able to do you." 

Thus he spoke. 31. And Cyrus was more than 
pleased at hearing him, for he thought that every- 
thing that he had promised Cyaxares to do was in 
course of accomplishment ; for he remembered hav- 
ing told him that he would make the Armenian more 
his friend than he was before. . 

" Tell me, king of Armenia," he therefore asked,jCyru8 
" if I yield to you in this matter, how large an armyLonciifatory 
will you send with me and how much money willp*^*"*^® 
you contribute to the war ? " J 

32. ^^I have nothing to propose more simple or 
more fair, Cjrrus," the Armenian replied to this, ^^ than 
for me to show you all the forces I have and for you, 
when you have seen them, to take as many as you see 
fit, leaving the rest here to protect the country. 
And in the same way in regard to the money, it is 
proper for me to show you all that I have, and for 
you to decide for yourself and take as much as you 
please and to leave as much as you please." 

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XENOPHON 

33. ΚαΙ 6 Κνρο<; elirev, ^Ιθι Stj Χέξον μοι ττόσι; 
σοι Βνναμί<ζ βστι, Χέξον δέ καΐ πόσα 'χρήματα. 

^Ενταύθα 8η Xeyei 6 ^Αρμένιος, 'Ιττττεί? μ€ν 
τοίνυν €ίσϊρ \^Αρμ€νίωι^] ^ eh οκτακισχιΧίονς, 
ΤΓβζοΙ δέ €^9 τέτταρας μνριάΒα<ζ' χρήματα S*, 
€φη, συν ^ τοις θησαυροΐς oh 6 ττατηρ κατέλιττβν 
€στιν eh apyvpiov Χο^^ισθίντα ταΧαντα ττΧβίω 
των τρισχιΧίων, 

34. Καί ο Κ.νρο<ζ ουκ ίμέλΧησβν, αλλ' εΖττε, 
Τ^9 μ€ν τοίνυν στρατιάς, iirei σοι, βφη, οί όμοροι 
^aXSaioi ποΧβμοΰσι^ τού<ζ ήμίσ€ΐ<ζ μοι σύμττβμτΓβ• 
των 8ί χρημάτων άντΧ μβν των ττβντή κοντά 
ταΧάντων ων βφβρβς Βασμον ΒιττΧάσια Κυαξάρτ^ 
άποΒος, οτι βΧιττες την φοράν έμοϊ Β\ βφη, αΧΧα 
ίκατον Βάνβισον βγω Se σοι ύττισχνοΰμαι, ην ο 
θβο<ζ el• ΒιΒω, άνθ* ων αν βμοί Βανείσ'ρς ή αΧΧα^ 
ττΧβίονος άξια εύβρ^βτήσβιν η τά, χρήματα άττα- 
ριθμήσβιν, ήν'Βύνωμαΐ' ην Se μί) ούνωμαι, άδι5- 
νατος &ν φαινοίμην, οΐμαι, αΒικο<ζ 3' ουκ &ν 
Βικαίω<; κρινοίμην. 

35. Κα ι ό Άρ μίνιου, ΤΙρος των θέων, ίφη, 
& Κϋρβ, μη. οΰτω Xeye• et δέ μή, ου θαρροΰντά 
μ€ €ξ€ΐ<ζ' αλλά νόμιζε, βφη, hv καταΧί7η)<ξ μηΒ^ν 
ήττον σά eivai ων &ν ίχων airlri^. 

Elev, ίφη 6 Κνρος' ωστ€ δέ την γυναίκα. 
άτΓοΧαβεΐν, ίφη, ττοσα αν μοι χρήματα 8οίη(ζ; 
ΌτΓοσα &ν Βυναίμην, βφη, 
Tt Be, ωστ€ τον? τταΐΒας; 
ΚαΙ τούτων, βφη, οττόσα hv Βυναίμην. 

^ ΆρμίνΙων MSS. ; bracketed by Hug, Marchant, Gemoll. 
2 ahy yC^ Edd. ; iv C^EHG (among the treamrta) j 
ahriHS Δ. 

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CYROPAEDIA, ΠΙ. i. 33-35 

33. '^ Come then/' said Cyrus, ^^tell me how large 
your forces are and how much money you have." 

'^ Well," the Armenian then answered, '^ there are 
about eight thousand cavalry and about forty thou- 
sand infantry. And the property," said he, "includ- 
ing the treasures that my father left me, amounts, 
when reduced to cash, to more than three thousand 
talents." 

34. And without hesitation, Cyrus replied : " Send His 
with me then," said he, "only half the army, since 
your neighbours, the Chaldaeans, are at war with 
you. And of the money, instead of the fifty talents 
which you used to pay as tribute, pay Cyaxares double 
that sum because you are in arrears with your pay- 
ments. And lend me personally a hundred more," 
said he; "and I promise you that if God prospers 
me, I will in return for your loan either do you other 
favours worth more than that amount or at least pay 
you back the money, if I can ; but if I cannot, I 
may seem insolvent, I suppose, but I should not 
justly be accounted dishonest." 

35. " For heaven s sake, Cyrus," said the Armenian, 
^' do not talk that way. If you do, you will make me 
lose heart. But consider," said he, "that what you 
leave here is no less yours than what you take away.*' 

*^ Very well," said Cyrus ; ** now how much money 
would you give to get your wife back ? " 
" As much as I could," said he. 
" And how much to get your children ? " 
" For these also," said he, " as much as I could." 

241 

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XENOPHON 

Ούκονν, €φη 6 Κνρο<ζ, ταύτα μεν ηΒη SinXaata 
των όντων. 36. συ δβ, €φη, ω Ύί^^ράνη, Χέξον μοι 
ΊΓοσον αν Ίτρίαω ωστ€ την yvvaiK^ άττοΧαβεΐν. 

Ό δέ €τνγχαν€ νεό^αμος τ€ ων καΧ νττβρφιΧων 
την yvvacKa, 

Έγώ μέν, βφη, ω Kvpe, κάν τή<ζ ψνχης ττρι- 
αίμην ωστ€ μηποτβ Χατρβΰσαι, ταύτην. 

37. Χν fihf τοίνυν, βφη, άττώγου την σήν ovSe 
yap βίληφθαι Ιγωγβ αίχμαλωτον ταύτην νομίζω 
σου y€ μηττώττοτε φυy6vτo<; ημα<ζ, κάΙ συ 84, ω 
^Αρμένιε, a'πάyoυ την yυvaϊκa καΐ τού^ τταΐΒας 
μηΒεν αύτων καταθείς, ΐν άΒωσιν οτι ελεύθεροι 
ττρος σέ άττερχονται, καϊ νυν μεν, εφη, Βειττνεΐτβ 
Trap* ήμΐν Βεΐ7Γνησαντε<ζ Bk άττεΧαύνετε οττοι υμΐν 
θυμό<;. ούτω 8η κατέμειναν, 

38. Αιασκηνούντων Βε μετά Βεΐττνον εττηρετο 6 
Κνρος, ΈιΙττέ μοι, εφη, ω Ύcypάvη, ττοΰ Βη εκείνος 
εστίν ο ανηρ δ? συνεθηρα ήμΐν καΐ συ μοι μάΧα 
εΒόκεις θαυμάζειν αυτόν. 

Ου yap, εφη, άττεκτεινεν αύτον ουτοσϊ 6 εμος 
ττατηρ; 

Ύί Χαβων άΒικοΰντα; 
^ν / Αιαφθείρειν αύτον εφη εμέ. καίτοι y, εφη, ω 
Κ,ϋρε, οΰτω καΧος κάτ/αθο<; εκείνος fjv ώ? καΧ οτε 
άίΓοθνήσκειν εμεΧΧε ττροσκαΧεσα^ με είττε, Ήίη τι 
σύ, εφη, ω Ύιypάvη, οτι άττοκτείνει με, χαΧεττανθ^ς 
τω ττατρί* ου yap κακονοία τινί ^ τοΰτο ιτοιεΖ, αλλ* 
ά/γνοία' όττοσα Βε ayvoia ανθρωιτον εξαμαρτάνουσι, 
ττάντ ακούσια ταύτ Ιγωγε νομίζω, 

^ ην\ zED, Dindorf ; rg σγ F, most Edd. {toward you) ; τρ 
<rj 76 Hug, supposedly after C. 

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CV^ROPAEDIA, III. i. 35-38 

* 

"Well then/* said Cyrus, "that makes already 
twice as much as you have. 36. And you, Tigranes," 
said he, "tell me how much you would pay to get 
your wife back ? " 

Now it happened that he was newly married and 
loved his wife very dearly. 

*^ I would give my life, Cyrus," said he, " to keep 
her from slavery." 

37. " Well then," said he, ^^take her back; she is His 
your own. For I, for my part, do not consider that e®'*®"***^ 
she has been made a prisoner of war at all, since 

you never ran away from us. And you too, king of 
Arjnenia, may take back your wife and children 
without paying any ransom for them, that they may 
know that they return to you free men and women. 
And now," said he, *^ stay and have dinner with us ; 
and when you have dined you may drive away 
wherever you have a mind to go." So they stayed. 

38. And after dinner, as the party was breaking up,\A Socrates 
Cyrus asked : "Tell me, Tigranes, where is the man ^ -^™^«"*» 
who used to hunt with us ? You seemed to admire 
him very much." 

" Ah," he replied, " did not my father here have 
him put to death ? ^' 

" What wrong did he find him doing } " 
" He said that he was corrupting me. And yet,. 
C3nrus," said he, "he was so noble and so good that 
when he was about to be put to death, he called me 
to him and said : ^ Be not angry with your father, 
Tigranes, for putting me to death ; for he does it, 
not from any spirit of malice, but from ignorance, 
and when men do wrong from ignorance, I believe 
they do it quite against their will.' " 



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XENOPHON 

39. Ό μ^ν St) Κΰρος βττΐ τούτοις ehre, ΦβΟ του 
άν8ρ6<ζ, 

Ό δ* * Αρμένιος ίΧβξβν, Οΰτοι, βφη, ω Kvpe, 
ούδ' οι ταΪ9 eavT&v γυναιξί Χαμβάνοντβς συνόντα<ζ 
άλΧοτρίου<ζ ανΒρας ου τοΰτο αΐτιώμενοι αυτούς 
κατακαίνουσιν^ ως άφρονβστέρας^ ττοιοΰντας * τά? 
γυναίκας, αλλά νομίζοντας άφαφβΐσθαι αυτούς την 
ττρος αυτούς φιΧίαν, Bici τοΰτο ως ττοΧεμίοις 
αύτοΐς γρωνται. καϊ εγώ €Κ€ίνφ, βφη, έφθόνουν, 
ΟΤΙ μον iSoKCi τον βμον υΐον irovelv αύτον μαΧΚον 
θαυμάζβιν ή έμέ, 

40. ΚαΙ ο Κνρος etirev, 'Αλλά να\ μΛ τους 
θεούς, €φη, ω ^Αρμένιε, άνθρώτηνά μοι 8οχ€Ϊς 
άμαρτ€Ϊν καϊ συ, ω Ύι^γράνη, συ^γίγνωσκβ τφ 
ττατρί. 

Τότε μ^ν 8η τοιαύτα Βια'λεχθέντες καϊ φιΧοφρο- 
νηθέντβς ωσττβρ βίκος €κ συvaXkayής, άναβαντβς 
€1γΪ τας άρμαμάξας σύν ταϊς γυναιξϊν άττηλαυνον 
βύφραινόμβνοι, 

41. ΈπεΙ δ' ^\θον oiKahe, eXeyov του Κΰρου ο 
μέν τις την σοφίαν, ο 8k την καρτβρίαν, 6 δε την 
ττραοτητα, 6 δε τις καϊ το κάΧΚος καϊ το μέγεθος. 

''Ενθα 8η 6 Ύιγράνης έττηρβτο την ^υναϊκα, *Η 
καϊ σοι, €φη, & ^Αρμενία, κάλος iSoKei 6 Κ,ΰρος 
elvai; 

'Αλλά /ιά ΔΓ, βφη, ουκ €Κ€Ϊνον βθεώμην. 

'Αλλά τίνα μην; βφη 6 Ύιγράνης, 

^ κατακαίνουαην Cobet, Marchant, Gemoll; κατακηΐνουσιι^ 
MSS., Dindorf, Breitenbach. 

'^ k<ppov^ripa% Stephanas, Dindorf, Breitenbach, Hug ; a/ui- 
θ€στ4ρα$ yC, Marchant ; σωψρον€(ττ4ρα$ zE ; iiKpaTcarrdpas 
Gemoll. 
* ' '^oiovvras yO, Edd. ; roiqvvres zE. 

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CYROPAEDIA, III. i. 39-41 

39. " Poor man ! " Cjnrus exclaimed on hearing 
this. 

Here the Armenian king interrupted : " Do not men 
who discover strangers in intercourse with their 
wives kill them^ not on the ground that they make 
their wives more inclined to folly, but in the belief 
that they alienate from them their wives* affections — 
for this reason they treat them as enemies. So I 
was jealous of him because I thought that he made 
my son regard him more highly than he did me." 

40. " Well, by the gods, king of Armenia/* said 
Cyrus, " your sin seems human ; and you, Tigranes, 
must forgive your father.*' 

Then when they had thus conversed and showed 
their friendly feelings toward one another, as was 
natural aft^r a reconciliation, they entered their 
Ciuriages and drove away with their wives, happy. 



Armenian 



41. And when they got home they talked, one ol j 
Cyrus's wisdom, another of his strength, another oi of Cyme ^" 
his gentleness, and still another of his beauty and 
his commanding presence. 

Then Tigranes asked his wife : " Tell me, my 
Armenian princess," said he, "did you, too, think 
Cyrus handsome ? " 

^^ Why, by Zeus," said she, ^^ I did not look at 
him." 

" At whom, then ? " asked Tigranes. 

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XENOPHON 

Ύον εΙτΓοντα νη Δία ώς τη<ξ αυτού ^ ψνχης αν 
ττρίαιτο ωστ€ μή μ€ SovXeveiv, 

Tore μ^ν Srj ωσττβρ βίκο^ζ i/c τοιούτων άν&ιταύον- 
το συν άΧΧ'ηλοις. 

42. Ύτ) δ' νστ€ραία 6 ^Αρμένιο<ζ Κνρφ μ^ν και 
τ^ στρατιά airaay ξένια εττβμπβ, Trpoelire δέ τοΙ<ζ 
ίαντον, οί><ζ Ββησοι στρατβνβσθαι, et? τρίτην ήμέ- 
ραν irapelvai* τά, δέ χρήματα ων είττεν 6 Κνρος 
ΒιττΧάσια άττηρίθμησβν, 6 δέ Κΰρο<ζ δσα elire 
Χαβων ταΧΚα άττέπβμψβν ήρβτο δέ πότερος 
ίστοΛ ο το στράτευμα άγων, ο ΤΓαΐ<ζ ή αυτός. 
εΐΊτέτην δέ αμα 6 μεν ττατηρ οΰτως, Όττότερον &ν 
συ κεΧεύρς* 6 δέ τταί? οΰτως, Έγώ μ^ν ουκ 
άτΓοΧείψοβίαί σου, & Κΰρε, ούδ' &ν σκευοφόρον 
εμ^ 8έτ) σοι^ συνακόΧουθεΙν, 

43. ΚαΙ ό Κ5/0Ο9 εττι^εΧάσας είττε, ΚαΙ βττΐ 
ττοσφ αν, εφη, εθέΧοις την γυναικά σου άκοΰσαι 
ΟΤΙ σκευοφορεΐς; 

*Αλλ' ούΒέν, εφη, άκούειν Βεήσει αυτήν αξω 
yap, ωστε οραν εξεστοΛ αύτρ 6 τι &ν iya> ττράττω. 

''ίίρα αν, εφη, συσκευάζεσθαι υμϊν εΐη. 

^όμιζ^, εφη, συνεσκευασ μένους ιταρέσεσθαι δ 
τι &ν 6 ττατηρ 8φ. 

Τότ6 μ^ν Βή ξενισθέντες οι στρατιωται εκοιμή- 
θησαν. 

^ αύτου Edd. ; αύτοΰ MSS. 

* Ufi σοι Stephanue, Edd. ; iefiaroi yz ; Sc^^ci Ε ; Β^-ήση C. 

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CYROPAEDIA, III. i. 41-43 

^^ At him, by Zeus, who said that he would give 
his life to keep me from servitude." 

Then as might be expected after such experiences, 
they went to rest together. 

42. And on the following day the Armenian king 
sent guest-presents to Cyrus and all his army, and 
he commanded those of his men who were to take 
the field to present themselves οΛ the third day ; and 
he paid Cyrus double the sum of money that he had 
named. But Cyrus accepted only the amount speci- 
fied and returned the rest. Then he asked which of 
the two was to go in command of the forces, the 
king himself or his son. They both answered at the 
same instant, the father saying : '^ Whichever you Tigranes 
command " ; and the son : " I will never leave you, cy^Se's 
Cyrus, not even if I have to accompany you as a "™^ 
camp-follower. * ' 

43. And Cyrus, laughing, said : " How much would 
you take to have your wife told that you were a 
camp-follower }*' 

" Why," said he, " she will not need to be told 
anjrthing about it ; for I shall take her with me, so 
that she will be in a position to see whatever I do." 

^' Then," said he, ^^ it may be high time for you to 
be getting your things together." 

" Be sure," said he, " that we shall be here with 
everything brought together that my father gives 
us." 

And when the soldiers had recfeived their presents 
they went to bed. 



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XENOPHON 



II 



1. Tfj δ' ύστβραία άναΧαβων 6 Κ5/οο9 τον Tiypd- 
νην καΧ των Μ.ή^ων ίτητέων τους κρατίστους καΐ 
των βαυτοΰ φίλων όιτόσονς καιρός iSSxei etvat, 
ΤΓβρίέΚαύνων την χώραν κατβθβατο, σκοπών ττον 
τ€ΐχίσ€ί€ φρουρών, καΐ iir άκρον τι βΚθων εττη- 
ρώτα τον Ύί^γράνην ττοΐα €Ϊη των ορέων ΟΊτοθεν οι 
"ΚαΤ^αΐοι καταθέοντβς Χέζονται, και 6 Ύί^^ράνης 
βΖβίκνυ} 6 δέ ΊτάΚίν fjpCTO, ΝΟζ^ Be ταΰτα τά δρη 
ίρημΛ iaTLv; 

Ου μΛ ΔΓ, ίφη, αλλ* ael σκοιτοΧ elalv βκβίνων 
οΐ σημαίνουσι τοις αΧΚοις ο τι αν ορωσι. 

Ύί οΖν, €φη, τΓοωυσιν, βττην αϊσθωνται; 

Έοηθονσιν, βφη, βττΐ τά άκρα, ώς &ν βκαστος 
Βύνηται. 

2. Ύαΰτα μ^ν Βη 6 Κύρος ήκηκόβΓ σκοττων δέ 
κατενόβι ττοΧΧην της χώρας τοις ^Αρμβνίοις βρη- 
μον καΐ apyov οΰσαν Sict τον ττοΧεμον. καϊ τ6τ€ 
μ^ν άπήΧθον €7γΙ το στρατοττβΒον και Ββιττνη- 
σαντβς ίκοιμηθησαν. 

3. Τ§ δ' ύστ€ραία αυτός τ€ 6 Ύι^ρανης ιταρην 
συνβσκευασ μένος και ίτητβΐς €ΐς τους τ€τρακισ- 
χιΧίους airveXeyovTO αύτφ κάΙ τοξόται βίς τους 
μύριους, καϊ ττελτασταΐ αΧΧοι τοσούτοι, 

Ό δέ Κΰρος ev φ συνβΧ^γοντο έθύβτο' iirei δέ 
/(αλΛ τά Upct fjv αύτφ, συν€κάΧ€σ€ Τους τ€ των 

^ iifUw Dindorf, Hug; ilielKPuey MSS., Breitenbach, Mar^ 
chant, Clemoll. 

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CYROPAEDIA, III. ii. j-3 



II 

1. On the morrow Cyrus took with him Tigranes, Prepara- 
the best of the Median horsemen, and as many of co^uMt 0/ 
his own friends as he thought proper, and rode caiaidaea 
around to inspect the country with a view to finding 

a place in which to build a fort. And when he had 
come to a certain eminence he asked Tigranes which 
were the mountains from which the Chaldaeans were 
accustomed to descend to make forays intq the coun- 
try. And Tigranes pointed them out. And again he 
asked : ^' And are these mountains now unoccupied ? " 

"No, by Zeus," said he; "but they always have 
scouts up there who signal to the rest whatever they 
see." 

"Then," said he, ^^what do they do, when they 
receive the signals?" 

"They run out to the heights to help," said he, 
"each as' best he can." 

2. Such was the account to which Cyrus listened ; 
and as he looked he observed that a large portion 
of the Armenians' country was deserted and un- 
cultivated as a result of the war. And then they 
went back to camp and after they had dined they 
went to rest. 

3. On the following day Tigranes presented 
himself with his baggage all ready for the start ; and 
under his command were assembled about four 
thousand horsemen and about ten thousand bowmen 
and as many peltasts besides. 

While they had been coming together, Cyrus had 
been sacrificing ; and when his sacrifice gave favour- 
able omens, he called a meeting of the officers of the 



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XENOPHON 

ΤΙβρσων ψ/€βΐόρας καΐ τους των Μη8ωρ. 4. €7rel δ* 
ομον ί]σαν, βΚβξε TouiSe• 

"ΆνΒρβς φίΧοί^ ίστι μλν τά ofyq ταύτα h ορώ- 
μ€ν ΧαΧΒαίων el 8^ ταύτα καταΧάβοιμβν κα\ hr 
άκρου yivoLTO ήμέτβρον φρούριον, σωφρονβΐν άνώγκη 
&ν €Ϊη 7Γ/0Ο9 ήμα<; άμφοτέρονς, τοις τ€ Άρμβνίοις 
καΐ τοις ^αΧΒαίοις. τα μ^ρ οΐ/ν ieph καΧίί ημΖν* 
άνθρωττίνρ δέ ττροθυμία βίς το ττραχθήναι ταύτα 
ουδέν οΰτω μίτ^α σύμμαγρν &ν yivoiTO ως τάχος, 
ήν yctp φθάσωμεν ιτρϊν τους ττοΧεμίους συΧΧβψ}- 
ναι άναβάντ€ς, tj ιταντάττασιν άμαχεί Χάβοιμβν αν 
το άκρον tj οΧί^οις τ€ καΐ ασθενίσι χρησαίμεθ* &ν 
ΐΓοΧεμίονς, 

5. Ύων otv ΤΓονων oυh€Xς ράων ούδ' άκινΒυνότβ- 
ρος, βφη, έστΙ του νυν καρτέρησαν σττβύΒοντας. 
ϊτ€ οΖν έττϊ τά δττλα. καΐ . . .^ 

'Ύμεΐς μέν, ω ΜήΒοι, iv αριστερά ημών ιτορεύ- 
€σ耕 ύμ€ίς S4, ω ^Αρμένιοι, οΐ pkv ήμίσεις iv Βεξια, 
οι δ' ήμίσεις ίμτΓροσθεν ήμων η^βΐσθβ* υμα,ς δ', 
ώ ίτΓΤΓβΐς, δτΓίσθβν ίττβσθβ τταρακΟ^υόμ^νοι καϊ 
ωθοΰντες ανω ημάς, tjv hi τις μαΧακύνηται, μη 
έτητρέτΓ€Τ€. 

6. Ταυτ* είττων 6 Κνρος ψγβΐτο όρθιους ττοιη- 
σάμβνος τους Χόχους. οι δέ XaXSaioi ώς €ψ/ωσαν 
την ορμην ανω οΰσαν, βύθύς βσημαινόν τ€ τοις 
βαυτων καϊ συνεβόων άΧΚηΧους ^ καΐ συνη- 
θροίζοντο, 

Ό δέ Κ,ΰρος τταρη^γ^γύα, *ΆνΒρ€ς ΤΙέρσαι, ημΐν 

^ Α lacuna, in which preparations are effected, Hug, 
Marohant, Gemoli. 
' ίt\λ'^\ovs Schneider, Edd.; άλλ^λο» MSS. 

«SO 



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CYROPAEDIA, III. ii. 3-6 

Persians and of the Medes; 4. and• when they 
were come together, he spoke as follows : 

*^My friends, these mountains which we see 
belong to Chaldaea ; but if we should seize them and 
have a fort of our own built upon the summit, both 
parties — the Armenians, I mean, and the Chaldaeans 
— would have to behave with discretion toward us. 
Now, the sacrifices give us favourable omens ; but, for 
the execution of our plan, nothing would be so 
strong an ally to human zeal as dispatch. For if we 
get up there before the enemy have time to come 
together, we may gain possession of the heights 
altogether without a battle, or we may at least find 
enemies few in number and without strength. 

5. "Of the tasks before us, therefore, none is He hurls 
easier or less fraught with danger," said he, "than into^ScT 
now bravely to endure the strain of haste. There- SwmntaSe 
fore, to arms I And .... 

"You, Medes, march on our left; and you, 
Armenians, half keep to our right .and half lead on 
in front ; while you, cavalrjmaen, shall follow behind, 
to encourage and push us on upward ; and if any one 
is inclined to show weakness, do not allow it." 

6. With this command Cyrus brought his companies 
to ploy into column and took his place at their head. 
And when the Chaldaeans realized that the movement 
was directed toward the heights, they immediately 
gave the signal to their people, called to one another 
to assemble, and began to come together. 

And Cyrus gave command : '^Fellow-Persians, they 



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XENOPHON 

σημαΐνονσί awevSeiv. fjv ycip φθάσωμ€ν ανω 
yev6p>evoit ovikv ret των ιτοΧ^μίων Ζννήσβται, 

7. Έίγρν δ* oi ^cCKiaioi, yippa τ€ καΐ τταλτά 
Svo* καϊ τΓοΧβμικώτατοι δέ Xeyovrai οντοι των irepl 
€Κ€ΐνην Tifv γωραν elvar καί μισθού στρατβνονται, 
οττόταν τις αυτών Βέηται, δίά το ττοΧβμΛκοί τ€ καϊ 
ττένητβς elvar καΐ ycip ή χώρα αντοϊς 6ρ€ΐνη τέ 
ioTL• κα\ oXl/fq fi Th χρήματα ίγρνσα. 

8. *ίΐ9 δέ μαΧΧον βττΧησίαζον οι άμφΐ τον Κΰρον 
των ακοών, 6 ^ιypάvης συν τφ Κνρφ ιτορβυομβνος 
ehreVy ft KO/oe, !ip οίσθ^, βφη, οτι αυτούς ημάς 
αντίκα μάΧα Seijaei μάχβσθαι; ως οΖ ye ^Αρμένιοι 
ου μη Χέζονται τους ιτοΧεμίους, 

Καϊ 6 Κ,νρος βίττων οτι εΙΒβίη τούτο, βύθνς 
1Γapηyyvησ€ τοις Τ1έρσα4,ς τταρασκενάξβσθαι, ώς 
αύτίκα Ββήσον Βιώκβιν, έττβιΒίίν ύΊrayάyωσι τους 
ΤΓοΧβμίους ύτΓoφeύyovτeς οι * Αρμένιοι ωστ iyyvς 
ήμΐν yeviaOai, 

9. Ούτω 8η riyovvTO μλν οι * Αρμένιοι' των 
Sk "ΚαΧΒαίων οΐ τταρόντβς, ώς ίττΧησίαζον οι 
^Αρμένιοι, άΧαΧάξαντβς eOeov, ωσττβρ βΐώθβσαν, 
βίς αυτούς• οι δέ ^Αρμένιοι, ωσττβρ βιώθβσαν, ουκ 
ϋέχοντο, 10. ώς Se Βιώκοντες οΐ ^cChJba'ioi ethov 
ίναντίους μαχαιροφόρους Ιεμένους ανω, οι μεν 
τίνες αύτοΐς ττέΧάσαντβς ταχύ άττέθνησκον, οι 
δ* lφ€vyov, οί Βέ τινβς καϊ ίαΧωσαν αύτων, ταχύ 
δέ €Ϊχ€το τά άκρα. irrel δέ τά Άκρα βΐχον οι 
άμφΐ τον Κΰρον, καθβώρων τ€ των "ΚαΜαίων 
τίίς οικήσεις καΧ γσθάνοντο φeύyovτaς αυτούς 
έκ των iyyύς οικήσεων, 

11. Ό δέ Κΰρος, ώς ιτάντβς οί στρατιωται 

25a 



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CYROPAEDIA, III. ii. 6~ii 

are signalling us to hasten ; for if we get up there 
first, the enemy's efforts will be of no avail." 

7. Now the Chaldaeans carried each a wicker shield 
and two spears, and they were said to be the most 
warlike of the peoples in that region. They also 
serve for hire when any one wants them, for they 
are fond of war and poor of purse ; for their coimtry 
is mountainous and only a small part of it is pro- 
ductive. 

8. But when Cyrus and his men were getting The battle 
nearer to the heights, Tigranes, who was marching 

with Cyrus, said : ^^ Do you know, Cyrus, that we 
ourselves shall have to do the fighting, and in a very 
few moments } For the Armenians, I am sure, will 
never sustain the enemy's attack." 

Cyrus answered that he knew that and gave the 
command to the Persians to make ready, as it would 
be necessary in a moment to give chase, as soon as 
the Armenians by pretending flight should decoy the 
enemy into close quarters. 

9. So the Armenians led on. And when they 
came near, the Chaldaeans already there raised the 
battle cry, according to their custom, and charged 
upon them. And the Armenians, according to their 
custom, failed to sustain the charge. 10. But when 
the Chaldaeans in pursuit saw before them the 
swordsmen rushing up against them, some came near 
and were cut down at once, others fled, and some 
others of their niunber were taken prisoners ; and 
soon the heights were taken. And when Cyrus and 
his men were in possession of the heights, they 
looked down on the dwellings of the Chaldaeans and 
saw the people fleeing from their homes near by. 

11. Then when the soldiers were all together, 

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XENOPHON 

ομον iyevovTO, άριστοιτοιβΐσθαι wapijyyeiXev. 
iirei δβ ήριστηκβσαν, καταμαθων evOa ai σκοτταϊ 
ήσαν ai των ^αΧ8αίων έρυμ,νόν Τ€ 6ν κα\ ίρνΒρον, 
εύθύΐζ έτάχιζε φρουρών καϊ top Ύι,^ράνην i/ciXeve 
7Γέμ7Γ€ΐν iiri τον ττατέρα καϊ xeXeveiv irapayeve- 
σθαι ίχοντα οττοσον eUv τ€Κτον€<ζ τ€ κ(ύ Χιθο- 
τόμοι} €1γΪ μεν Βη τον ^Αρμένιον ωχ€Το ayye\o<i' 
6 Be Κ0/0Ο9 Τ0Α9 Ίταρουσιν ετείχιζεν. 

12. Έι/ δέ τούτφ ιτροσα/γονσι τφ Κ.νρφ τον^ζ 
αΙχμαΧώτου^ ΒεΒβμένονς, tou9 Be τινα<ζ καϊ Τ€τρω- 
μένον<ζ* ώ? Be elBev, ev0v^ Xveiv μ^ν exeXevae τον^ 
B€Beμ€Vov^, T0U9 Bk τετρωμένου^ Ιατρού<ζ καΧεσα^ 
OepaTTeveiv i/ceXevaev hreiTa δέ iXe^e τοί^ Χαλ- 
Βαίοις ΟΤΙ ήκον ovTe άττοΧέσαι εττίθνμων ifceivov^ 
οντ€ ΊΓοΧεμβΙν Βε6μενο<ζ, αλλ' είρήνην βουΧομενο^ 
ΊΓοιήσαι ^Αρμενίοις καϊ ΧαΧΒαίοι^. 

Πρϊν μ^ν oiv εχεσθζα τα άκρα οΙΒ^ οτν ovBev 
eBeiaOe ειρήνη^' τά μλν yap υμέτερα άσψαΧω^ζ 
είχε, τά Βε των ^Αρμενίων f|yετε καϊ έφέρετε* 
νυν Βε οράτε Bij εν οΐφ εστέ, 13. iya> οΰν άψίημι 
νμας οϊκαΒε τον^ζ είΧημμένου^, καΐ ΒίΒωμι ύμιν 
συν Τ0Α9 αΧΧοι^ ΧαΧΒαίοι^ζ βουΧενσασθαι εϊτε 
βούΧεσθε ττοΧεμεΙν ήμΐν εϊτε φίΧοι είναι, καϊ 
ην μλν τΓοΧεμον αίρήσθε, μηκέτι ήκετε Βενρο 
άνευ δττΧων, ει σωφρονεΐτε' ην δέ ειρήνης Βοκήτε 

^ λιθοτόμοι Dindorf, most Ekld. ; Κιθο^όμοι MSS. ; \ieo\6yoi 
Yalckenaer. 

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CYROPAEDIA, III. ii. 11-13 

Cyrus bade his men take luncheon ; and when 
they had lunched and he had discovered that 
the place where the scouts had their posts of 
observation was strong and well supplied with 
water, he at once proceeded to build a fort there. 
He also bade Tigranes send for his father and 
bid him come with all the carpenters and masons 
that he had. So a messenger was off to bring the 
Armenian king, but Cyrus proceeded to build 
the wall with the men he had at hand. 

12. At this juncture they brought to Cyrus the ηθ releases 
prisoners in chains and also some that had been Ir^ners 
wounded. And when he saw them he at once 
ordered that the fetters be taken off, and he sent 
for surgeons and bade them attend to the wounc^ed 
men. And then he told the Chaldaeans that he 
had come with no wish to destroy them and with 
no desire to make war, but because he wished 
to make peace between the Armenians and the 
Chaldaeans. 

^^ Now I know that before the heights were 
taken you had no wish at all for peace, for every- 
thing of yours was secure, while you carried off 
and plundered the property of the Armenians; 
but now see in what a predicament you are ! 
13. Now I am going to let you who have been 
captured go home and consult with the rest of 
the Chaldaeans whether you wish to have war with 
us or to be our friends. And if you choose war, 
do not come this way again without weapons, 
if you are wise; but if you decide that you 
desire peace, come without arms. I shall see to 



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XENOPHON 

Βεΐσθαι, avev ΒττΧων ηκ€τ€* ώς δέ καΧω^ €ξ€ΐ τά 
νμέτβρα, ην φίΧοι ^ίρησθβ, €μοΙ μέΚησβι. 

14. ^Ακονσαντ€ς δέ ταντα οι Χ.αΧ8αίοι, ττοΧΧα 
μ^ν iiraiviaavTe^, ττολλά δέ Ββξιωσάμβνοί top 
Κνρον ωχοντο οϊ /caSe. 

*0 δέ ^ Αρμένιος ώ^ ηκουσ€ την τ€ κΧησιν 
του Κύρον καΐ rijv ττράξιν, Χαβων τους τέκτονας 
καΐ ταΧΧα δσων φ€το Ββΐν, fjxe ττρος τον Κνρον 
(09 iBvvaTo τάχιστα. 1 5. iirel δέ elBe τον Κΰρον, 
ίΧεξβν, *ί1 KvpCi ώς oXiya Βννάμβνοι ττροοράν 
άνθρωτΓΟί^ irepl τον μέΧΧοντος ττοΧΧα έΊηγβι- 
ρονμβν Ίτράττβιν. νυν ycip Βη καΐ iyo) iXevOepiav 
pkv μηχανάσθαν βίΓί^Έφήσας ΒονΧος ώς ουδβττώ- 
7Γ0Τ6 iy€v6μηv' βττβΐ ο έάΧωμεν, σαφώς άττοΧω- 
Χέναι νομίσαντ€ς νυν άναφαιν6μ€θα σβσωσμένοι 
ως ονΒβττώτΓοτβ, όΐ ycip ούδβττώττοτβ hravovTO 
τΓολλά Kaich ημάς ιτοωνντβς, νυν ορω τούτους 
έχοντας ωστΓβρ €γώ ηύχομην. 16. καΐ τούτο 
έττίστω, ίφη, ω Κΰρβ, οτι βγω ωστ€ άττΒΧάσαι, 
^α^αίους άττο τούτων των άκρων ποΧΧαπΧάσια 
&ν βΒωκα χρήματα &ν συ νυν βχβις τταρ έμον* 
καΐ & υ'τησχνού ΤΓΟίησβιν ά/γαθά ημάς Βτ ίΧάμ- 
βάνες τά χρήματα, άττοτβτέΧβσταί σοι ήΒη, ωστβ 
καϊ ΊτροσοφείΧοντές σοι αΧΧας χάριτας άναττε- 
ήϊηναμεν, ίυς ήμ€Ϊς ye, el μη κακοί έσμεν, αίσχυ- 
νοίμεθ^ αν σοι μί) άττοΒιΒόντες. 17. ό μ^ν * Αρμέ- 
νιος τοσαυτ ^Χεξεν. 

Οί δέ Χ,αΧΒαΐοι fJKOv Βεόμενοι του Κνρον 
€ΐρήνην σφίσι ιτοιήσαι. καΐ 6 Κ,ΰρος hrrjpeTO 
αυτούς, "ΑΧΧο rt, εφη, ω ^cChJBaioi, fj τούτον 

^ iyefwToi Dindorf , later Edd. ; Mponroi MSS. 
256 



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CYROPAEDIA, III. ii. 13-17 

it that you have no cause to complain, if you become 
our friends." 

14. And when the Chaldaeans heard this, they 
commended Cyrus highly, shook hands with him 
heartily, and departed for home. 

Now, when th^ king of Armenia received Cyrus's 
summons and heard of his plans, he came to 
Cjnrus as quickly as he could with the carpenters 
and all that he thought was necessary. 15. And 
when he saw Cyrus, he said : ^' How little of The 
the future, Cyrus, we mortals can foresee, and yet ^^^^^ 
how much we try to accomplish. Why, just now, expreseee 
when I was striving to secure^ liberty, I became gratiflcatioi 
more a slave than ever before ; and when we were 
taken prisoners, we then thought our destruction 
certain, but we now find that we are saved as 
never before. For those who never ceased to 
do us no end of injury I now behold in just the 
condition that I desired. 16. And believe me, 
Cyrus," said he, ^^when I say that to have driven 
the Chaldaeans from these heights I would have • 
given many times as much money as you now 
have from me ; and the benefit that you promised 
to do us, when you received the money, you have 
already conferred so fully that we obviously now 
owe you a new debt of gratitude besides ; and 
we on our part, if we have not lost all self-respect^ 
should be ashamed if we did not repay it to you/' 
17. Thus the Armenian king spoke. 

Now the Chaldaeans had come back with the 
request that Cyrus should make peace with them. 
And Cyrus asked them : ^^ Is this the reason that 
you, Chaldaeans, now desire* peace, because you 

VOL. I. 8 



yGooQle 



gl 



XENOPHON 

?P€fca βίρηνη^ νυν εττιθνμβΐτβ οτι νο)ύζ€Τ€ άσφα- 
Χέστερον &ν Βννασθαι ζην είρηρης '^βνομΜνη^ rj 
'Π•οΧ€μονντ€<:, €7Γ€ΐΒη ήμ€Ϊ*ζ raS" ίχρμεν; 
'Έφασαν^ οΐ ΧαλΒαΐοι. 

18. ΚαΙ 09, Τί δ', €φη, el καΐ αΧΧα νμΐν άτγαθά 
TrpoayevoiTo Sici την βίρήνην; 

"ΈπΊ άν, βφασαν, μαΧΚον ενφραινοίμεθα. 

*Άλλο τι ονν, ίφη, ή Βια το yrj^ στΓανίζβιν 
άτ/αθής νυν ττένητβ^ νομίξβτ elvai; 

Χυνβφασαν καΐ τούτο. 

Ύί oiv; ίφη 6 Κνρο^, βούΚοισθ* &ν άττοτβ- 
Χονντ€ς Saairep οΐ aWoi ^Αρμένιοί βξβΐναι νμΐν 
τή^ * Αρμενίας yrj<; έρ^άζβσθαι όττόσην &ν θ^λητβ; 

"Έφασαν οι ΙίάΧΖαΐοι, Et τηστενοιμεν μη άΒικη- 
σ€σθαι. 

19. Ύί Bi, συ, βφη, ω ^Αρμένιε, βούΧοιο άν σοι 
την νυν apyov ^ ονσαν yrjv ivepyov γενέσθαι, el 
μέΧΚοιεν τά νομιζόμενα irapcL σοι airoTeKeiv οι 
εργαζόμενοι; 

^Έίφη 6 ^ΑρμΑνιος ΤΓολλοί) αν τούτο ττρίασθαΐ' 
ΤΓοΧν yhp αν ανξάνεσθαι την ττροσοΖον. 

20. Ύί δ', ύμεΐς, ίφη, ω ΧαΧΒαΐοι, iirel ορη 
ayaOci βχβτ€, iOikoiT civ iav νίμειν ταύτα τους 
^Αρμενίους, el ύμΐν μέΧΧοιε^^ οΐ νεμοντες τα Βίκαια 
άτΓοτεΧεΐν; 

^Έή>ασαν οι XaXhaloi* ττολλά ykp &ν ώφβλεί- 
σθαι ovBkv ττονούντες, 

^ τάδ* Ixo/icy ; ΙΙψασαν ζ, most Edd. ; rh Ακρα (χομβν; (ψασαρ 
Hug ; τίλλ* ίχομ^ν (ψασανΈ ; τ&λλα t^axrav Ιίχύμ«ν χ ; τοντ* 
iXeyo/iev τίλλα ίχομ^ν %<ρασαν D. 

3 kpy\tv Stephanue, Edd.; kf»y^v MSS. 

258 



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CYROPAEDIA, III. ii. 17-20 

think,• that since we are in possession of these 
heights, you could live in greater security if we 
had peace than if we were at war ? " 
The Chaldaeans assented « 

1 8. *' And what/' said he, ^' if still other blessings 
should accrue to you as a result of the proposed 
peace ? " 

'^ We should be still more pleased," they answered. 

" Well," said he, " do you think that you are now 
poor for any other reason than because you have 
so little fertile land } " 

In this also they agreed with him. 

"Well then," said Cyrus, "would you avail 
yourselves of the permission to till as much 
Armenian land as you wish on condition that you 
paid in full just as much rental as other tenants in 
Armenia do ? " 

" Yes," said the Chaldaeans, " if we could be sure 
of not being molested." 

19. " Tell me. King of Armenia," said he, "would 
you be willing that that land of yours which 
now lies uncultivated should be cultivated, if those 
who cultivate it would pay you the usual rental ? " 

The Armenian answered that he would give 
a great deal to have it so ; for in this way his 
revenues would be greatly increased. 

20. '* And tell me, Chaldaeans," said he, " seeing 
that you have fine mountains, would you be 
willing to let the Armenians pasture their herds 
there, if the herdsmen would pay you what is fair ? " 

The Chaldaeans said they would ; for they would 
get large profits by it, without any labour on their 
own part. 

259 
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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XENOPHON 

Συ S4, ίψη, & *Αρμ€Ρί€, έθβλΌΐς iof ταίς τούτων 
νομαϊς χρησθαι, el μ£ΧΧοις μΛκρίί ώφέλων Χαλ- 
Βεύονς τΓοΧύ ΊτΚ^ίω ωφβΧησβσθαι; 

ΚαΙ σφ68ρα αν, &1>η, eiirep οίοίμην άσφαΧω^ 
ν€βΐ€ΐν, 

Ούκονν, ίφη, ασφαλώς αν νέμοιτβ, el τα άκρα 
ΙχοιΤ€ σνμμαχα; 

"Έφη 6 * Αρμένιος. 

21. ΆλλΛ βΐίί AC, ίφασαν οι ^ά\£α2οι, ουκ 
&ν ημ€Ϊς άσφαΧως €ργαξοίμ€θα μη οτι την τούτων, 
αλλ* ουδ' hv την ημ^τέραν, el ούτοι τα άκρα 
ίχριεν, 

Έ>1 δ' ύμΛν αΰ, ίφη, τα άκρα σύμμαχα elη; 

Οδτως αν, βφασαν, ημΖν κα\ως €χοι. 

ΆλλΛ μλ Αι, Ιφη 6 * Αρμένιος, ουκ &ν ήμΖν 
ai καΧως Ιχοι, el οΰτοι τταραΧηψονται ττάΧιν 
τά άκρα αλΧως Τ€ καΐ TeTeixurp^va. 

22. ΚαΙ 6 Κνρος elirev, ΟντωσΙ τοίνυν, €φη, 
βγώ ΤΓΟίησω' oύheτepoις υμών τά άκρα τταραΖώσω, 
αλλ' ημ^ϊς φυΧάξομεν αυτά* κάν άΖικωσιν υμών 
oiroTepoi, συν τοις άΒικουμένοις ήμεϊς €σόμ€θα. 

23. 'ίΐ9 δ* ηκουσαν ταύτα afufyoTepoi, έτΓ^ν€σαν 
καϊ ?\eyov οτι οΰτως άν μονως η elprivq βeβaίa 
yevoiTo, καΐ iirl τούτοις ΙΒοσαν καΐ ίΚαβον 
ΊΓάvτeς τά πιστά, καϊ ekeυθepoυς μ^ν αμφότερους 
26ο 



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CYROPAEDIA, III. ii. 20-23 

"And you. King of Armenia/* said he, '^ would 
you be willing to rent their pasture lands, if 
by letting the Chaldaeans have a little profit you 
were to get much greater profit for yourself? " 

^' Why, of course," said he, " if I thought I could 
pasture my cattle there in security." 

"Well then," said he, "could you pasture them 
there in security, if the heights were in the 
possession of your friends ? " 

" Yes," said the Armenian. 

21. "But, by Zeus," said the Chaldaeans, "we 
could not even work our own farms in security, 
to say nothing of theirs, if they were to have 
possession of the heights." 

" But," said Cyrus, " suppose on the other hand 
that the heights were in the possession of your 
friends .^ " 

" In that case,*' they answered, " we should be 
all right." 

"But, by Zeus," said the Armenian, "we, on 
our part, should not be all right, if they are 
again to get possession of the heights, especially 
now that they have been fortified." 

22. "This then," said Cyrus, "is what I shall Cy™ 
do : I shall not give possession of the heights S^™ 
to either of you, but we shall keep a garrison between 
there ourselves; and if either of you does wrong, 

we shall side with the injured party." 

23. And when they heard this proposal, both 
sides gave it their approval and said that only 
in this way could the peace be effective ; and 
upon these conditions they interchanged assurances 
of friendship, and agreed that each party should 
be independent of the other, that there should 

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XENOPHON 

άτΓ* άΧΧηΧων elvai συν€τίθ€νΎθ, έττι/^αμία^ζ δ* 
elvai καΐ €π€[τγασία^ καΐ βτηνομίας, καΐ έτη- 
μαχίαν δέ κοινην, €Ϊ τις άΖικοίη οττοτέρους, 

24. Ουτο) μ^ν οΰν τ6τ€ Ζί€ΐΓράγθη' καϊ ρνν 
δέ Ιτν οντω ΖιαμΑνονσι,ν αΐ τ6τ€ ^ενομεναν συνθή- 
και ^αΧΒαίοις καΐ τφ την ^Κρμενίαν ίχοντι. 
iirei, δέ αϊ συνθήκαι iyeyeinfVTO, ευθύς συνετεί- 
χιζον τ€ αμφότεροι, ττροθνμως ως κοινον φρούριον 
καΐ τάτΓίτηΒεια avpeiaijyov, 

25. ΈτΓβΙ δ* iairipa irpoayei, συνΖείττνους eXa- 
βεν αμφότερους προς εαυτόν ως φίΧους ή8η, 
συσκηνούντων δέ eliri τις των Κα'Χ^αίων οτι 
τοις μεν αΧΧοις σφων ττασιν εύκτ^ ταΰτα εϊψ 
άσΐ Si τίνες των ΧαΧΒαίων ot Χτ/ζομενοί ζωσι 
κα\ οΰτ &ν εττίσταιντο ερΎάξεσθαι ούτ &ν Βύ- 
ναιντο, είθισμενοι άττο ττοΧεμου βίοτεύειν άεΐ 
ycip εΧ'ρζοντο ή έμισθοφορουν, ττοΧΧάκις μ^ν τταρα 
τφ ^ΙνΒών βασιΧεΐ {καΐ yap, εφασαν, ιτοΧύχρυσος 
άνήρ) ΊΓοΧΧάκις 8ε κα\ τταρ Άστνάγβ*. 

26. ΚαΙ ό Κύρος εφη, Ύί οΐτν ου κα\ νυν 
τταρ εμοί μισθοφοροΰσιν ; βγω ycip δώσω δσον 
τις καΐ άλΧος ττΧεΐστον δτ/ττοτβ εΒωκε. 

'Ζυνέφασαν [ο/]/ και ττοΧΧούς yε εσεσθαι 
iXεyov τους εθεΧησοντας, 

27. ΚαΙ ταύτα μεν 8η οΰτω συvωμoXoyεΐτo, 
6 δέ Κΰρος ως ήκουσεν οτι ττοΧΧάκις ττρος τον 
^IvSov οι ^αΧΒαΐοι εττορεύοντο, άναμνησθεϊς οτι 

^ [οί] omitted by Dindorf and bracketed by later Eldd. ; ol 

MSS.-• 

202 



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CYROPAEDIA, III. u. 43-27 

# 

be the right of intermarriage and of mutual tillage / 
and pasturage in each other s territory, and that { 
there should be a defensive alliance, in case any one 
should injure either party. 

24. Such, then, was the agreement entered into 
at that time ; and to this day the covenants which 
were then made between the Chaldaeans and the 
king of Armenia still continue in force. And when 
the treaty was made, they both together began 
with enthusiasm at once to build the fort for their 
common protection, and then together they stocked 
it with provisions. 

25. When evening was drawing on, he entertained 
both sides, now made friends, as his guests at dinner. 

And while the party was in progress, one of the chaidaean 
Chaldaeans said that to all the rest of them this "^^^"^^^ 
state of affairs was desirable ; but there were some 
of the Chaldaeans, so they said, who lived by 
plundering and would not know how to farm 
and could not, for they were used to making their 
living by the business of war ; for they were always 
making raids or serving as mercenaries ; they were 
often in the service of the Indian king (and he paid 
well, they said, for he was a very wealthy man) and 
often in the service of Astyages. 

26. ^' Then why do they not enter my service 
now ? " asked Cyrus ; " I will pay as much as 
any one ever did." 

They assented and said that the volunteers would 
be many. 

27. These terms were thus agreed upon ; and Cyme 
when Cyrus heard that the Chaldaeans made frequent ^S^bassy 
trips to the Indian king, remembering that represen- **> India 



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XENOPHON 

ffkBov Trap* avTov κατασκεψομενοι^ εΙς ΜηΒονς 
τά αντων ir ράμματα καΧ φγρντο ιτρος τού^ 
ΤΓοΧβμίονς, οιτως al• κάΧ τά έκβίνων κατίΒωσιν, 
έβονΧβτο μαθβΐν τον *1ρ8ον τά ίαντφ ττεττ pay μένα. 
28. ηρξατο ουν Xoyov roiovBe* 

*fl *Αρμ€νΐ€, €φη, fcal νμεί^, ω XaXBatoi, 
εϊίΓατέ μοί, €Ϊ τίνα iyw νυν των έμων άττοστίΚ- 
Χοιμί ττρος τον *IvS6v, σνμττέμψαίτ* αν μοι των 
ύμ€Τ€ρων οΐτινβς αύτφ την τ€ οΒον η^οΐντο αν 
καΐ σνμττράττοιβν ωστ€ yeveaOai ημΖν iraph του 
Ίι/δοΟ h €γώ βοΰΚομαι; iyoi yccp γρηματα μβν 
Trpoayeviaeai €Τί &ν βουΧοίμην ήμΐν, δπω^ ^χω 
καΧ μισθον άφθόνως StSovat oU &ν Serf καΐ τιμαν 
καΐ Βωρεΐσθαι των συστρατευόμενων τού<ζ άξιους* 
τούτων Βη €V€fca βούΚομαι ώς άφθονώτατα 
χρήματα εχειν, ΒβΙσθαι, τούτων νομίζων. των 
Se υμετέρων ήΒύ μου άττέχβσθαι* φίλου*; yap 
υμάς ήΒη νομίζω* τταρα ΒΙ του ^ΙνΒού ηΒέως άν 
Χάβοιμι, el ΒιΒοίη. 

29. Ό oifv ayy€Xo9, φ κεΧεύω ύμας ψ/ε μονάς 
Βοΰναι καΐ συμιτράκτορας yεv€σθat, εΧθων εκ€Ϊσε 
&Βε Χεξεί* ^^Εττβμψέ με Κύρος, ω ^IvBe, προς σε* 
φησί δέ ΊτροσΒεΐσθαι χρημάτων, ττροσΒεχο μένος 
άΧΧην στρατιαν οίκοθεν εκ Τίερσων {καΐ yhp 
ττροσΒέχομαι, εφψ) 'ffv ουν αύτω ττέμψι^ς οττοσα 
σοι προχωρεί, φησίν, ην θεός ayaOov τέΧος Βώφ ^ 
αύτω, Ίτειράσεσθαι ττοίησαι ώστε σε νομίζειν κα- 
Χως βεβουΧεΰσθαι χαρισάμενον αύτφ. 30. ταύτα 
μλν 6 παρ εμού Χέξει. τοις Βε παρ υμών ύμεΐς αύ 
επιστίΧΧετε 6 τι ύμίν σύμφορον ΒοκεΙ είναι. καΧ 

^ κατασκ€>\>6μ^νοι Stephanus, Edd. ; κατασκΐ^ίμ^νοι MSS. 
« διδ# MSS., most Edd. ; Ζφ Hug.after Weckherlin. 

«64 



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CYROPAEDIA, III. ii. 27-30 

tatives from him had once come to Media to inves- 
tigate conditions there andiiad then visited the enemy 
to inquire into theirs also, he wished to have him 
learn what he had done. 28. Accordingly, he began 
to speak as follows : 

^^ King of Armenia/* said he, "and you Chaldaeans, 
tell me — if I should now send one of my men to 
the Indian king, would you send along some of yours 
to conduct him on the way and to co-operate with 
him in getting what I want from the king of India ? 
Now I should like to have more money, in order to 
be in a position both to pay generous wages when I 
ought, and to honour with rewards those of my fellow- 
soldiers who deserve it ; and the reason why I wish 
to have as generous a supply of money as possible 
is that I expect to need it, and I shall be glad to 
spare yours ; for I now count you among my friends ; 
but from the Indian king I should be glad to accept 
a contribution, if he would offer it. 

29. " Now, when the messenger, to whom I am 
asking you to furnish guides and co-workers, arrives 
there, he will speak on this wise : ^ King of India, 
C3rrus has sent me to you ; he says that he needs 
more funds, for he is expecting another army from 
his home in Persia * — and that is true," said he, " for I 
am expecting one — ^ if, therefore, you will send him as 
much as you conveniently can, he says that if God will 
give him good success, he will try to make you think 
that you were well advised in doing him this favour.* 
30. IThis my envoy will say ; do you now, in your 
turn, give your representatives such instructions as 
you think expedient for you. And if we get any- 



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XENOPHON 

ήν μλν Χάβωμ€ν, €φη, παρ αυτού, άφθονωτέροί^ 
γρησόυ^θα' ην he μη Χάβωμβν, ^Ισόμ^θα οτι 
ονΒβμιαν αντφ χάριν οφβίΧομβν, αλλ' ίξέσται 
ημΐν €Κ€ίνου lv€K€V Ίτρο^ το ήμέτβρον συμφέρον 
πάντα τίθ^σθαΛ. 

31. Ταδτ' eiirev ο Κύρος, νομίζων τους ίόντας 
^Αρμβνίων fcal ^αΧΒαίων τοιαύτα Χέξαν irepl 
αυτού οΙα αύτος €7Γ€θύμ€ΐ ττάντας ανθρώπους 
κα\ \&γ€ίν καΐ άκούβιν πβρΧ αυτού, καΧ τοτ€ μ€ν 
Βή, 6π6τ€ καΧ&ς εΖχε, 8ιαΧύσαντ€ς την σκηνην 
άνβπαύοντο, 

III 

1. Τ^ δ' ύστ€ραία ο Τ€ Κύρος €π€μπ€ τον 
ayyeXov βπιστβίΧας οσαπβρ ίφη καΐ 6 ^Αρμένιος 
καΐ οι ^αΧΒαΐοί συνέπβμπον ους ίκανωτάτους 
ένόμιξον elvai καΧ συμπραξαι καΧ είπβΐν πβρΧ 
Κύρου τά προσήκοντα. 

Έλ δέ τούτου κατασκβυάσας ^ 6 Κύρος το 
φρούριον καΧ φύΧαξιν ίκανοϊς και τοις έπιτηΒβίοις 
πάσι καΧ αρχοντ αύτων καταΧίπων ΜήΒον ον 
φ€το Κυαξάρ'ρ &ν μάΧνστα χαρίσασθαι, άπ'ρβί 
συΧΧαβών το στράτευμα όσον τ€ ήΧθβν €χων 
καΧ h παρ ^Κρμβνίων προσέΧαβε, καΧ τους παρά 
1ίαΧΒα£ων εις Τ€τ ρακισχιΧίους, οί ωοντο καΧ 
συμπάντων των αΧΧων κρείττονες εΐναι. 

2. Ώ? δέ κατεβη εις την οίκου μενην, ού^εΧς 
εμεινεν ενΒον ^Αρμενίων οΰτ άνηρ ούτε ^υνή, 

^ κατασκ€υάσα% Ρορρο, most Edd. ; Ίταρασκ^υάσα^ ζ {made 
ready) ; iwireKiaas xy {completed). 

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CYROPAEDIA, III. ii. 30-iii. 2 

thing from him, we shall have more abundant funds 
to use ; and if we do not, we shall know that we 
owe him no thanks, but may, as far as he is con- 
cerned, settle everything with a view to our own 
interests." 

31. Thus Cyrus spoke; and he believed that 
those of the Armenians and Chaldaeans who were to 
go would say such things of him as he desired all 
men to say and to hear of him. And then, when it 
was time, the banquet came to an end, and they 
went to rest. 



Ill 

1 . On the following day C)rrus gave the envoy the 
commission of which he had spoken and sent him 
on his way^; and the Armenian king and the Chal- 
daeans «ent along those who they thought would be 
most competent to co-operate and to say what was 
appropriate concerning Cyrus. 

Then he manned the fort with a competent garrison, cyrue's 
supplied it with all things necessary, and left in f^^i*^"" 
command a Mede who he thought would be most Armenia 
acceptable to Cyaxares ; and then he departed, taking 
with him not only the army which he had brought with 
him but also the reinforcements that he had received 
from the Armenians, and about four thousand Chal- 
daeans, who considered themselves actually better 
than all the rest put together. 

2. And when he came down into the inhabited 
part of the country, not one of the Armenians re- 
mained indoors, but all, both men and women, in 



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XENOPHON 

άλλ^ ττάντΰς νττηντων ήΒομβνοι ry elprjvy καϊ 
φέροντες teal ayovre^ δ τι έκαστος άξιον €Ϊχ€' 
καΐ 6 ^Αρμένιος τούτοις ουκ ήχθβτο, όντως αν 
νομίζων καΐ τον Κνρον μαΧΚον ηίεσθαι Ty υττο 
ττάντων τιμτ}, τίΧος δέ υττηντησε καϊ η ^υνη 
του ^Αρμενίου, τ€ίς θυγατέρας ίγρυσα καΐ τον 
νεώτβρον υίόν, καί συν α\\οις Βώροις το γρυσίον 
€κόμιξ€ν h ττρότβρον ουκ rfOeXe Χαββΐν Κΰρος, 

3. ΚαΙ ο Κΰρος 18ων elwev, 'Ύβίεΐς €μ^ ου 
7Γοιήσ€Τ€ μισθού ττβριιόντα eiepycTeiv, αλλΑ συ, 
ω yovai, €γρυσα ταύτα τά χρήματα & φέρεις 
άτΓίθι, καΐ τφ μ^ν ^Αρμενίφ μηκέτι 8φς αυτά 
κατορύξαΐ) €Κ7Γ€μψον δέ τόΐ' υίον ώς κάΚΧιστα 
άττ' αύτων^ κατασκβυάσασα iirl τί/ν στρατιάν* 
άτΓο Se των Χοιττων κτω καϊ σαυτρ καϊ τφ άνΒρϊ 
καϊ ταΐς θυγατράσι καϊ τοις υιοΐς δ τι κεκτημένοι 
καϊ κοσμησεσθε κάΧΧιον καϊ ήΒιον τον αΙωνα 
Βιάζετε• εις Βε τί/ν yrjv, ίφη, άρκειτω τά σώματα, 
δταν έκαστος τεΧευτηστ}, κατακρχηττειν, 

4. Ό μ^ν ταύτ είττων παρηΧαυνεν 6 δ' * Αρ- 
μένιος συμ'πρού'πεμττε καΧ οι αΧΧοι ττάντες ανθρω- 
ΤΓΟί, άνακαΧοΰντες τον ευεργέτην, τον ανΒρα τον 
αγαθόν καϊ τοΰτ εττοίουν, εως εκ της χώρας άττην. 
συναπέστειΧε δ* αύτφ 6 * Αρμένιος καϊ στρατιαν 
ττΧείονα, ώς εΙρηνης οϊκοι ου σης, 

5. Οδτω Βη^ 6 Κνρος ατττιει κεχρη ματ ισ μένος 
ουχ α εΧαβε μόνον χρήματα, άΧΧΛ ττοΧύ ιτΧείονα 
τούτων ητοιμασμένος Bih τον τρόττον, ώστε Χαμ- 
βάνειν οττότε Βέοιτο. 

* &ΊΤ* αυτών zD, Edd. ; αττάττων χ ; ίχάντων F. 
2 δ^ MSS., most Edd.; δ* Hug. 

368 



Di^tized by VjOOQ IC 



CYROPAEDIA, III. iii. 2-5 

their joy at the restoration of peace, came forth to 
meet him, each one canying or bringing whatever 
he had of value. And their king did not disapprove, 
for he thought that Cyrus would thus be all the 
better pleased at receiving honour from all. And 
finally also the queen with her daughters and her 
younger son came up to him bringing not only the 
money which before Cyrus had refiised to take, but 
other gifts as well. 

3. And when he saw it C3rrus said : ^' You shall 
not make me go about doing good for pay ! No, 
good queen ; take back home with you this money 
which you bring ; and do not give it to the king 
again to bury, but with it get your son as fine an out- 
fit as possible and send him to the army ; and with 
what is left get both for yourself and your husband, 
your daughters and your sons, anything the possession 
of which will enable you to adorn yourselves more 
handsomely and spend your days more happily. But 
let it suffice," he added, ^^ to bury in the earth only 
our bodies, when the end shall come to each." 

4. Thus he spoke and rode jwist her. And the 
king of Armenia escorted him on his way, as did all 
the rest of the people, proclaiming him again and 
again their benefactor, their valiant hero. And this 
they continued to do until he had quitted their bor- 
ders. And as there was now peace at home, the king 
increased the contingent of troops that he sent with 
him. 

5. Thus Cyrus departed, not only enriched with 
the ready money that he had received, but also 
having secured by his conduct far larger funds in 
reserve, to draw upon in time of need. 



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XENOPHON 

ΚαΙ τότε μ^ν βστρατοπβΒβνσατο iv τοΐ^ μεθό- 
ριοι^, ττ) δ' νστεραία το μεν στράτευμα καΐ 
τά χρήματα εττεμψε ττρο^ Κναξάρην 6 8ε ιτλη- 
σίον tjv, ωσ'περ ^ησεν αντος δέ συν Tiypavrf 
καΐ ΤΙερσών τοΐ<; άρίστοις εθήρα ίττουιτερ ετη- 
τνγχάνοιεν θηρίοι<ξ καΧ ηνφραίνετο, 

6. ΈτΓβΙ 8* άφίκετο εΐ^ Μτ/δους, των χρημάτων 
ε8ωκ€ το?9 αυτού ταξίαρχοι^ δσα εΒόκει εκίάστφ 
ίκανα είναι, δπως καΐ εκείνοι εχριεν τιμαν, εϊ 
τινα<ζ ayaivTO των ύψ' εαυτούς' ενόμιξε yap, εΐ 
ίκαστο(ζ το μέρος άξιέπαινον ποιήσειε, το οΚον 
αύτφ κα\ως εγειν. καΐ αυτός 8ε δ τι ττου καΧον 
ϊΒοι 6ν^ εις στρατιάν, ταύτα κτώμενος ΒιεΒωρεΐτο 
τοις άεΐ άξιωτάτοις, νομίζων ο τι καΧον κατ^αθον 
εχρι το στράτευμα, τούτοις άττασιν αύτος κε- 
κοσμησθαι. 

7. 'ϋνίκα Bk αύτοΐς ΒιεΒίΒου ων ίΧαβεν, ελεξεν 
ωΒε ττως εις το μέσον των ταξιάρχων καϊ Χοχα/γών 
κάί 'πάντων δσους ετίμα* "ΑνΒρες ψίΧοι, Βοκεΐ 
ήμΐν ευφροσύνη τις νυν τταρεΐναι, καΐ οτι εύττορία 
τις 7Γpoσyεyέvητaι καϊ οτι εχομεν άή> ων τιμαν 
εξομεν ους αν βουΧώμεθα καϊ τιμασθαι ως αν 
έκαστος άξιος §, 8. ττάντως Βη άναμιμνησκώ- 
μέθα τά ττοΓ άττ ερya τούτων των άyaθωv εστίν 
αϊτια• σκοττούμενοι yap εύρήσετε το τε άypυ7Γvr|' 
σαι δτΓου ΙΒει καϊ το ττονήσαι και το σπεΰσαι 
καϊ το μη είξαι τοις ττοΧεμίοις. ούτως οΐιν χρη 

^ %y Hug, Breitenbach ; not in MSS. or most Edd. 
270 



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CYROPAEDIA, III. iii. 5-8 

That night he encamped upon the frontier, and 
the next day he sent the army and the money to 
Cyaxares ; for he was netir by, as he had promised to 
be. But Cyrus himself went hunting with Tigranes 
and the best of his Persians, wherever they came 
across game, and he was delighted with the sport. 

6. Now when he came back to Media he gave to Rewards 
each of his captains as much of the money as he meritorious 
thought sufficient, so that they in turn might be able 

to reward any of the men under them with whose 
conduct they were pleased ; for he thought that if 
each one made his division worthy of commendation, 
he would find the whole army in fine condition. And 
whenever he himself saw anjrwhere anything calcu- 
lated to improve his army, he always procured it and 
distributed it in presents from time to time among 
the most deserving ; for he thought that everjrthing 
that his army had that was beautiful and fine was 
an adornment to himself. 

7. And when he was about to distribute a portion 
of what he had received, he took his place in 
the midst of the captains, lieutenants, and all 
whom he was about to reward, and spoke to this 
effect: "My friends, there seems now to be a kind 
of gladness in our hearts, both because some degree 
of prosperity has come to us and because we have 
the means of rewarding those whom we will and of 
receiving rewards, each according to his deserts. 8. 
But let us be sure to remember to what kind of con- 
duct these blessings are due ; for if you will consider, 
you will find that it is this — watching when occasion 
demanded, undergoing toil, making due haste, and 
never pelding to the enemy. Accordingly, we must 



271 



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ΧΕΝόΡΗΟΝ 

καί το ΧοιτΓον avhpa^ α^αθού<ξ elvai, yiyvcua/covra^ 
\loTt Τ€ί<ζ μ€^άΚα^ ήΒονίίς και ταηαθΐυ τά μ€τγαΚα 
^ η 7Γ€ΐθω και η καρτ€ρία καΐ οί ev τφ καιρφ Ίτόνοι 
ϊ καΧ KLvhwoL τταρίχονταί. 

9. Κατανοων Se 6 Κνρο<; ώς βδ μ^ρ αύτω eiyov 
τά σώματα οί στρατι&ται ιτρος το Βννασθαι 
στρατιωτικούς ττόνονς φέρβιν, d δέ τά? ψνχάς 
7ΓΡ09 το καταφρονεΐν των '7ΓθΧ€μίων, έττιστημονε^; 
δ' ^σαν τά ττροσηκορτα τρ έαντων Ικαστοί όττλχ- 
σ€ί, καΐ ττρός το ττ^ίθ^σθαι hk Toh αργρυσιν 
€ώρα Ίτάντας ei τταρβσκβνασ μένους, €Κ τούτων 
oiv βπβθύμει τι η8η των προς τους ΐΓθ\€μίους 
ττράττβιν, ηιηνώσκων δτι iv τφ pAXKeiv ττοΧΚάκις 
τοΙς άρχουσι καΐ της καΧής τταρασκβυής ά\- 
Χοιοΰταί τι. 

10. Έτ* δ' όρων δτι φιΧοτίμως έχοντες, iv 
οίς άvτηyωviζovτo, ττολλοί καΐ ίττιφθονως βΐχον 
ττρος άΧΧηΧους των στρατιωτών, καΐ τούτων^ 
€ν€κα €ξώγ€ΐν αυτούς ίβούΧβτο άς την ιτοΧ^μίαν 

^ ως τάχιστα, εΙΒως δτ^ οί κοινοί κίνδυνοι φιΧο- 
. φρονως ττοιοΰσιν βχειν τους συμμάχους ιτρος 
άΧΧηΧους, και ούκέτι iv τούτω οΰτ€ τοις iv 
δπΧοις κοσμουμένοις φθονούσιν οΰτ€ τοις 86ξης 
€φΐ€μένοις, άλλ^ μαΧΧον και βιταινοΰσι καΧ άσττά•• 
ζονται οι τοιούτοι τους ομοίους, νομίζοντβς συν- 
€ρ^ούς αυτούς του κοινού άβαθου elvai. 

11. 0£π•ω δ^ ττρωτον μλν iξώ'πXισe τ)^ν στρα- 
Tihv καΐ κατέταξβν ως βΒύνατο κάΧΧιστά τ€ καΐ 
άριστα, ^π€ΐτα δέ συνβκάΧεσβ μυριάρχους καΐ 
χίΧιάρχους καΐ ταξιάρχους καΐ Xoχayoυς. οδτο* 

^ τούτων^ Breitenbach, later Edd. ; rwySc xy, Dindorf, 
Sauppe ; τούτων δ^ ζ. 

272 



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CYROPAEDIA, III. iii. 8-11 

in ftiture slso be brave men, knowing that obedience, V 
perseverance, and the endurance of toil anid danger 
at the critical time bring the great pleasures and the 
great blessings." 

9. C3rrus now saw that his soldiers were in good Cyrue 
physical condition to endure the fatigue of military i^J^^g' 
service, that their hearts were disposed to regard the ^untry™^^ 
enemy with contempt, that they were skilled each in 

the exercise adapted to his Ipnd of armour, and that 
they were all well disciplined to obey the officers; 
accordingly, he was eager to undertake some move 
against the enemy at once, for he knew that generals 
often find some even of their best laid plans brought 
to naught through delay. 

10. And he further observed that, because they 
were so eager to excel in those exercises in which 
they vied with one another, many of the soldiers 
were even jealous of one another; for this reason 
also he wished to lead them into the enemy's 
country as soon as possible. For he knew that 
conunon dangers make comrades kindly disposed 
toward one another, and that in the midst of such 
dangers there .is no jealousy of those who wear 
decorations on their armour or of those who are 
striving for glory; on the contrary, soldiers praise 
and love their fellows even more, because they 
recognize in them co-workers for the common 
good. 

11. Accordingly, he first completely armed his He rouses 
forces and marshalled them in the best and most to\^the 
imposing order possible ; then he called together the offensive 
generals, colonels, captains, and lieutenants ; for 

273 

VOL. I. Τ 



yGooQle 



gl 



XENOPHON 

7^/9 άττοΧέλυμένοί ^σαν του κατα\έτ/€σθαι iv τοις 
τακτίκοΐς άριθμοϊς, καΧ οττότβ heoi η υττακού^ιν 
τψ στρατη'^φ fj irapayyeXKeiv τι, ούδ' ως ovSkv 
αναργρν χατέλείττβτο, αλλά ΒφΒβκαΒάρχοις καΐ 
ίξα^άργρις ττάντα τά καταΧβιττό/ιενα 8ΐ€κοσμ€Ϊτο, 

12. ΈτΓβΙ Sk συνηλβον οί έττικαίριοί, τταράτ/ων 
αυτούς ίπεΒβίκνυ Τ€ αύτοΐς τά κάλως έχοντα καϊ 
iBiSaafcev ij ίκαστον Ισγυρον Tjv των συμμαχικών, 
iirel δέ κάκβίνους έττοίησβν ίρωτίκως ίχβιν του fjhrj 
iroieiv τι, elirev αύτοΐς νυν μεν άττιέναι iirl τά? 
τάξεις καΐ ΒιΒάσκεϋν €καστον τους εαυτού airep 
αύτος εκείνους, και ττειράσθαι αυτούς εττιθυμίαν 
4μβα\εΐν ττασι του στρατεύεσθαι, δπως εύθυμο- 
τατα 'πάντες εξορμφντο, '^(^ρφ Βε ιίβεΐναι εττΐ τάς 
Κυαξάρου θύρας, 13. τότ€ μεν Βη αττιοντες ούτω 
ττάντες εττοίουν» ttj δ' ύστεραία αμα ttj ήμερα 
τταρησαν οί εττικαίριοι iirl θύραις, σύν τούτοις 
ούν 6 Κύρος εΙσε'Κβων ιτρος τον Κυαξάρην ηρχετο 
λόγου τοιοΰΒε* 

ΟΙΒα μεν, εφη, ω Κυαξάρη, οτι & μεΧΚω \4τγειν 
σοϊ ΊτάΚαι Βοκεΐ ούΒεν ήττον ή ήμΐν αλλ' ϊσως 
αίσγύνει Χί^ειν αυτά, μή Βοκ^ς άγθομενος οτι 
τρέφεις ημάς εξοΒου μεμνήσθαι, 14. εττει ούν συ 
σιωπάς, βγω Χεξω καΐ ύττ^ρ σου και htrkp ήμων, 

^ οι iiriKaipioi are literallv ** the most timely," '* the most 
important," ** the chief oflScers." It is consistently rendered 
by "staflf-officers" in this translation, though the word may 

274 



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CYROPAEDIA, III. iii. 11-14 

these had been exempted from enrolment in the 
lines of the regular battalions; and even when it 
was necessary for any of them to report to the com- 
mander-in-chief or to transmit any order, no part of 
the army was left without a commanding officer, for 
the sergeants and corporals kept in proper order the 
divisions from which the superior officers had gone. 

12. And when the staff-officers^ had come together, 
he conducted them along the ranks, showed them in 
what good order everything was and pointed out to 
them the special strength of each contingent of the 
auxiliaries. And when he had filled them with an 

" eager desire for immediate action, he bade them 
then go to their own several divisions and tell their 
men what he had told them and try to inspire in 
them all a desire to begin the campaign, for he 
wished them all to start out in the best of spirits ; 
and early in the morning they were to meet him at 

, Cyaxares's gates. 13. Thereupon they all went 
their way and proceeded so to da At daybreak on 
the following day the staff-officers presented them- 
selves at the gates of the king. So Cyrus went in 
with them to Cyaxares and began to speak as 
follows : 

*^I am sure, Cyaxares," said he, ^^that you have He lays his 
this long time been thinking no less than we of the ^^^es'* 
proposition that I am going to lay before you ; but 
perhaps you hesitate to broach the subject for fear it 
should be thought that you speak of an expedition 
from here because you are embarrassed at having to 
maintain us. 14. Therefore, since you do not say 
anything, I will speak both for you and for ourselves. 

be applied to all who are in authority, whether military or 
civil, 

27s 
Τ 2 



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XENOPHON 

ημΐν ycbp 8οκ€Ϊ ττασιν, i'Treiirep παρβσκβυάσμεθα, 
μη ίτΓβίΒάν ίμβάΧωσιν οί ποΧέμιοι eh την σην 
γωραν, τότε μάχεσθαι, μηΒ* iv rfj φΐΧία καθή- 
μενους ημάς νητομένβιν, αλλ' Uvat ώς τάχιστα eh 
την ττοΧβμίαν, 15, νυν μ^ν yap iv Ty ση χώρα 
6ντ€ς ΤΓολλά των σων σινόμεθα ακοντβς' ην ο eh 
την TTokepiav ϊωμ€ν, τα €Κ€ίνων κακώς ττοιήσομεν 
ήΒόμενοι, 

16. "Εττατα νυν μεν συ ημάς τρέφεις ττολλά 
\ ν Βαττανων, ην 5' €κστρατ€νσώμεθα, θρεψοβίεθα €Κ 
^ της 'π•όλ€μίας, 17. €τι Sk el μ€ν μείζων τις ημΐν ο 
κίνΒννος €βΐεΧ\εν elvac εκεί ή ivOaBe, ϊσως το 
άσφάλέστατον fjv αίρετίον, νυν Bk ϊσοι μ€ν 
έκεΐνοί έσονται, ην Τ€ ivOaBe υ'πoμevωμev ήν τε eh 
τ)^ν eκeίvωv ίόvτeς υ^τavτωμev axjToh' ϊσοι Bk 
ήμeΐς οντες μaγpύμeθa, ην τε ίνθάΒε ίτηοντας 
αυτούς Β€χώμ€θα ην Τ€ etr €Κ€ίνους Ιοντες την 
μάχην συνάτττωμεν, 18. ττολυ μέντοι ήμ^ίς βe\' 
τίοσι καΐ eppωμeveστ€paLς ταΐς ^frυχah των στρα- 
τιωτών χρησόμεθα, ην ϊωμ€ν iwl τους εχθρούς καΐ 
μη ακοντ€ς οράν Βοκωμεν τους πo\eμίoυς• ττολύ 
Be κάκ€Ϊνοι μαΧΚον ημάς φοβησονται, όταν άκού- 
σωσιν οτι ου φοβούμ€νοι τττήσσομεν αυτούς οϊκοι 
καθήμενοι, αλλ* eirel αίσθανομεθα ττροσιόντας, 
άτταντωμίν Τ€ αύτοΐς, ϊν ως τάχιστα συμμίξωμεν, 
καΐ ουκ αναμενομεν Ιως &ν ή ημετέρα χώρα 
κακώται, αλλά φ θανόντες ηΒη Βηοϋμεν την eκeίvωv 
yrjv, 1 9. καίτοι, €φη, εϊ τ^ eκeίvoυς μhf φoβepωτi'• 
ρους ττοιησομεν, ημάς δ' αυτούς θαρραΧεωτέρους, 
τΓοΧύ τούτο ημΐν βγω ^ΓXeoviκτημa νομίζω, κα\ 
τον κίνΒυνον οΰτως ημΙν μεν βλάττω Χο^ίζομαι, 
τοΙς δέ ττοΧεμίοις μείζω. ττοΧύ yctp μαΧΧον, καΐ 6 
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CYROPAEDIA, III. iii. 14-19 

We are all agreed that^ inasmuch as we are quite 
ready, it is best not to sit down here in a friendly 
country and wait till the enemy have invaded your 
territory before we begin to fight, but to go as 
quickly as possible into the enemy's country. 
15. For now, while we are in your country, we do 
your people's property much injury quite against our 
will; but if we go into the enemy's coimtry, we 
shall do injury to theirs with all our hearts. 

16. ^^ In the second place, you support us now at 
great expense; whereas, if we take the field, we 
shall get our support from the enemy's country. 1 7. 
And then again, if we were likely to be in any greater 
danger there than here, we should, perhaps, have to 
choose the safer course. But their numbers will be 
the same, whether we wait here or whether we go 
and meet them in their own territory. And our 
numbers in the fight will be just the same, whether 
we engage them as they come hither or whether we 
go against them to join battle. 18. We shall, how- 
ever, find the courage of our soldiers much better and 
stronger, if we assume the offensive and show that 
we are not unwilling to face the foe ; and they will 
be much more afraid of us, when they hear that we 
do not sit down at home and cower in fear of them, 
but that, when we hear that they are coming, we 
advance to meet them to join battle as soon as 
possible, and do not wait until our country is ravaged, 
but take the initiative and devastate theirs. 19. 
And surely," he added, " if we make them more 
afraid and ourselves more courageous, I think it 
would be a great gain 'to us and it would, as I reckon 
it, lessen the danger under such circumstances for us 
and increase it for the enemy. And my father 

277 



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XENOPHON 

ττατηρ ael Xiyec καΧ σν φ^9 καΧ οΐ aWoi δέ τται/- 
Τ€9 ομοΚο^ουσιν, ω^ αΐ μάχ^αι κρίνονται μαΚΧον 
τα?9 ψνχακ ή rah των σωμάτων ρώμαις. 

20. Ό μ^ν όντως είττβ• Κυαξάρης Be aire-• 
κρίνατο, Άλλ' δττως μίν, ω Kvpe καϊ οι αλΧοι 
ΤΙέρσαι, βγω αγθομαι νμας τρ4φων μη8* ύπονο€Ϊτ€' 
το γε μέντοι ιέναι €69 την ττοΧβμίαν ήΒη καΧ €μοΙ 
8οκ€Ϊ βέΚτιον eivai τΓρο<; πάντα. 

'ΕτΓβΙ τοίννν, βφη ο Κΰρος, ομοψ^ω μονού μεν, 
σνσχεναξώμεθα καΐ ijv τά των θέων ήμιν θάττον 
auy/caTaivy, εξίωμεν ω^ τάχιστα, 

21. Έλ τούτον τοΐ<: μ^ν στρατιώταις elirov σν- 
σκενάζεσθαΐ' 6 Sk Κνρος Wve πρώτον μεν Αιϊ 
βασι\€Ϊ, έπειτα δέ καΐ τοις αΧΧοις θεοΐς, οϋς 
rjTelTo ΐΚεως καΧ ευμενείς 6ντας γγεμόνας γενέσθαι 
Ty στρατί^ καΧ παραστάτας αγαθούς καΧ σνμ- 
μάχονς καΧ σνμβονΚονς των αηαθων. 22. σνμ- 
παρεκάΧει δέ καΧ ί/ρωας γης ΜηΒίας οίκητορας 
χαΧ κηΒεμόνας, 

ΈτΓβΙ δ* ίκαΧΚιέρησέ τε καΧ άθρόον ffv αντφ το 
στράτενμα προς τοις ορίοις, τότ€ δ^ οιωνοϊς χρη- 
σάμενος αίσίοις ενέβαΧεν εΙς την ποΧεμίαν, 4πεΧ 
δέ τάχιστα Βιέβη τά δρια, εκύ αδ καΧ Την ιλά- 
σκετο χοαις καΧ θεούς θνσίαις καΧ ήρωας Άσ- 
σνρίας οίκητορας ηνμενίξετο. ταύτα Bk ποιησας 
αΐ/θις ΔίΙ πατρωφ εθνε, καΧ εϊ τις αλΧος θέων άνε- 
φαίνετο, ονΒενος ημέΧει. 

23. ΈτΓβΙ δέ καΧως ταύτα ειχεν, ενθύς τους μεν 
πεζούς προα^αγοντες ον ποΧΧην οΒον ίστρατο• 
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CYROPAEDIA, III. iii. 19-23 

always says, and so do you, and all the rest agree, 
that battles are decided more by men's souls than by 
the strength of their bodies.** 

20. Thus he spoke ; and Cyaxares answered : ^^ Do Cyaxaree 
not let yourselves imagine, Cyrus and the rest of you *pp~^®* 
Persians, that I am embarrassed at having to support 

you. As for invading the enemy's country at once, 
however, I too consider that the better plan from 
every point of view." 

'' Well then," said Cyrus, '^ since we are agreed, 
let us make ready and, as soon as ever the gods give 
us their sanction, let us march out without a moment's 
delay." 

21. Hereupon they gave th^ soldiers the word to 
make ready to break camp. And Cyrus proceeded 
to sacrifice first to Sovereign Zeus and then to the rest 
of the gods ; and he besought them to lead his army 
with their grace and favour and to be their mighty 
defenders and helpers and counsellors for the common 
good. 22. And he called also upon the heroes who 
dwelt in Media and were its guardians. 

And when the sacrifice was found to be favourable Cyfus 
and his army was assembled at the frontier, then JE^^S 
amid favourable auspices he crossed into the enemy's 
country. And as soon as he had crossed the boun- 
dary, there again he made propitiatory offerings to 
Earth with libations and sought with sacrifices to 
win the favour of the gods and heroes that dwelt in 
Ass3nria. And when he had done this he sacrificed 
again to Zeus, the god of his fathers; and of the 
other divinities that were brought to his attention he 
neglected not one. 

23. And when these rites were duly performed, 
they at once led the infantry forward a short distance 

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XENOPHON 

TrehevovTO, rok δ* ΖτττΓΟί? καταΒρομην ττοίησάμβροί 
ΤΓ€ρΐ€βά\οντο ΤΓοΧΚην καΧ παντοίαν Xeiav, καΐ' 
το ΧοιΤΓον δέ μβταστρατοΊΓβΒβνόμενοί καΐ έχοντες 
άφθονα TairiTiiSeia καΧ hyovvre^ την 'χωράν άνέ- 
μβνον τους 7ΓΟ\€μίον<ζ, 

24. Ίίνίκα δέ 'προσι6νΎ€<ζ ikeyovro ov/cirt δβχ"* 
ημβρων οΒον άττέγειν, τότβ 8η 6 Κ0/οο9 λβγβ^, *ί1 
Κναξάρη, ωρα 8η αττανταν καΧ μητ^ τοϊς ττολβ- 
μίθί<ζ hoKeiv μητ€ τοϊς ήμ€τέροΐζ φοβούμενους μη 
άντιττροσιίναι, aXKh hifKoi ωμ€ν δτι ουκ άκοντβς 
μαχούμεθα, 

25. ΈτΓβΙ he ταύτα συνέΒοξβ τφ Κυαξάρρ, οΰτω 
Βη συντ€τατ^μ€νοι irpofjaav τοσούτον καθ* ημέραν 
όσον iSoKCL αύτοΐς καΧως βγειν, καΧ Ββΐττνον μεν 
aeX κατά φως €7Γθΐοΰντο, ττυρίί Sk νύκτωρ ουκ 
ίκαον iv τφ στρατοττίΖφ" ίμττροσθβν μέντοι του 
στρατοττέΒου €καον, οττως ορώεν μβν €Ϊ τίνες νυ- 
κτός ττροσίονεν Sia το ττυρ, μη ορφντο δ* υττο των 
ττροσιοντων. ττοΧΚάκις δέ καϊ οπτισθεν του στρα- 
τοπέδου ίττυρτΐοΧουν άττάτης eveKa των ττοΧεμίων, 
ωστ εστίν δτ€ καΐ κατάσκοττοι ενέτητττον εΙς τίίς 
ττροφυΧακάς αυτών, Sia το οτησθεν τα ττυρά, είναι, 
ίτί ττροσω ^ του στρατοπέδου οίομενοί είναι, 

26. Οι μεν ουν *Κσ σύριοι κα\ οι συν αύτοΐς, 
επεΧ ηΒη ε^^ύς άΧΚηλων τά στρατεύματα iyi-• 
^γνετο, τάφρον περιεβαλοντο, όπερ καϊ νυν ετί 
ποιοΰσιν ο{ βάρβαροι βασιλείς, οπού αν. στρατό- 
πεΒεύωνται, τάφρον περιβάΧΚονται εύπετως hia 
την ποΧυγειρίαν ϊσασι yhp οτι ίππικον στρά- 

* Ίτρόσω ζ, Dindorf, Breitenbach, Marchant ; ιτάρρ» xy, 
Gemoll (far from), 

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CYROPAEDIA, III. iii. 23-26 

and pitched camp^ while with the cavalry they made 
a raid and got possession of a large quantity of every 
sort of booty. And thenceforward they shifted 
their camp from time to time, kept provisions 
supphed in abundance, and ravaged the country, 
while they awaited the enemy's approach. 

24. And when rumours came that the enemy were 
advancing and no longer ten days* march away, 
then Cyrus said : " Now, Cyaxares, is the time for us 
to go to meet them and not to let either the enemy 
or our own men suppose that we fail to advance 
against theip out of fear, but let us make it clear that 
we are not going to fight against our will." 

25. As Cyaxares agreed to this, they advanced Cyrus and 
in battle order each day as far as they thought ^^^® 
proper. Their dinner they always prepared by*g™eet 
day-light, and at night they never lighted a fire in 
camp. They did, however, keep fires burning in 

nOnt of the camp^ in order that if any one approached 
in the dark, they might see him by the light of the 
fire but not be seen. And frequently also they kept 
fires burning in the rear of the camp for the purpose 
of deceiving the enemy ; and so sometimes the 
enemy's scouts fell into the hands of the pickets ; 
for because the fires were behind, they supposed 
themselves to be still far in front of the camp. 

26. Then, when the two armies were near each A barbarian 
other, the Assyrians and their allies drew a ditch ^ιίηΓ^ 
around their camp, as even to this day the barbarian 

kings do whenever they go into camp; and they 
throw up such entrenchments with ease because of the 
multitude of hands at their ccnnmand. They take 
this precaution because they know that cavalry 

2S1 



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XENOPHON 

rivfla iv ννκτΐ ταραχω^ε^ iarc καΐ Βύσχρηστον 
αΧΚως τ€ καΐ βάρβαρον, 27. ττεττοΒισ μένους yap 
(ίγρυσι τους ίππους €πΙ ταΐς φάτναις, καΧ el τις 
€7γ' αυτούς ϊοι, epyov μίν νυκτός Χυσαι ίππους, 
epyov δέ γαΚινώσαί, epyov δ' ίπισάξαι, epyov hk 
θωρακίσασθαί, άναβάντας S ^φ' ίππων ikaaat 
Sicb στρατοπέδου παντάπασιν άΖύνατον. τούτων 
8η €V€fca πάντων καΐ οι αΧΚοι κα\ exelvoi τλ ipv- 
ματα περιβάΧΚονται, καϊ αμα αύτοΐς Soxei το iv 
€χυρω elvat εξουσίαν παρέχειν όταν βούλωνται 
μάχβσθαι. 

28. Ύοίαΰτα μ^ν 8η πονοϋντες iyyύς άλΧηΧων 
iyiyvovTO. βττεί Be προσίοντες άπεΐγρν όσον 
πapaσάyyηv, οι μ^ν ^Ασσύριοι οΰτως εστρατο- 
πεΒεύοντο ωσπερ εϊρηται, iv περιτεταφρευμένφ 
μλν καταφανεί Si, 6 Βε Κΰρος ώς εΒύνατο iv 
άφανεστάτφ, κώμας τε καϊ yη\6φoυς iπίπpoσθεv 
ποίησάμενος, νομίζων πάντα τα ποΧεμια iξaLφ' 
νης ορώμενα φοβερώτερα τοις εναντίοις είναι, 
καϊ iκείvηv pkv την νύκτα ωσπερ έπρεπε προφυ- 
\ακάς ποίησα μενοι εκάτεροι iκoιL•Lηθησav. 

29. Τ§ S* ύστεραία 6 μεν Κσσύριος καϊ 6 
Κροίσος καϊ οί aXKoL ήyεμόvες άνέπαυον τα 
στρατεύματα εν τφ ixupa>' Κύρος Βε καϊ Κυα- 
ξάρης συνταξάμενοι περιεμενον, ώς εΐ προσίοιεν 
οί ποΧέμιοί, μαγρύμενοι, ώς Βε BrfKov eyei/ero 
δτί ουκ iξίovεv οί ποΧεμιοι iK του ερύματος 
ούΒε μαχην ποιησοιντο iv ταύττ^ τχι ημέρα, 
6 pkv Κυαξάρης κάλέσάς τον Κυρον καϊ των 
αΧΚων τους iπικaφίoυς ελεξε τοιοΒε* 30. Αοκεΐ 
μοι, ^φη, ω ανΒρες, ωσπερ τιτ/χάνομβν συντε• 

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CYROPAEDIA, ΠΙ. iii. 26-30 

troops — especially barbarian cavalry — are at night 
prone to confusion and hard to manage. 27. For 
they keep their horses hobbled at the mangers, and 
if any enemy should make an attack, it is a difficult 
task to loose the horses in the darkness, it is difficult 
to bridle them, difficult to saddle them, difficult to 
put on a coat of mail, and utterly impossible to 
mount and ride through camp. For all these 
reasons and also because they think that if they are 
behind fortifications they are in a position to choose 
their time for fighting, the Assjoians and the rest of 
the barbarians throw up breastworks. 

28. With such tactics the armies were approaching 
each other ; but when, as they advanced, they were 
only about a parasang apart, the Assyrians encamped 
in the manner described in a place surrounded, 
indeed, by a ditch, but open to view. Cjn-us, on the 
other hand, encamped in a place as much out of 
sight as possible, keeping under cover behind the 
hills and villages, for he thought that if all one's 
equipment for war flashes suddenly into view, it 
inspires more terror in the enemy. And that night 
each side stationed advance guards, as was proper, 
and went to rest. 

29. And on the following day the Assyrian king Cyrue and 
and Croesus and the other commanders let their S»S?an 
troops rest within the entrenchments ; but Cyrus attack 
and Cyaxares awaited them in battle array, ready to 

fight if the enemy should come on. But when it 
was evident that the enemy would not come out 
from behind their breastworks nor accept battle that 
day, Cyaxares called Cyrus and the staff officers 
besides and spoke as follows: 30. "Men," said he, 
"I propose to march up to those fellows* breast- 

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XENOPHON 

τα^μίνοι οντα>9 Uvat προς το ίρυβΛα τ&ρ avhpmv 
και 8η\ονν δτί θέΚομεν μάχβσθοΛ. οντω ydp, 
εφη, ikv μη άντεπβξίωσιν ifcetvoi, οΐ μεν ήμέτβροι 
μαλΧον θαρρησαντ€ς άττίασιν, οι ιτοΧέμιοι 8k 
την τοΚμαν Ihovre^ ημών μαΧΧον φοβησονταί.^ 

31. Ύούτφ μ^ν ούτως iSo/cei. 6 Sk Κύρος, 
ΜηΒαμως, βφη, προς των θβων, & Κναξάρη, 
οΰτω ποιησωμεν. el ycip η&η βκφανέντβς πορευ- 
σόμεθα, ώς συ Κ€\€ύ€ΐς, νυν Τ€ προσιοντας ημάς 
οι ποΧέμιοι θβάσονται ovSkv φοβούμενοι, €ΐΒ6τες 
ΟΤΙ ίν άσφαΧεΐ βίσι τον μηΒέν παθβΐν, έπειΒάν 
τ€ μηΒ^ν ποιησαντες άπίωμεν, πάΧιν χαθορωντβς 
ημών το πΧήθος πο\ν ivSeiaTcpov τον ίαντων 
καταφρονησονσι, καΐ ανριον εξιασι πο\ύ έρρω- 
μενεστβροΛς ταΐς ηνώμαις, 32. ννν 8\ ^η, βΖ- 
δότ€9 μεν δτί πάρεσμβν, ονχ ορώντας Sk ημάς, 
ei τοντο έπίστω, ου καταφρονούσιν, αλλά ώρον- 
τιξονσι τί ποτ€ τοδτ* ίστι, χαΐ ΖιαΚε^ομενοι 
τΓβρΙ ημών iy£S* δτι ovBev παύονται, όταν δ' 
ίξιωσί, τ6τ€ hel αύτοΐς αμα φανερούς τ€ ημάς 
^ενίσθαι κα\ Ιεναι ευθύς ομοσε, εΙΧηφοτας αυτούς 
ϊνθα παΚαι εβουΧομεθα, 

33. Αέξαντος S* ούτω Κύρου συνίΒοξε ταύτα 
καΐ Κναξάρτ) καΐ τοις άΧλοις. χαΐ τότε μεν 
Βειπνοποιησάμενοι καϊ φυΧακίΐς καταστησάμενοι 
καΐ πνρίί ττολλά προς των φυΧακων καύσαντες 
εκοιμηθησαν. 

34. Τ^ δ' ύστεραία π ρω Κ,ύρος μεν εστεφανω- 
μένος εθυε, παρητ/^ειΧε 8ε χαΐ τοις αΧΧοις ομο- 
τίμοις εστεφανωμένοις προς τά ιερά παρειναι. 

* ψο04ισοντΛΐ Dindorf, most Edd.; ψοβηΗ^τορται MS8., 

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CYROPAEDIA, III. iii. 30-34 ^ 

worits, drawn up just as we are now, and show them 
that we are eager to fight. For," said he, '4f we do 
that and they do not come out against us, our men 
will come back to camp more full of courage, and 
the enemy seeing our daring will be more 
frightened." 

31. Such was his proposal. But Cyrus said: "No, 
by the gods, Cyaxares, let us not do that; never! 
For if we march out and show ourselves, as you 
suggest, the enemy will see us marching up but will 
have no fear, for they know that they are secure 
against any injury ; and when we withdraw without 
having accomplished anything, they will furthermore 
see that our numbers are inferior to their own and 
despise us ; and to-morrow they will come out with 
much stouter hearts. 32. But as matters stand 
now," said he, ^^as they know that we are here but 
do not see us, you may be sure that they do not 
despise us but inquire anxiously what in the world 
this means, and I am positive that they are talk- 
ing about us all the time. But when they come 
out, then we must show ourselves and at once 
engage them hand to hand, when we shall have 
them where we have long since been wishing to 
have them." 

33. When Cyrus had thus spoken, Cyaxares and 
the rest agreed with him. And then, when they 
had dined and stationed their sentinels and lighted 
many fires in front of the outposts, they went to 
rest. 

34. Early on the following day Cyrus crowned Cyrus ofifers 
himself with a garland and prepared to sacrifice, and ^^exhorts 
sent word to the rest of the peers to attend the t^® Ρ©®** 



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XENOPHON 

iirel Sk τ€λθ9 εΖχβν η θυσία, avyxaXiaa^ αυτούς 
eke^ev* "ΆνΒρβς, οι μ^ν θεοί, ως οι τ€ μάιπτ€ΐς 
φασί fcal έμοί avvSo/eel, μάχην τ εσβσθαι ιτρο- 
ayyiWovai /cal νίκην SiSoaai χαΐ σωτηρίαν 
ύτησχνοΰνται iv το?9 ίβροΐς. 35. iyob Se ύμΐν 
phf τΓάραινων ττοίου^ζ τινίίς γρί) elvai iv τφ 
τοιφΒε /C&V αίσχννοίμην αν olSa yap ύμας ταντα 
επισταμένους /cal μ€μ€λ€τηκ6τας καϊ άχούοντας 
Sui τέΧους [οΐάττερ βγώ],^ ωστ€ κ&ν αΧΧονς 
βΐκότως hv Βώάσκοιτ€, τάΒβ Se el μη τυ^γάνβτε 
καταν€νοηκ6τ€ς, ακούσατε 

36. ΟΟς yap νεωστΧ συμμάχους Τ€ ίγρμβν 
καϊ τΓβιρώμβθα ήμΐν αύτοΐς ομοίους ττοίβΐν, τού- 
τους δέ ήμας See ύττομιμνησκειν i<f> οίς τ€ 
ίτρεφομεθα ύττο Κυαξάρου, α τ€ ήσχοΰμβν, βφ' 
α Τ€ αυτούς τταρακβκΧηκαμεν, ων τ€ ^ ασμβνοι 
άντα/γωνισταΐ ίφασαν ήμΐν ίσβσθαι, 37. καΐ 
τούτο δ* αυτούς ύπομιμνήσκ€Τ€ οτι fjie ή ημέρα 
iei^ei ων €καστ6ς έστιν άξιος, ων yap άν 
οψιμαθβΐς ανθρωττοι yέvωvτaι, ούΒεν θαυμαστον 
€Ϊ τιν€ς αυτών και του υττομιμνησκοντος Βέοιντο, 
αλλ' άyaπητbv €ΐ κάΙ έζ ύττοβοΧής Βύναιιττο 
ανΒρβς ayoBoX elvai, 38. καϊ ταύτα μέντοι Ίτράτ- 
τοντ€ς αμα καϊ υμών αυτών ireipav Χήψεσθβ, 
6 μεν ycip Βυνάμβνος iv τφ τοιφΒβ καΐ αλλοι;9 
βέΧτίους TToieiv €ΐκ6τως αν ήΒη και έαυτω συνβι- 
Ββίη τβΧέως άyaθoς άνηρ ων, 6 Se την τούτων 
ύίΓομνησιν αύτος μονός βγων καΧ τουτ ayair&v, 

^ οΤάπβρ 4y<i) ζ, Dindorf, Marchant ; itirep iyd» y, Gremoll ; 
&σ"ΐΓ€ρ ^γώ χ ; omitted by Pantazides ; bracketed by Hug, 
Breitenbach. 

* Sy T« Schneider, Edd. ; δ<Γτ« xy ; ΊΓαρακ€κ\ημ4νων τ« ζ. 

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CYROPAEDIA, ΠΙ. iii. 34-38 

service with chaplets on their heads. And when 
the sacrifice was concluded, Cyrus called them 
together and said : '^ Men, the gods• announce, as the 
soothsayers say and also as I interpret it, that there 
is to be a battle ; through the omens of the sacrifice 
they grant us victory and promise us no loss. 
35. Now I should be ashamed indeed to suggest to 
you how you ought to conduct yourselves at such a 
time ; for I know that you understand what you 
have to do, that you have practised it, and have 
been continually hearing of it just as I have, so that 
you might properly even teach others. But if you 
happen not to have had this other matter called to 
your attention, listen. 

36. ^^ Those whom we recently took as our comrades 
and whom we are trying to make like ourselves — 
these men we must remind of the conditions on 
which we have been maintained by Cyaxares, what 
we have been in training for, why we have invited 
them to join us, and what it is in which they said 
they would gladly be our rivals. 37. And remind 
them also that this day will prove what each one is 
worth. For when people are late in learning any- 
thing, it is not surprising that some of them actually 
need a monitor; and we may be content if they 
manage even with the help of a suggestion to prove 
themselves valiant. 38. And in doing this, you will 
at the same time be getting a proof of yourselves 
also. For he who on such an occasion can make others 
more valiant would naturally also gain the conscious- 
ness that he is himself a thoroughly valiant man ; 
he, on the other hand, who keeps all to himself the 
admonition to such conduct and rests satisfied with 



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XENOPHON 

βΐχότως άν ήμίΤ€\ή αύτον^ νομίξοι. 39. τούτον 
δ' ίνβκα QVK βγω, βφη, αύτοΐς Xiyw, αλλ* ύμά<; 
κέλβνω Xeyeiv, ΐνα καΙ άρίσκβιν ύμΐν ττβφωνταΐ' 
ύμ€Ϊς ycLp καΐ ττΧησιάζβτβ αύτοΐς βκαστος τφ 
εαυτού μέρβι. ei δ' έττίστασθβ ώ? ην θαρρονντας 
τούτοις ύμας αυτούς έιτιΒβικνύητβ, καΐ τούτους 
κα\ αΧΚους ττοΧΚούς ου \6^φ αλλ' epy(p Oappeiv 
ΒιΒάξ€Τ€. 40. τέλος elirev άττιόντας άριστάν 
^1 €στ€φανω μένους καϊ στΓονΒά,ς ττοιησ α μένους ήκβιν 
βίς τάς τάξβις αύτοΐς στεφάνοις, 

ΈτΓβΙ δ* άττήΧθον, αΰθις τους ουραγούς ιτροσ- 

€κάΧ€σ€, καϊ τούτοις τοίάΒε ένετέΧΧβτο' 41. "Αϊ/- 

8ρ€ς ΤΙέρσαί, ύμ€Ϊς χαΐ των ομότιμων yeyovaTe 

καί ίτΓίΧεΧε^μένοι έστέ, οΐ Βοκ€Ϊτ€ τα μέν αΧΧα 

τοις κρατίστοις όμοιοι elvat, τ^ δ' ηΧικία κα\ 

φρονιμώτ€ροι, και τοίννν χωράν βχετβ ού^€ν 

fJTTOv ^ντιμον των πρωτοστατών^ ύμεΐς yap 

OTTiaOev 6ντ€ς τους τ α/γαθούς &ν έφορωντ€ς 

καΙ έτΓΐκέΧβύοντες αύτοΐς €τι κρβίττους ττοιοΐτβ, 

χαΐ €Ϊ τις μαΧακίζοιτο, κάΙ τούτον όρώντβς 

ούκ &ν έτΓίτρέτΓοιτβ αύτφ, 42. συμφέρβι δ' ύμΐν, 

. . -^ ί, •/ "^eiTTcp τφ καϊ αΧΧφ, το νικάν καϊ Sih την ηΧικίαν 

"^/.,,/ί.^ καΧ hici το βάρος της στοΧης, ήν δ' αρα ύμας 

^ /', ι'^ *^^^ ^^ ^μτΓροσθ^ν άνακαΧοΰντβς βττεσθαι iraperf- 

"* Γ ^ yυωσιv, ύπακούετβ αύτοΐς, καΐ οττως μη^^ iv 

" '' τούτφ αυτών ήττηθησβσθε, άντιτταρακέΧβυομενοι 

αύτοΐς θάττον r}yeiaeai^ iirl τους ΤΓοΧ€μίους. 

1 ckbrhv Edd. ; ahrhv MSS. 

^ Ίτρωτοστατων Dindorf, later Edd. ; Ίτροστατών MSS. 

* riyMBai Stephanus, Edd. ; riyuaBe MSS. 

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CYROPAEDIA, III. iii. 38-42 

that might properly consider himself but half valiant. 
39. The reason why I do not speak to them but bid 
you do so is that so they may try to please you, for 
you are in touch with them, each in his own division. 
And remember this, that if in their eyes you prove 
yourselves courageous, you will teach not only your 
comrades but many others also, not by precept 
merely but by example, to be courageous." 40. In 
concluding, he told them to go with their chaplets 
on and take luncheon and when the^ had poured 
the hbation to go, still wearing the chaplets, to their 
posts. 

And when they had gone away, he called in the He exhorts 
officers of the rear-guard and gave them the follow- ?^.^„χΐ 
ing instructions : 41. ^^ Men of Persia, you also officers 
have now taken your places among the peers, and 
you have been selected for your positions because 
you are considered in every way equal to the bravest, 
and by virtue of your years even more discreet than 
they. And so you occupy a place not at all less 
honourable than that of our front-rank men. For 
as you are behind, you can observe those who are 
valiant and by exhorting them make them still more 
valiant ; and if any one should be inclined to hang 
back and you should see it, you would not permit it. 
42. And because of your years and because of the 
weight of your armour it is more to your advantage 
than to any others' that we should be victorious. 
And if those in front call to you and bid you follow, 
obey them and see that you be not outdone by them 
even in this respect but give them a counteif cheer 
to lead on faster against the enemy. Now go and 

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XENOPHON 

zeal ά7Γΐ6ντ€<ζ, βφη, άριστησαντ€ς καΐ ύμ€Ϊς ήκ€τ€ 
σνρ το?9 αΧΧοί^ζ έστεφανωμέροι βίς τά? τάξ€ΐ<;, 

43. Οί μ€ν 8η άμφΐ Κΰρον iv τούτοις ^σαν 
οΐ δέ ^Ασσύριοι καΐ Βη ηριστηκοτβς έξυσαν Τ€ 
θρασέω<ζ καϊ τταρετάττοντο έρρωμίνως. τταρέταττβ 
δέ αντονς αύτο<ζ 6 βασιΧβύ^ζ βφ' άρματος τταρε- 
Χάννων καϊ TOcdSe irapexeXeveTo* 44. *ΆνΒρ€<ζ 
*Ασσύριοί, νυν Set ανΒρας ω^αθούς etvar νυν 
yhp ύτΓ^ρ ^ ψυγων των υμετέρων άγώϊ/ καΐ hirkp ^ 
yi]^ iv y Ιφντβ καΐ ^ οΧκων iv oh iτpάφητ€, καΐ 
xmip ^ γυναικών τ€ καΐ τέκνων καϊ irepX ττάντων 
ων ττέίΓοσθβ άτ/αθων, νικήσαντες μίν yhp απάν- 
των τούτων ύμείς ωσττερ ττροσθβν κύριοι Ισβσθβ' 
€1 δ* ηττηθησβσθβ, εΰ ϊστε δτι τταραΒώσετε ταύτα 
πάντα τοις ττοΧεμίοις. 45. ατε ουν νίκΎ/ς ερωντες 
μένοντες μάγεσθε. μωρον yet ρ το κρατεΐν βου- 
Χομενους τα τυφλά του σώματος καΐ αοττΧα 
καΧ αχειρα ταύτα εναντία τάττειν τοις ττοΧεμίοις 
φεύyovτaς^ μωρός Sk καϊ εϊ τις ζην βουΧομενος 
φεύyειv εττιγειροίη, ' εΙΒώς &τι οί μ^ν νικωντες 
σώζονται, οι Sk φεύyovτες άττοθνήσκουσι μαΧΧον 
των μενόντων μωρός Sk και εϊ τις χρημάτων 
ετΓίθυμων ^τταν προσίεται, τίς yctp ουκ όΙΒεν 
6τι οι μ^ν νικωντες τά τε εαυτών σώζουσι καϊ 
τά των ηττωμΑνων ττροσΧαμβάνουσιν, οι Βε ι^ττώ- 
μενοι αμα εαυτούς τε καϊ τά εαυτών πάντα 
άποβόΧΧουσιν; 

^ {ητ^μ ζ, Dindorf, Breitenbach, Marchant ; ir«pl xym, 
GemoU. 

^ Kol Hug ; KoX ιτφ MSS., Dindorf ; [iral irepl] Breitenbach, 
Marchant, Gemoll. 

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CYROPAEDIA, III. iii. 42-45 

get your luncheon and then go with your chaplets on 
your heads with the others to your posts." 

43. Thus Cyrus and his men were occupied ; and 
the Assyrians, when they had lunched, came out 
boldly and bravely drew up in line. And the king 
in person rode along in his chariot and marshalled 
the lines and exhorted them as follows : 44. " Men of ^rhe king 
Assyria, now is the time for you to be brave men; exhorts his 
for the struggle now impending is one for your ^^^^ 
lives, for the land in which you were bom, for the 
homes in which you were bred, for your wives and 
children and all the blessings you enjoy. For if you 
are victorious, you will have possession of all that, 
as before ; but if you are defeated, be well assured 
that you will surrender it all to the enemy. 45. 
Therefore, as you desire victory, stand and fight ; for 
it would be folly for men. who desire to win a 
battle to turn their backs and offer to the enemy the 
side of their body that is without eyes or hands or 
weapons ; and any one who wishes to live would be a 
fool if he tried to run away, when he knows that ft is 
the victors who save their lives, while those who try 
to run away are more likely to meet their death than 
those who stand their ground. And if any one de- 
sires wealth, he also is foohsh if he submits to defeat. 
For who does not know that the victors not only save 
what is their own but take in addition the property 
of the vanquished, while the vanquished throw both 
themselves and all they have away ? " 

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XENOPHON 

46. Ό μεν Βη ^Ασσύρνος iv τούτοις ^ν, ο 
δέ Κυαξάρη<ζ ττέμττων 7Γ/>ο9 τον Κνρον eXeyev 
8τι η8η καφος είη ayeiv eirX τού^ 'ΐΓθλ€μίους• 
Εί ycip νυν, €φη, en oXiyot elalv oi βξω τον 
έρύματος, iv φ &ν ιτροσίωμεν ττολλοί eaovrar 
μί) otv άναμείνωμβν βως &ν ττΧβίονς ημών ye- 
νωνται, αλλ' ϊωμ€ν €ως €τι οΐόμβθα βύττβτά? 
&ν αυτών κρατήσαι, 

47. Ό δ' αΰ Κΰρο<ζ αττβκρίνατο, *Ω Κναξάρη, el 
μη iirep ήμισυ αύτων ίσονται οι ι^ττι/^βϊ'τβς, €v 
ϊσθι ΟΤΙ ημα<ζ μεν βρουσι φοβονμΑνου^ το ΊτΧηθο^ζ 
το?9 oTdyoi^ έτΓίγειρησαι, αύτοϊ δέ ου νομιουσιν 
ήττήσθαι, αλλ' αΧΧης σοι μάχης Ββησβι, iv τ} 
αμ€ΐνον &ν ϊσως βουΧεύσαιντο ή νυν βεβούΧβυνται, 
7ΓαραΒ6ντ€<; εαυτούς ήμΐν ταμιβνβσθαι ωσθ" οττο- 
σοις &ν βουΧωμβθα αύτων μάχεσθαι, 

48. Ot μ^ν Βη ayyeXoi ταυτ άκούσαντες φχρντο. 
iv τούτφ 8k ήκ€ Χ.ρύσάντας 6 ΤΙέρσης καΐ αΧΧοι 
Tivk^ των ομότιμων αύτομοΧονς ατ/οντ€ς. καϊ 6 
Κύρος ωστΓβρ βίκος ηρώτα τους αντομοΧους τά ix 
των τΓοΧεμίων, οι δ' eXeyov δτ* iξίoUv Τ€ ή8η 
σύν τοις οττΧοις καϊ τταρατάττοι αυτούς αύτος 6 
βασιΧβύς εξω ων καΐ τταρακεΧεύοιτο μ€ν 8η τοις 
άβι ίξω ούσι ττολλά Τ€ και Ισγυρά, ως βφασαν 
Xeyeiv τους άκούοντας. 

49. 'Ένθα Sff 6 Χ,ρυσάντας eiire, Ύί δ', βφη, ω 
JiOpe, €1 καΐ σύ συyκaXeσaς §ως €τι ίξβστι 
τταρακέΧενσαιο, ei αρα τι και σύ αμείνους ττοιη- 
σαις τους στρατιώτας; 

50. ΚαΙ ό Κΰρος είττεν, *Ω ^ρυσάντα, μηΖίν 
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CYROPAEDIA, III. iii. 46-50 

46. Thus the Assyrian was occupied ; and Cyaxares Cyaxaree 
sent to Cyrus to say that now was the time to advance FmS^u" 
upon the enemy. " For/* said he, " although those *****^^ 
outside the fortifications are as yet but few, they will 
become many while we are advancing ; let us there- 
fore not wait until their numbers are more than our 

own, but let us go while yet we think we could de- 
feat them easily." 

47. ^^ But, Cyaxares," Cyrus answered, *^ if it is Cyrus 
not more than half of them that are defeated, you counsels 
may rest assured that they will say that we attacked *^®^^ 
only a few because we were afraid of their main body, 

and they will maintain that they have not been de- 
feated ; the result will be that you will find another 
battle necessary ; and then they may perhaps plan 
better than they have now in delivering them- 
selves so completely to our disposal that we may 
fight as many or as few of them as we please." 

48. The messengers received this answer and were 
gone. And at this juncture Chrysantas, the Persian, 
and certain other peers came up with some deserters. 
And Cyrus, as a matter of course, asked the deserters 
what was going on among the enemy ; and they said 
that the troops were already coming out under arms 
and that the king was out in person marshalling them 
and addressing them with many earnest words of 
exhortation as they came out in succession. So, 
they said, those reported who heard him. 

49. *^ How would it do, Cyrus," Chrysantas then The value 
asked, " for you to get your men together, too, while «οηϊίο^ 
yet you may, and exhort them, ahd see if you also valour 
might make your soldiers better men." 

50. " Do not let the exhortations of the Assyrian 

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XENOPHON 

σ€ ΧίΠΓούντων ai του ^Ασσυρίου irapaKekevaei,^• 
ονΒεμία yap iariv ούτω καΧη TrapcUveat^ ^τις 
^^j \ τους μη οντάς άβαθους αύθημβρον άκούσαντας 
^ άτγαθούς TTOLrjaer ουκ αν οΰν τοξότας ye, el μη 
Ιμ7Γροσθ€ν τοΰτο μeμe'keτηιc6τeς elevj ούΒ^ μην 
ακοντιστώ;, oihe μί)ν ίτητέας, αλλ' ουδέ μην τά 
ye σώματα Ικανούς irovelv, ήν μη 7Γρ6σθ€ν ησκη- 
κ6τ€ς &σι. 

51. ΚαΙ 6 Χρυσάντας ehrev, 'Αλλ' άρκ€Ϊ τοι, 
ω ^Ope, fjv τάς ψυχας αύτων άμ€ίνονας τταρα- 
κeKeυσάμ€voς ττοιησ^ς. 

*Η καΐ Βύναιτ αν, €φη 6 Κΰρος, eh \6yo^ 
ρηθ€ΐς αυθημερόν αΙΒοΰς μ^ν εμπΧήσαι τά? ψυχλς 
των άκουοντων, ή άπο των αισχρών κωΧυσαι, 
Ι ττροτρέψαι Se ως χρη επαίνου μεν ένεκα ττάντα 
\ μ^ν ΤΓονον, ττάντα δέ κίνΒυνον υττοίύεσθαι, λα- 
βείν δ' εν ταϊς yvώμaις βεβαίως τούτο ως αίρετώ- 
τερον εστί μαχόμενους άιτοθνήσκειν μ&ΧΧον ή 
φεύy οντάς σώζεσθαι; 52. dip ουκ, εφη, εΐ μέΧ- 
Χουσι τοιαΰται Βιάνοιαι εyyρaφησεσθaι άνθρώ- 
ΊΓοις καΙ ίμμονοι εσεσθαι, ττρωτον μλν νόμους 
υιτάρξαι Βεΐ τοιούτους Βι ων τοις μ^ν άγαθοΐς 
ίντιμος καϊ εΧευθέριος 6 βίος τταρασκευασθησεται, 
τοις δέ κακοΐς ταπεινός τε καΐ άXyειvbς καϊ 
αβίωτος 6 αΙων εττανακείσεται; 

53. "ΕτΓβίτα ΒιΒασκάΧους οΐμαι 8εΐ καϊ αρ- 
V / χοντας εττΐ τούτοις yεvεσθaι οΐ τίνες Βείξουσί τε 
ορθώς καΧ 8ι8άξουσι καΐ εθιοϋσι ταΰτα hpav, εστ 
&ν iyyh^Tai αύτοΐς τους μεν ώγαθούς καΐ ευ- 
κΤ^^εεΐς εύΒαιμονεστάτους τφ οντι νομίζειν, τους 

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CYROPAEDIA, III. iii. 50-53 

trouble you in the least, Chrysantas/* Cyrus answered; 
" for no speech of admonition can be so fine that it 
will all at once make those who hear it good men if 
they are not good already ; it would surely not make 
archers good if they had not had previous practice in 
shooting ; neither could it make lancers good, nor 
horsemen ; it cannot even make men able to endure 
bodily labour, unless they have been trained to it 
before." 

51. "But, Cyrus," answered Chrysantas, "it is 
really enough if you make their souls better with 
your words of exhortation." 

^^ Do you really think," returned Cyrus, "that one 
word spoken could all at once fill with a sense of 
honour the souls of those who hear, or keep them 
from actions that would be wrong, and convince 
them that for the sake of praise they must undergo 
every toil and every danger ? Could it impress the 
idea indelibly upon their minds that it is better to die 
in battle than to save one's life by running away ? 
52. And," he continued, " if such sentiments are to 
be imprinted on men's hearts and to be abiding, 
is it not necessary in the first place that laws be 
already in existence such that by them a life of 
freedom and honour shall be provided for the good, 
but that upon the bad shall be imposed a life of 
humiliation and misery which would not be worth 
living } 

53. " And then again, I think, there must be, in 
addition to the laws, teachers and officers to show 
them the right way, to teach them and accustom 
them to do as they are taught, until it becomes a 
part of their nature to consider the good and honour- 
able men as really the most happy, and to look upon 

295 



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XENOPHON 

Sk κακούς και Βνσκ\€€Ϊ<ζ άθΧιωτάτον^ απάντων 
ή*γ€Ϊσθαι. οντω yhp Sec Βιατβθήναι tou9 μ€\- 
Χοντας τον άττο των ιτοΧβμίων φόβου την μά- 
θησιν κρείττονα τταρέξβσθαι, 54. el Se τοι Ιόν- 
των ek μάχην συν οττλοί^, iv ω ττοΧΧοΙ καΐ των 
τταΧαιων μαθημάτων εξίστανται, iv τούτφ Βννη- 
σ€ταί τις άίΓορραψφΒησας παραχρήμα ανΒρας 
πο\€μικού<; ποιήσαι, πάντων hv ραστον eϊη καϊ μα- 
Oeiv καϊ ΒιΒάξαι την pje^yiaTqv των iv άνθρώποις 
άρ€την, 55. iπel βγωγ', €φη, ovS* αν τούτοι^; iπί- 
aTevov iμμ6voις eaeadai ον<ζ νυν €χοϊ/τ€9 παρ 
ήμΐν αύτοΐ'ξ ήσκοΰμ€ν, el μη καϊ υ μας ίώρων 
παρόντας, at καΐ πapaheί'yμaτa αύτοΐς eaeaOe 
οϊους χρη elvai καϊ ύποβαΧ^ΐν Βυνησ€σθ€, ην τι 
iπιXavθάvωvτaι, τους S* άπaιSeύτovς παντά- 
πασιν apeTrj^ θαυμάζοιμ αν, ίφη, ω ^ρυσάντα, 
ei τι πΧέον &ν ώφ€Χησ€ΐ€ Xoyo^ καΧως ρηθ€\ς 
€ΐς avBpayaeiav fj τους άπαι8€ύτους μουσικής 
ίσμα κάΧώς άσθ^ν eh μουσικην, 

56. οι μ€ν ταύτα SieXeyovTO, 6 δέ Κυαξάρης 
πάΧιν πέμπων eXeyev δτι ίξαμαρτάνοι διατριβών 
καϊ ουκ ayωv ώς τάχιστα iπl τους πoXeμίoυςl 
καϊ 6 Κΰρος άπeκpίvaτo 8η τότβ τοις άyyέXoις, 
Άλλ' eZ μ€ν ΐστω, ίφη, οτι ονπω eMv ίξω όσους 
hel• καΧ ταύτα άπayyiXXeτe αύτφ iv άπασιν 
δμως Se, iπeϊ iκeίvφ SoKei, αξω ή8η, 

57. Ύαύτ €ΐπων καϊ προσ€υξάμ€νος τοις θ€θΐς 
^ζνΎ^ το στpάτeυμa. ώς S* ηρξατο ayeiv, ή8η ^ 
θάττον rjyeiTO, οι δ' eΐπovτo eύτάκτως μ^ν Sia 

^ Ι^^η Hug, Breitenbach, Marchant ; Ιίτι xy ; ^irel ζ ; αυ- 
τί <κα> GemoU ; omitted by Dindorf . 

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CYROPAEDIA, III. iii. 53-57 

the bad and the disreputable as the most wretched 
of all people. For such ought to be the feelings of 
those who are going to show the victory of training 
over fear in the presence of the enemy. 54. But ίζ 
when soldiers are about to go armed into battle, 
when many forget even the lessons oft learned of old, 
if then any one by an oratorical flourish can then 
and there make men warhke, it would be the 
easiest thing under heaven both to learn and to teach 
the greatest virtue in the world. 55. For even in 
the case of those whom we have kept and trained 
among ourselves, I, for my part, should not trust 
even them to be steadfast, if I did not see you also 
before me, who will be an example to them of what 
they ought to be and who will be able to prompt them 
if they forget an3rthing. But I should be surprised, 
Chrysantas, if a word well spoken would help those 
wholly untrained in excellence to the attainment of 
manly worth any more than a song well sung would 
help those untrained in music to high attainments 
in music." 

56. Thus they conversed. And again Cyaxares sent Cyaxares 
to Cyrus to say that he was making a serious mistake cilj^e* 
to delay instead of leading as soon as possible against 

the enemy. And then Cyrus answered the messen- 
gers saying : " Very well ; but I want him to know 
that there are not yet as many of them outside the 
breastworks as we ought to have ; and tell him this 
in the presence of all. Nevertheless, since he thinks 
best, I will lead on at once." 

57. When he had said this, he prayed to the gods The chaise 
and led out his army. And as soon as he began to Poraians 
advance, he led on at a double-quick pace and they 



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XENOPHON 

το ίττίστασθαί τ€ καΐ μεμεΚ^τηκίναι ev τάξβί 
iropeveaOai, βρρωμένως δέ Sici το φιΧονίκω^ ^χ^ιν 
7Γ/Ε)09 άλλ7;λοι;9 fcctl δίά το τά σώματα €κπ€7Γθ' 
νησθαι καΧ Sici το πάντα<ζ άρχοντας του? πρώτο- 
στάτα<ζ elvac, ήΒβω^ζ δβ Sih το φρονίμω<ζ βχβνν ηττί- 
σταντο yhp καΐ i/c ττόΚΧον ούτω? ίμ€μαθηκ€σαν 
άσφαΧέστατον elvai icaX ραστον το ομόσε ievac 
ToU 7ΓΟλ€μίοι<ζ, αλλω9 τ€ καΐ τοξοταις καϊ άκοντι- 
σταΪ9 fcal Imrevaiv, 

58. 'Έΐω? δ* €Τί βξω ββΧων ^σαν, τταρηηιγ^ύα ο 
Κδ/οο? σύνθημα Ttev^ σύμμαχος κοΧ η^εμών, 
iirei δέ ιτάΧιν fJK€ το σύνθημα άνταττοΒιΒόμβνον, 
εζηρχεν αύτο9 ο Κΰρο<ζ^ τταιανα τον νομιζό- 
μβνον οί δέ θεοσεβως iravres συνεττηγησαν 
/Χ€7αλΐ7 τ'ρ φων^• ev τφ τοιούτφ yhp όη οί 
ΒεισιΒαίμονβ^ '^ττον τους ανθρώπους φοβούνταν, 
59. eVei δ' ο Traihv iyevcTO, αμα ττορβυόμενοι οί 
ομότιμοι φαώροί [τΓβπαώβυμένοι] ^ καΐ irapo- 
ρωντβς 649 άΧΚηΧους, ονομάζοντβς τταραστάτας, 
€7Γΐστάτας, Xeyoi/T€9 ττοΧύ το "Αγετ avSpa φίΧοι, 
^Άγβτ avSpe^ αγαθοί, τταρεκάΧουν άΧΧηΧους 
€7Γ€σθαι. οί δ' δττισθβν αυτών άκούσαντβς άντι- 
τταρεκέΚεύοντο τοΙς πρώτοις η^είσθαι ερρωμένως. 
fjv δέ μεστον το στράτευμα τφ Κύρφ προθυμίας, 
φιΧοτιμίας, ρώμης, θάρρους, παρακεΧβυσμοϋ, σω- 
φροσύνης, πειθούς, όπερ οϊμαι Βεινοτατον τοις 
ύπεναντίοις, 

^ ainhs δ Kvpos Hug, Breitenbach, Nitscbe, Marchant, 
Geinoll ; al δίοσκ6{-ου y)pois yC {again to the eom of Ztria 
[Castor and Pollux]) ; al• δ Kvpos zC^F*, Dindorf ; δ Kvpos &μα 
Βιοσκόροΐί Έ. 
• 2 'ΐτ€ΊΓαώ€νμ4νοι MSS., Dindorf, et al. ; bracketed by Hug, 

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CYROPAEDIA, III. iii. 57-59 

followed in good order, for they understood marching 
in line and had practised it ; moreover, they followed 
courageously, because they were in eager rivalry with 
one another and because their bodies were in thorough 
training and because the front-rank men were all 
officers ; and they followed gladly, because they were 
intelligent men ; for they had become convinced by 
long instruction that the easiest and safest way was 
to meet the enemy hand to hand — especially if that 
enemy were made up of bowmen, spearmen, and 
cavalry. 

58. While they were still out of range, Cyrus 
passed the watchword, Zeus our Helper and our 
Guide. And when the watchword came back and 
was delivered again to him, Cjnrus himself began the 
usual paean, and they all devoutly joined with a loud 
voice in the singing, for in the performance of such 
service the God-fearing have less fear of men. 59. 
And when the paean was ended, the peers marched 
on cheerily [, well-disciplined], looking toward one 
another, calling by name to comrades beside them 
and behind them, and often saying : " On, friends," 
^'On, brave fellows;" thus they encouraged one 
another to the charge. And those behind, hearing 
them, in their turn cheered the front line to lead 
them bravely on. So Cyrus's army was filled with 1 
enthusiasm, ambition, strength, courage, exhortation, 
self-control, obedience ; and this, I think, is the most , 
formidable thing an enemy has to face. 

Breitenbach, Marchant; re ireir. z; <&>tc ir6irat$6v/AcVot 
GemoU. 

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XENOPHON 

60. Ύώρ δ' ^Ασσυρίων of μ€ν άττο των αρμάτων 
ττρομαχοΰντβς, ώ<ζ iyyv^ ή8η irpoaepiyw το 
ΙΙβρσικον πΧήθος, άνέβαινόν τ€ έττΐ τά άρματα 
καϊ υτΓβξη^ον ιτρο^ το βαυτων ττΚήθο^' οι δέ 
τοξότβΐ καΐ άκοντίσταΐ καϊ σφβνΒονηται αυτών 
άφίβσαν τά βέΧη ττοΧύ ττρίν έξικνβΐσθαι, 61. ώ? 
δ' iiriovTe^ οι ΤΙέρσαι εττέβησαν των άφβιμένων 
βέΚων, έφθέ^γξατο Βη 6 Κΰρος, "ΆνΒρβ^ άριστοι, 
ήΒη θαττον τις ίων €7Γΐ8€ΐκνντω ίαυτον καΧ τταρ^^γ- 
^υάτω, οί μ^ν 8η παρβΒίΒοσαν ίπτο δέ ττρο- 
θυμίας καΐ μένους καΙ του σττβύΒειν συμμίξαι 
8ρ6μου τιν€ς ^ρζαν, συνβφείττβτο δέ καϊ ττασα η 
φάΚα^γξ Βρόμφ, 62. καΐ αύτος Sk ο ίίΰρος 
€ΊΓΐ\αθ6μ€νος του βάΒην Βρόμφ ψ/€Ϊτο, καϊ αμα 
βφθέ^γ'γβτο* Ύίς βψεται; Ύίς άτγαθος; Ύίς ττ ρωτάς 
ανΒρα καταβαΚ^ί; 

Οί Be άκούσαντβς ταύτο τούτο iφθ€yyovτo, καϊ 
Βια ττάντων Be ωσττβρ Traprjyyua οΰτως εχώρβί' 
Ύίς εψβται; Ύίς άβαθος; 

63. Οί μλν Βη ΐΐέρσαι οΰτως ίχοντβς ομόσβ 
ίφέροντο,^ οϊ ye μην ττοΧέμιοι ούκέτι ίΒύναντο 
μeveιv, αλλά στpaφevτeς eφeυyov €ΐς το Ιρυμα. 
64. οί δ' aif Hepaai ^κατά τ€ τά9 eiσ6Boυς €φ€π6- 
μ€νοι ωθουμένων αύτων ποΧΚούς κατ€στρώννυσαν, 
τους δ' €^9 τά? τάφρους εμπίπτοντας €π€ΐσπη- 
Bωvτeς eφ6veυov ανΒρας ομοϋ καΐ ίππους* Ινια yap 
των αρμάτων €ΐς τας τάφρους ηvayκάσθη φβύ- 
yovTa iμπeσelv, 65. κα\ οί των ΉίηΒων δ' ίππ€Ϊς 
6pωvτeς ταύτα ήΧαυνον €ίς τους ιππέας τους των 
300 



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CYROPAEDIA, III. iii. 60-65 

60. But when the main body of the Persians began The 
to get close to them^ those of the Assyrians who dis- {^^^^ 
mounted from their chariots and fought in front of Jhe^iS^ 
their army remounted their chariots and gradually 
drew back to their own main body, while the bow- 
men, spearmen, and slingers let fly their missiles long 
before they could reach the enemy. 61. And when 
the Persians, charging on, set foot upon the missiles 
that had been discharged, Cyrus shouted, " Bravest 
of men, now let each press on and distinguish him- 
self and pass the word to the others to come on 
faster." And they passed it on; and under the 
impulse of their enthusiasm, courage, and eagerness 
to close with the enemy some broke into a run, 
and the whole phalanx also followed at a run. 
62. And even Cyrus himself, forgetting to proceed 
at a walk, led them on at a run and shouted as 
he ran : " Who will follow ? Who is brave ? Who 
will be the first to lay low his man ? '* 

And those who heard him shouted with the same 
words, and the cry passed through all the ranks as 
he had started it : ^^Who will follow? Who is 
brave?" 

63. In such spirit the Persians rushed to the They flee 
encounter, and the enemy could not longer stand intoen^!^ 
their ground but turned and fled back into their n»®'»*» 
entrenchments. ^ 64. And the Persians on their part, 
following them up to the gates, mowed many of 
them down as they were pushing and shoving one 
another; and upon some who fell into the ditches 
they leaped down and slew them, both men and 
horses; for some of the chariots were forced in 
their flight to plunge into the ditches. 65. And 
when the Median cavalry *saw this, they also charged 

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XENOPHON 

ΤΓοΧεμίων ol S* ένίκΚιναν καΧ αύτοί,^ ένθα 8η 
καΐ ΐτΓττων Βιω^γμο^ ffv καΧ άντρων καΙ φόνος Se ^ 
αμφοτέρων. 

66. οι δ* €ΐ/το9 του ίρύματος των ^Ασσυρίων 
ίστηκότβς €7γΙ της κβφαΧής της τάφρου τοξεύβι,ν 
μ€ν ή άκοιηίζειν εις τους κατακαίνοντας οντ€ 
4φρ6νουν οΰτ€ iSovavTo Βιλ τά 8€ΐνλ οράματα καΐ 
Sia τον φόβον, τάχα δέ καϊ καταμαθοντβς των 
Ilepa&v τινας Βιακβκοφοτας προς τ ας βΙσοΖους του 
βρυματος βτράττοντο καΐ άττο των κβφαΧων των 
evhov? 67. ΙΒοΰσαι S* αϊ γυναίκες των Άσσυρίων 
καΐ των συμμάχων ηΒη φυ^γην καϊ ev τφ στρα- 
τοπέΒφ avifcpayov zeal eOeov βίΰττβπΧη^γ/ιέναι, αΐ 
μ^ν ,καΐ τέκνα Ιχουσαι, αί Be κα\ νβώτβρα^, 
καταρρη^νύμεναί τ€ ττέττΧους καϊ Βρυτττόμεναί, 
κα\ ίκ€Τ€ύουσαι ττάντας οτφ €ντυγχάνοί€ν μη 
φεύ^βιν κατάΧνποντας αύτάς, άΧλ' αμυναι καϊ 
τέκνοις καΧ έαυταΐς καϊ σφίσνν αύτοΐς, 

68. "Ενθα Βη καΐ αύτοϊ οί βασιλείς συν τοις 
ΤΓίστοτάτοις στί£ΐ'Τ€9 ίττί τίίς εΙσοΒους καΧ άνα- 
βάντβς €7γΙ τλς κβφαΧΛς καΐ αύτοϊ ίμάχοντο καϊ 
τοις αΧΚοις τταρβκεΚεύοντο» 

69. *ίΐ9 δ' Ιγϊ/ω 6 Κύρος τά yiyvop^eva, Ββίσας 
μη, καϊ el βιάσαιντο €Ϊσω, o\£yoi οντες υττο 
ΤΓοΧΚων σφαΧείέν τι, ιταρηγ^ύησ^ν hri ττόΒ* 
άνά/γ€ΐν €ξω ββΧων [καϊ ττβίθβσθαι]. * 

70. *Ένθα Βη &γνω τΐ9 &ν τους ομότιμους ττετται- 

^ αύτοΙ Sauppe, Breitenbach, Marchant, GeinoU ; τούτοι$ ζ» 
Dindorf ; τούτον» xy ; οίτοχ Pantazides. 

2 Bh Pantazides, moat Edd.; i^ MSS., Dindorf. 

' T&v Mop z, £dd. ; i^evyov xy. 

' ^ Ktu, ΊΓ€ί0€σθαι MSS., Dindorf ; bracketed by Womer and 
most Edd. 

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CYROPAEDIA, III. iii. 65-70 

upon the enemy's cavalry ; but the latter gave way, 
like the rest. Then followed a pursuit of horses and 
men and slaughter of both. , 

66. And those of the Assyrians inside the fort who The panic in 
stood upon the rampart of the breastworks neither ^^^*^^ 
had the presence of mind to shoot arrows or hurl 
spears at the enemy who were mowing down their 
ranks, nor had they the strength to do so because of 
the awful spectacle and their own panic fear. And 
presently, discovering that some of the Persians had 
cut their way through to the gates in the 
embankment, they turned away even from the inner 
rampart of the breastworks. 67. And the women of 
the Assyrians and their allies, seeing the men in 
flight even inside the camp, raised a cry and ran 
panic-stricken, both those who had children and the 
younger women as well, while they rent their 
garments, tore their cheeks, and begged all whom 
they met not to run away and leave them but to 
defend both them and their children and themselves 
as well. 

68. Then even the kings themselves with their 
most trusty followers took their stand at the gates, 
mounted upon the ramparts, and both fought in 
person and encouraged the rest to fight. 

69. But when Cyrus realized what was going on, he Cyrus 
feared lest his men, even if they did force their way "eta^t* 
in, might be worsted by superior numbers, for hisj 
own men were but few ; so he gave orders to retreat^ 

still facing the foe, until they were out of range. \ 

70. Then one might have seen the ideal discipline | 



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XENOPHON 

^βυμέι/ους ώ<ζ Sel• ταχύ μεν yap αύτοΙ hreiOovTO, 

ταγύ δέ τοΐ^ αΧΚοι^ iraprjyyeXKov, ώς δ' €ξω 

βέλων eyejipvTo, βστησαν Karh γωραν, ΊΤοΧύ 

Ι ^ μαΧΚον χοροΰ ακριβώς βΙΒότβ'ζ οπού eoei βκαστον 

^ ' ^ αύτων rfeveaOau 



304 



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CYROPAEDIA, III. iii. 70 

of the peers ; for they themselves obeyed at once and 
at once passed on the word to the rest. And when 
they were out of range, they halted in their regular 
positions, for they knew much more accurately than 
a chorus, each the spot where he should stand. 



305 

VOL. I. X 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



BOOK IV 

THE CAPTURE OF THE FIRST AND SECOND 
CAMPS OF THE ASSYRIANS 



X 2 



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y 



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I 

1. Meii^a? δέ ο Κδ/οο9 μέτριον γρονον αυτού 
συν τφ στρατβύματι καΐ ΒηΚώσας οτι ίτοι- 
μοί eiat μάχβσθαι εϊ τι<ζ έξέρχοίτο, ώ^ ούΒεϊ^ί 
άντβξ^ει, aTT'ijyayev όσον eSo/cet καΧως βχειν 
καΧ ίστρατοτΓβΒβύσατο. φυΧακ^'ξ Se κατΛστη- 
σάμβνο^ καΐ σ κοιτούν ττροττέμψας, στά9 eh το 
μέσον συνβκαλεσε τους εαυτού στρατιώτας καϊ 
eXe^e τοιάΒβ• 

2. "AvSpcf; ΤΙέρσαι, πρώτον μ^ν τους θεούς 
βγω επαινώ όσον Βύναμαι, καϊ ύμείς Βε πάντες, 
οΐμαΐ' νίκης τε yctp τετυχηκαμεν καϊ σωτηρίας, 
τούτων μλν ούν χρίι χαριστήρια &ν &ν εχωμεν 
τοΙς θεοΐς άποτελεΐν, εγώ οέ σύμπαντας μλν 
υμάς ή8η επαινώ* το yhp ^^ετ^ενημίνον Ipyov 
σύμπασιν ύμΐν καΧώς άποτετέΧεσται* ων δ* 
έκαστος άξιος, επειΖίιν παρ &ν προσήκει πύθω- 
μαι, τότε την άξίαν εκάστφ καί Χο^ψ καΐ ^ρ^φ 
πειράσομαι άποΒιΒοναι, 3. τον δ' εμού εγγύτατα 
ταξίαρχον Χρυσάνταν ούΒεν αΧΧων Βεομαι πυν- 
θάνεσθαι, αλλ' αύτος οΐΒα οίος ^ν τά μ^ ycip 
αΧΧα οσαπερ οΐμαι καΐ πάντες υμεΐς ίποιεΐτε' 
επεί δ' εγώ παρη^^ύησα επανά^γειν καΧέσας αυτόν 
3ο8 



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BOOK IV 



1. Cyrus remained there for a while with his army Cyrus 
and showed that they were ready to do battle, if any 
one should come out. But as no one did come out 
against him, he withdrew as far as he thought proper 
and encamped. And when he had stationed his 
outposts and sent out his scouts, he called together 

his own men, took his place in their midst, and 
addressed them as follows : 

2. ^^Fellow-citizens of Persia, first of all I praise the His address 
gods with all my soul; and so, I believe, do all of^^ 
you; for we not only have won a victory, but our 

lives have been spared. We ought, therefore, to 
render to the gods thank-offerings of whatsoever we 
have. And I here and now commend you as a body, 
for you have all contributed to this glorious achieve- 
ment ; but as for the deserts of each of you individ- 
ually, I shall try by word and deed to give every man 
his due reward, when I have ascertained from proper 
sources what credit each one deserves. 3. But as to chrysantas 
Captain Chrysantas, who fought next to me, I have p'"»'"^»*^ 
no need to make enquiry from others, for I myself 
know how gallant his conduct was; in everything 
else he did just as I think all of you also did ; but 

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XENOPHON 

ονομαστί, άνατβταμένος οίτο^ t})V μάγοΛραν, ώς 
τταίσων ττοΚέμιον, υττηκουσί re ίμοί €υθύ<ζ άφβί^ί 
τ€ h βμέλΧβ 7Γ0ΐ€ΪΡ το ίΰέλβυόμενον hrparrev 
αύτο^ζ τ€ ^hp eiravrj^e καΧ roh αλΧοις μαΚα 
iin,<nr€px&<; τταρη^^ύα' ωστ^ ίφθασβν ίξω ββΧων 
την ταξίν ποιτίσα^ ττρίν τους iroXepiov^ κατα- 
νόησαν ΟΤΙ άν€χωροΰμ€ν καΐ τόξα βντβίνασθαι 
καϊ τά τταλτά ίτταφβΐναί' ώστε αύτ&ξ τ€ άβλαβης 
καϊ τους αύτοϋ άνΒρας άβΧαββΐς δίά το ιτβίθβσθαί 
τταρέχεταν. 4. αΚΧοχ;ς Β\ εφη, 6 ρω tct ρω μένους, 
7Γ€ρΙ ων iyob σκβψάμβνος iv οττοίω χρονφ €τρώ- 
θησαν, τ6τ€ t})V yvώμηv ττβρΧ αύτων άποφανοΰμαι, 
'Κρυσάνταν δέ ώς καΐ έρ^άτην των έν ποΧίμφ 
καΐ φρόνιμον καϊ αργεσθαι ίκανον καϊ αργβι,ν 
γιΧίαρχία μ^ ή8η τιμώ' όταν δέ καΐ αΚΧο τι 
αγαθόν 6 θ^ος δώ, ουδέ τ6τ€ βτηΧήσομαι αύτοΰ. 

5. Kai Ίτάντας δέ βούΧομαί ύμας, ίφη, ύττομνή- 
σοΛ' h yhp νυν βίδβτβ iv Ty μάχρ TtjSe, ταύτα 
€νθυμούμ€νοί μήττοτε τταύβσθβ, ΐνα ιταρ υμΐν 
y αύτοΐς ael κρίνητε ττότβρον ή άρ€τη μαΧΧον ή 
ή φυ^γη σώξ€ί τλς ψυ'χίίς καϊ ττοτβρον οι /ιΛχβσθαι 
βθέΧοντβς ραον άτταΧΧαττουσιν ή οί ουκ βθέΧοντβς, 
καΐ τΓοίαν Tivct ήΒονί)ν το νικαν τταρέχβΐ' ταύτα 
yhp νύν άριστα κρίναιτ &ν ireipav τ€ αύτων 
έχοντες καΧ άρτι ^&^βνημΑνου του ιτρά/γματος. 
6. καϊ ταύτα μέν, βφη, άεϊ διανοούμενοι βεΧτίους 
&ν €Ϊητ€, 

ΐίύν δέ ώ9 θεοφιΧεΐς καϊ ά<γαθοϊ καϊ σώφρονες 

* &στ* xy, Breitenbach, Marchant, Gemoll; icrr* ζ, Din- 
dorf, Hug {until), 

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CYROPAEDIA, IV. i. 3-6 

when I gave the word to retreat and called to him 
by name^ even though he had his sword raised to 
smite down an enemy he obeyed me at once and 
refrained from what he was on the point of doing 
and proceeded to carry out my order ; not only did 
he himself retreat but he also with instant prompt- 
ness passed the word on to the others ; and so he 
succeeded in getting his division out of range be- 
fore the enemy discovered that we were retreating 
or drew their bows or let fly their javelins. And 
thus by his obedience he is unharmed himself and he 
has kept his men unharmed. '4. But others," said 
he, ^^ I see wounded ; and when I have enquired at 
what moment of the engagement they received their 
wounds, 1 will then express my opinion concerning 
them. But Chrysantas, as a mighty man of war, 
prudent and fitted to command and to obey — him I 
now promote to a colonelship. And when God shall 
vouchsafe some further blessing, then, too, I shall not 
forget him. 

5. "I wish also to leave this thought with all of Theiessone 
you," he went on: "never cease to bear in mind **' *^® ^*^® 
what you have just seen in this day's battle, so that 
you may always judge in your own hearts whether 
courage is more likely to save men's lives than 
running away, and whether it is easier for those to 
withdraw who wish to fight than for those who are 
unwiUing, and what sort of pleasure victory brings ; 
for you can best judge of these matters now when 
you have experience of them and while the event is 
of so recent occurrence. 6. And if you would always 
keep this in mind, you would be more valiant men. 

^^Now go to dinner, as men beloved of God and 



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XENOPHON 

avipe^ 8€ΐ7ΓνοΊΓθί€Ϊσθ€ καϊ <nrovhk^ τοί^ θβοΐς 
ΐΓΟίβΙσθε καϊ παιάνα ίξάρχεσθε καΐ αμα το 
irapa^yeXKo^evov irpovoeire, 

7. ΈίΙττων δέ^ ταΰτα άναβ^^ βττΐ τον ΐτητον 
ifKaae καϊ ττρο^ Κυαξάρην iXOobv καϊ σννησθβϊς 
ίκβίνφ Kocvf) ώ9 €ΐκος καΐ 18ων τάκ€Ϊ και €ρ6μ€νο^ 
€Ϊ τι Βέοιτο, άττηλαυνεν €t9 το αύτον στράτβυμα, 
καΐ οι μλν 8η άμφΐ Κνρον ΒβηΓνοΊΓΟίησάμβνοι 
καϊ φύλακας καταστησάμ^νοι ώ9 ehei βκοιμη- 
θησαν. 

8. Οί δέ *Ασσύριοι, ατ€ καΐ τ€θνηκότος τον 
άρχοντος καΧ σχβΒον συν αύτφ των ββΧτίστων, 
ηθυμουν μεν πάντες, ποΧΚοΙ Be καϊ άπεΒίΒρασκον 
αντων της νυκτός εκ του στρατοπέΒου. ορώντες 
δέ ταΰτα ο τε ίίροΐσος καΧ οΐ αΧΚοι σνμμαχοι 
αύτων ηθυμουν πάντα μεν yctp fjv χαΧεπ-ά' αθυ- 
μίαν Bk πΧείστην παρείχε πάσιν δτι το ψ/ούμενον 
της στρατιάς φΰΧον Βιέφθαρτο τ ας ^γνώμας, οΰτω 
Βη εκΧείπουσι το στρατόπεΒον καϊ απέρχονται 
της νυκτός. 9. ώς δ' ημέρα ετ^ένετο καϊ ερημον 
άνΒρων εφάνη το των ποΧεμίων στρατόπεΒον, 
ευθύς Βιαβιβάζει 6 Κ,ΰρος τους ΤΙέρσας πρώτους* 
κατεΧέΚειπτο Βε ύπο των πολεμίων ττολλά μ^ν 
πρόβατα, ποΧΚοΧ δέ y80€9, nfoXKaX δέ άμαξαι 
ποΧΚων άβαθων μεσταί• εκ Bk τούτου Βιέβαινον 
ήΒη καϊ οί άμφϊ Ίίναξάρην ΜήΒοι πάντες καϊ 
ηριστοποιοΰντο ενταύθα. 10. επεϊ δέ ήρίστησαν, 
συνεκαΚεσεν ο Κύρος τους αυτού ταξιάρχους καϊ 
ελεξε τοιαΒε* 

ΟΙά μοι Βοκοΰμεν καϊ οσα ά^αθά, ω ανΒρες, 
άφεΐναι, θέων ήμΐν αυτά Βώοντων. νυν yhp οτι 
^ Bk Zeune, £dd. ; re ζ ; not in xy. 

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CYROPAEDIA, IV. i. 6-10 

brave and wise ; pour libations to the gods^ raise the 
song of victory, and at the same time be on the 
lookout for orders that may come." 

7. When he had said this, he mounted his horse 
and rode away to Cyaxares. They exchanged 
congratulations, as was fitting, and after Cyrus had 
taken note of matters there and asked if there were 
anything he could do, he rode back to his own army. 
Then he and his followers dined, stationed their 
pickets duly, and went to rest. 

8. The Assjnians, on the other hand; inasmuch as Tho 
they had lost their general and with him nearly all i^^^^ 
their best men, were all disheartened, and many of 
them even ran away from the camp in the course of 

the night. ^ And when Croesus and the rest of 
their allies saw this, they too lost heart? for the 
whole situation was desperate ; but what caused the 
greatest despondency in all was the fact that the 
leading contingent of the army had become % 

thoroughly demoralized. Thus dispirited, then, they 
quitted their camp and departed under cover of 
the night. 9. And when it became day and the 
enemy's camp was found to be forsaken of men, 
Cjniis at once led his Persians first across the 
entrenchments. And many sheep and many cattle 
and many wagons packed full of good things had 
been left behind by the enemy. Directly after this, 
Cyaxares also and all his Medes crossed over and 
had breakfast there. 10. And when they had 
breakfasted, Cjrrus called together his captains and 
spoke as follows : 

" What good things, fellow-soldiers, and how great, 
have we let slip, it seems^ while the gods were 



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XENOPHON 

οι ΊΓοΧέμιοί ήμας άττοΒεΒράκασιν αύτοΙ 6ρατ€' 
οΐτιν€<ξ Bk iv βρνματί οντ€ς ίκΚιττοντ^ζ τοντο 
φβν^ουσι, ττώ? αν Τ49 τούτου? ο?ο£τ' αν μβΐναι 
ΙΒόντας ή μας iv τφ Ισοττί^φ; οΧτινβς δέ ημών 
αΐΓ€ΐροι, 01/Τ69 ονχ ίπΓ€μ€ΐναν, 7Γω9 νυν y αν 
ντΓομβίνειαν, errel ήττηνταί Τ€ καΐ ττολλά κακά, 
νφ* ημών ττεττόνθασιν; &ν Be οί βέΚτιστοι αττο- 
ΧώΚασι, πως οί ττονηροτβροι ίκβίνων μάγβσθαι αν 
ήμ2ν iOikoiev; 

11. Καί τις βΙτΓβ, Ύί ονν ου Βιώκομεν ως 
τάχιστα, καταΒηΧων ye οντω των άτ/αθων 6ντων; 

ΚαΙ hς elirev, "Οτλ ΐτητων 'προσΒ€6μ€θα' οί 
μ€ν yap κράτιστοι των ττοΧεμίων, ούς μαΧιστα 
καιρός fjv ή Xafieiv ή κατακανβΐν} oLtoi €φ' 
ΐτητων οχοννταΐ'^ οϋς ημείς τρίττεσθαι μεν συν 
τοις θεοΐς Ικανοί, Βιώκοντες Be alpeiv ούχ ικανοί. 

12. Ύί ονν, ^φασαν, ουκ ελθών Ιίυαξάρτ) \€yeις 
ταΰτα; 

ΚαΙ δ? είττε, ^υνεττεσθε τοίνυν μοι ττάντες, 
ως eiBfj δτι ττάσιν ήμϊν ταΰτα Βοκ€Ϊ, 

^EtK τούτου εΐποντο τε ττάντες κα\ iX^yov οΙα 
ίτΓΐτήΒεια εΒοκουν είναι ύττ^ρ ων εΒέοντο. 

13. ΚαΙ ό Κυαξάρης αμα μεν οτι εκείνοι ^ρχον 
του \6yoυ, ωσττερ ύττεφθόνεΐ' αμα δ' ϊσως καΧως 
εχειν εΒόκει αύτφ μη τταΚιν κινΒυνεύειν καΐ yap 
αυτός τε ττερί εύθυμίαν ετύγχανεν £>ν καΐ των 

^ Karcucaveiu Dindorf , Edd. ; κατακαίν€ΐν ζ ; αιτοκτ^ίναι xy. 

^ 6χουνται Cobet, Breitenbach, Marchant ; viovrai xF*, 
Dindorf (are moving off) ; <κι> vovvrai GemoU ; ίσονται 
zDF». 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. i. 10-13 

delivering them into our hands ! Why, you see with 
your own eyes that the enemy have run away from 
us ; when people behind fortifications abandon them 
and flee, how would any one expect them to stand 
and fight, if they met us in a fair and open field ? 
And if they did not stand their ground when they 
were yet unacquainted with us, how would they 
withstand us now, when they have been defeated 
and have suffered heavy loss at our hands ? And 
when their bravest men have been slain, how would 
their more cowardly be willing to fight us ? " 

11. " Why not pursue them as swiftly as possible," Pursuit 
said one of the men ; ** now that the good things we P"*p**^®^ 
have let slip are so manifest to us .'* " 

^* Because," he replied, *^we have not horses 
enough ; for the best of the enemy, those whom it 
were most desirable either to capture or to kill, are 
riding off on horseback. With the help of the gods 
we were able to put them to flight, but we are not 
able to pursue and overtake them." 

12. "Then why do you not go and tell Cyaxares 
this ? " said they. 

" Come with me, then, all of you," he answered, 
*^ so that he may know that we are all agreed upon 
this point." 

Thereupon they all followed and submitted such 
arguments as they thought calculated to gain their 
object. 

13. Now Cyaxares seemed to feel some little 
jealousy because the proposal came from them; at 
the same time, perhaps, he did not care to risk 
another engagement ; then, too, he rather wished to 
stay where he was, for it happened that he was 



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XENOPHON 

αΧΧων ΜηΒων ίώρα ττολλου? το αυτό ττοιούντα^* 
etire δ* οΖν ώδβ• 14. Άλλ', ω Ki;/>€, οτί μεν 
των αΧΚων μαΧΚον^ ανθρώπων μεΧβτατβ ύμ€Ϊ^ 
οι Ώέρσαι μηΒ^ ττρος μίαν rjhovrjv αττΚήστω^ 
8ιακ€Ϊσθαί καΐ ορών καΐ άκούων otSa* εμοί he 
hoKei T§9 μετ/ίστη^ ήΒονή^ ττολύ μαΚιστα σνμ- 
φέρενν iyxparrj είναι, μείζω δέ ήΒονην τί τταρέχει 
άνθρώτΓΟί^ εύτνχία<; ή νυν ήμΐν τταρα^ετ^ένηται; 

15. *Ηι/ μεν τοίνυν [επεί εύτνχρΰμεν],^ σωφρό- 
νων 8ιαφυΧάττωμεν αύτην, ?σω9 ίυναίμεθ* άν 
άκινΒννως ενΒαιμονοΰντες γηραν ει δ* άττλτ/στω? 
γρώμενοι ταύττ) αΧΚην καΐ αΚΚην ττειρασόμεθα 
Βιώκειν, οράτε μη ττάθωμεν αττερ ττολλού? μ^ν 
Xeyovaiv εν θαΧάτττ) ττεπονθέναι, But το ευτνχεΐν 
ουκ εθέΚοντα^ τταύσασθαι ττΧέοντας άιτοΧεσθαΐ' 
τΓολλούς δέ νίκη^ τυχόντας ετέρας εφιεμένους 
fcal την ττρόσθεν άττοβαΧεΐν. 16. καΐ yhp εί μεν 
οί ποΧεμιοι ήττους δντες ημών εφευ^ον, ϊσως 
&ν καΐ Βιώκειν τους ηττους άσφαΧως είχε. νυν 
δέ κατανόησον ττοστφ μέρει αύτων ττάντες μαχε- 
σάμενοι νενικηκαμεν οί δ' αΧΧοι άμαχοι είσιν* 
οΰς εΐ μ^ν μη άνα^κάσομεν μάχεσθαι, άτ/νοουντες 
καί ημάς καΧ εαυτούς hi αμαθίαν κ<ά μαΧακίαν 
άττίασιν* εί δέ ^νώσονται οτι άττιόντες oύhεv 

^ των &\\ων μάλλον Ζ, Dindorf, Breitenbach ; κάλλιστα χ, 
Marchant, GremoU ; μάλιστα γ, 
^ [^ircl €ύτνχον/Α€ΐ/] bracketed by Hug. 

316 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. i. 13-16 

busily engaged in making merry himself^ and he 
saw that many of the other Medes were doing the 
same. However that may be, he spoke as follows : Cyaxares 
14. " Well, Cyrus, I know from what I see and hear ^^ ^ 
that you Persians are more careful than other 
people not to incline to the least intemperance in 
any kind of pleasure. But it seems to me that it is 
much better to be moderate in the greatest pleasure 
than to be moderate in lesser pleasures ; and what 
brings to man greater pleasure than success, such as 
has now been granted us ? ^ 

15. "If, therefore [when we are successful], we/ 
follow up our success with moderation, we might,] 
perhaps, be able to grow old in happiness unalloyecji 
with danger. But if we enjoy it intemperately and 
try to pursue first one success and then another, see 
to it that we do not share the same fate that they 
say many have sufiered upon the «ea, that is, be- 
cause of their success they have not been willing to 
give up seafaring, and so they have been lost ; and 
many others, when they have gained a victory, 
have aimed at another and so have lost even 
what they gained by the first. 16. And that is the 
way with us; for if it were because they were 
inferior to us in numbers that the enemy are fleeing 
from us, perhaps it might be safe for us actually to 
pursue this lesser army. But, as it is, reflect with 
what a mere fraction of their numbers we, with all 
our forces, have fought and won, while the rest of 
theirs have not tasted of battle; and if we do 
not compel them to fight, they will remain unac- 
quainted with our strength and with their own, 
and they will go away because of their ignorance 



3^7 



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\ XENOPHON 

I 
^TTOV tuvSwevovaiv ή μένοντες, δ^τως μη avayxd- 
σομεν^ αυτούς, καν μη βονΧωνται, άβαθους 
γενέσθαι 17. Ισθί yap οτι ου συ μαΧΚον τα? 
ίκαρων γυναίκας καΧ ΐΓαΖΒας Χαβείν επιθυβίεΐ^ 
fj ifceivoi σωσαι, iwoei S* οτι καί ai σύε^ 
hreiZhv οφθωσι, φεύγουσι, κ&ν iroXkal ωσι, συν 
τοϊς τέκνοις' hreiZhv Βέ τις αύτων θήρα τι των 
τέκνων, ούκέτι φεύγει ovS* ήν μία τνχτί οίσα, 
αλλ* ΐεται eirl τον Χαμβάνειν ττειρώβίενον. 18. xai 
νυν phf κατακΧείσαντες εαυτοΐίς εις ίρυμα τταρ- 
έσγρν ήμΖν ταμιεύεσθαι ώστε οττόσοις εβουΧό- 
μέθα αύτων μώχεσθαΐ' ει S* εν ευρυχωρία Ίτροσι- 
μεν αύτοΐς καί μαθήσοντοΛ χωρίς γενόμενοι οί 
phf κατά ιτρόσωττον ήμίν ωσττερ καΐ νυν εναντιοΰ- 
σθαι, οί δ* έκ ιτλα/γίου, οί δέ καΐ οττισθεν, δρα 
μη ΊΓοΧΚων εκάστφ ημών χειρών δεήσει και 
οφθαΧμων, ττροσέτι δ' ούδ' Αι/ εθέΧοιμι, εφη, 
εγω νυν, όρων ΜήΒους εύθυμου μένους, εξαναστη- 
σας άναγκάζειν κινΖχίνεύσοντας Ιέναι, 

19. ΚοΙ ό Κΰρος ύττοΧαβών είττεν, *Αλλά σύγε 
μη8ένα άναγκάστ/ς, άΧΧά τους εθέΧοντάς μοι 
^ιτεσθαι δός* καΧ ΐσως αν σοι καΐ των σων 
φίΧων τούτων ήκοιμεν εκάστφ άγοντες εφ* οΐς 
άπαντες εύθυμήσεσθε. το βίεν γ^,ρ ττΧήθος ημείς 
γε των ττοΧεμίων ουδέ Βιωξόμεθα* ττως γαρ &ν 
καΐ καταΧάβοιμεν; ην Βέ τι ή άττεσχισμένον 
του στρατβύματος Χάβωμεν ή τι ύττοΧειπόμενον, 

^ ^ναΎκάσομ^ν Dindorf, Edd. ; ^^α'γκάσωμ^ν MSS. 
3ΐ8 



yGoosIe 



,gl 



CYROPAEDIA, IV. i. i6-ig 

and cowardice. But if they discover that they are 
in no less danger if they go away than if they re- 
main in the field, beware lest we compel them to 
be valiant even against their will. 17. And let me 
assure you that you are not more eager to capture 
their women and children than they are to save 
them. And bethink you that even wild swine flee 
with their yoimg, when they are discovered, no 
matter how great their numbers may be ; but if any 
one tries to catch one of the young, the old one, 
even if she happens to be the only one, does not 
think of flight but rushes upon the man who is try- 
ing to effect the capture. 18. And now, when they 
had shut themselves up in their fortifications, they 
allowed us to manage things so as to fight as many at 
a time as Ve pleased. But if we go against them in 
an open plain and they learn to meet us in separate 
detachments, some in front of us (as even now), some 
on either flank, and some in our rear, see to it that 
we do not each one of us stand in need of many 
hands and many eyes. And besides," said he, ^* now 
that I see the Medes making merry, I should not 
like to rout them out and compel them to go into 
danger." 

19. ^' Nay,", said Cyrus in reply; "please do not Cyms 
place anybody under compulsion ; but allow those who hu unSe's 
will volunteer to follow me, and perhaps we may objections 
come back bringing to you and each of your friends 
here something for you all to make merry with. 
For the main body of the enemy we certainly shall 
not even pursue ; for how could we ever overtake 
them ? But if we find any detachment of their 
army straggling or left behind, we shall bring them 



319 



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XENOPHON 

ήξομβν ττρος σέ αγοι/τε?. 20. ivvoei δ*, €φη, οτι 
καΙ ήμ€Ϊ(ζ, βΤΓβΙ συ eSeov, ηλθομεν σοΙ γαριζόμβνοι 
μακρίυν ohov καϊ συ οΰν ημΐν ϋκαιο^ €Ϊ άντι- 
χαρίξβσθαι, ίνα καΐ βχρντέ^ξ τι οϊκαΒ* άφίκώμεθα 
καΐ μη eh τον σον θησαυρον ττάντε^ ορωμεν. 

21• Έϊ/ταΟ^α δ^ ΙΧβξεν 6 Κυαξάρη<ί, 'Αλλ* 
€Ϊ ye uAvTOL εθέλων τις hroiTO, καί χάριν er/wye 
σοι eioeίηv αν. 

'ϊ,ύμττεμψον τοίνυν μοί τίνα, Ιφη, των αξιό- 
πιστων τουτωνί, δ? epel hv σύ e^nστeί\'Qς, 

Ααβών Βη ϊθι, €φη, οντινα eOekei^ τουτωνί. 

22. "Ει/^α hi) ^τυχβ τταρων^ ο φήσας ττοτέ 
συrfγev)fς αύτοΰ elvai καί φι\ηθ€ΐς [ττα/)* αύτου].^ 
ευθύς συν 6 Κυράς elirev, ^Ap/eei μοι, ^ώη, ούτοσι, 

Οδτο9 τοίνυν σοι εττέσθω. καΐ λβγβ σύ, εφη, 
τον έθέΧοντα livai μετά Κύρου, 

23. Οντω 8η \αβών τον avSpa €ξ'ρ€ΐ. iirel 
δ* ίξηΧθον,^ ο Κύρος ehre, Νδι/ ίη συ Sη7ίώσeις 
el άΧηθή Ιλβγβ?, δτ€^ €φης ήΒεσθαι θβώμενος 
€μέ. 

Ουκουν αττοΧεί^ομαί yi σου, ^φη 6 ΜήΒος, 
el τούτο \έyeις, ' 

ΚαΙ ο Κύρος elirev, Ούκούν καΧ άλλοι;? ΐΓροθν- 
μως iξάξeις; 

^Έ,τΓομόσας ούν 4κ€Ϊνος Ν^ τον ΔΓ, βφι;, €στε 
y &ν ΤΓΟίήσω καΐ σέ εμ^ ηΒέως θ€άσθα^, 

24. Tore 8η καϊ eKirep^fyeeU υττο τού Κυαξάρου 

^ irapitv Schneider, Edd. ; t^v MSS. 

2 irop* abrov x, Hug, GemoU ; omitted in z, Dindorf, Mar- 
chant, Breitenbaoh. 

' i^riKBov Hug, Marchant, GemoU ; ^^τιΚΒ^ν MSS., Dindorf, 
Breitenbach. 

* ίτ€ MSS. , all Edd. except Hug, who writes ίτι. 

320 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. i. 19-24 

to you. 20. And remember/' he added, ^^that we 
also, when you asked us, came a long journey to do 
you a favour ; and it is therefore only fair that you 
should do us a favour in return, so that we may not 
have to go home empty-handed nor always be look- 
ing to your treasury here for support." 

21. "Very well," said Cyaxares then ; "if indeed Cyaxares 
any one will volunteer to follow you, I for my part ^^^ 
should be really grateful to you." proposal 

" Well, then," said he, " send with me some one 
of these notables in positions of trust to announce 
your commands." 

" Take any of them you wish," said the other, 
"and go." 

22. Now it happened that the man who had once i. iv. 27-28 
pretended to be a kinsman of his and had got a kiss 

from him was present there. Cyrus, therefore, said 
at once : " This man will do." * 

" Let him follow you, then," said Cyaxares. "And 
do you," he added to Artabazus, " say that whoever 
will may go with Cyrus." 

23. So then he took the man and went away. 
And when they had come out, Cjrrus said : " Now 
then, you shall prove if you spoke the truth when you 
said that you liked to look at me." 

" If you talk that way," said the Mede, " I shall 
never leave you." 

" Will you do your best, then, to bring others also 
with you ? " asked Cyrus. 

*^ Yes, by Zeus," he answered with an oath, " to 
such an extent that I shall make you also glad to 
look at me." 

24. Then, as he had his commission from Cyaxares 

321 
VOL. I. γ 



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XENOPHON 



τα τ€ αΧ\α ττροθύμως ά*π•ήγγ€\\€ τοΐς ΜηΒοις 
fcal 7Γροσ€τίθ€ΐ οτι αύτ6<ζ ye ov/c άττοΧεί'^οιτο 
άν8ρ6<ζ καΧΧίστον καί αρίστου, καΧ το μίηιστον, 
άτΓΟ Θ^ίαν η^ηονότο^» 



II 

1. Π/)αττοι;το9 δέ τον Κύρου ταύτα θείως ττω^ζ 
άφικροννται άττο *Ύρκανί(ον ayyeXoi, οί δέ *Ύρκά- 
VL0L όμοροι μλν των ^ Κσσυρίων eiaiv, εθνο^ δ' ου 
ΤΓοΧύ, Sco feal υττήκοοι fjaav των ^Ασσυρίων 
emiriroi^ Be καί τ6τ€ έΒόκουν elvai κα\ νυν €τι 
Βοκοΰσιν 8ιο kclL βχρωντο αύτοΐς οΐ ^Ασσύριοι 
\f ωστΓβρ καΐ οί ΑακβΒαιμόνιοι τοις Χκνρίταις, oihkv 
φβιΒόμενοί αύτων οντ iv ττόνονς ουτ iv κινΒύνοις* 
κα\ 8η καΐ τότε οττισθοφυΧακεΐν ixiXevov αύτον<ζ 
ώ9 χίΧίου<ί ίτητέας οντάς, δττως €Ϊ τι δτησθβν 
Setvov €Ϊη, €Κ€Ϊνοί ιτρο αύτων τοΰτ e^piev. 2. οί 
δέ 'Ύρκάνιοι, ατ€ μέΧΚοντες ύστατοι Ίτορβνεσθαι, 
καΐ τά9 άμαξας τάς εαυτών καΐ τους οίκέτας 
ύστατους βίχον. στρατεύονται yctp 8η οί κατά 
την *Ασίαν βχοντες οί ίγοΧΧοΪ μβθ" Syvirep κάΙ 
οίκον σι* καί τότε Βη εστρατεύοντο όντως οί 
^Ύρκάνιοι, 

3. ^Εννοηθέντες Be οϊά τε ττάσγουσιν ύττο των 
^Ασσυρίων καΐ οτι νυν τεθναίη μεν ο αργών 
αύτων, ηττημένοι δ' εΐεν, φόβος δ* . ενείη τφ 
στρατεύματι, οί Βε σύμμαχοι αύτων ώς άθύμως 
εγριεν και άττοΧείττοιεν, ταύτα ίνθυμουμένοις εΒο- 

1 €ΰίΊΓΊΓ0ί Fischer, Edd. ; Ιίφινιτοι MSS. {on horaehach). 
322 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. i. 24-ϋ. 3 

also, he not only gave his message to the Medes with 
enthusiasm, but he added that, for his part, he himself 
would never leave the noblest and best of men, and 
what was more than all, a man descended from the 
gods. 

II 

1 . While Cyrus was thus occupied, messengers The 
came as if providentially from the Hjrrcanians. Now ^y»^»"»»"» 
the Hyrcanians are neighbours of the Assyrians ; they 
are not a large nation ; and for that reason they 
also were subjects of the Assyrians. Even then 
they had a reputation for being good horsemen, and 
they have that reputation still. For this reason the 
Assyrians used to employ them as the Spartans do 
the Sciritae, sparing them neither in hardships nor in 
dangers. And on that particular occasion they were 
ordered to bring up the rear (they were cavalrymen 
about a thousand strong), in order that, if any danger 
should threaten from behind, they might have 
to bear the brunt of it instead of the Assjrrians. 2. 
But as the Hyrcanians were to march in the very rear, 
they had their wagons also and their families in the 
rear. For, as we know, most of the Asiatic peoples 
take the field accompanied by their entire households. 
So in this particular campaign, the Hjrrcanians had 
taken the field thus attended. 

3. But as they reflected how they were being 
treated by the Assyrians, that the Assyrian monarch 
was now slain and the army defeated, that there was 
great panic throughout the ranks, and that the allies 
were discouraged and deserting — as they thought 



323 
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XENOPHON 

ξεν αντοΐς ννν καΧον elvai άττοστήναι, el θέ\οΐ€Ρ 
οί άαφί Κ,νρορ σννεπιβέσθαι. καϊ ττέμίΓουσιν 
WYfiXov^ προ^ Κΰρον απο yhp rrj^ μάχης το 
τούτον 6νομα μέτ/ιστον ηνξητο. 4. οί όέ ττεμ- 
φθέρτβς Xeyouai ίίνρφ οτι μ^σοΐέρ τ€ Totf^ Άσσι/- 
ρίονς Βί/ΰοίως, νυν τ , βί βονΧοιτο ίέναι έπ αυτούς, 
καϊ σώ€Ϊς σύμμαχοι υττάρξοίεν καΐ ήγήσοιιπΌ' 
&μα Se ττρος τούτοις SitfyouvTo τα των ττοΧεμίων 
ώς ίχοι, iiraipeiv βουΧόμενοι μάΧιστα στρατβύβ- 
σθαι αυτόν. 

5. ΚαΙ 6 Κΰρος €'7Γήρ€το αυτούς, Καϊ Sokcitc 
άν, ίώη, ίτι ημάς καταΧαβειν αυτούς πρΙν ev 
τοις έρύμασιν elvai; ημεΐς μλν yap, βφη, μαΚα 
συμώορίι,ν τούτο ηγούμεθα etvai οτι ίΧαθον ημάς 
ατΓοοράντ€ς, ταύτα δέ eker/e βουΧομενος αυτούς 
οας μίτγιστον φρονεΐν βττΐ σφίσιν. 

6. οι 8k άπεκρίναντο οτι καϊ αύριον, ίωθεν 
el βΰζωνοι ττορεύοιντο, καταΧηψοιντο- ύττο ycip 
τοΰ 6χ\ου καϊ των αμαξών σ-χοΧτ} τΓορβύβσθαι 
αυτούς' καΐ αμα, ίφασαν, την ττροτίραν νύκτα 
άτ/ρυ7Γνησαντ€ς νύν μικρόν ττροέΚθόντες ^ βστρα- 
TOirihevvTai, 

7. ΚαΙ ο Κύρος Ιφι;, Έχβτβ ούν ων \έτγ€Τ€ 
ΤΓίστόν Tt ή μας ΒιΒάσκβιν ώς άΧηθβύ^τβ; 

Όμηρους y, βφασαν, εθέΧομβν αύτίκα βΧάσαντες 
της νυκτός ayayeiv μόνον καϊ συ ημίν ττίστά 
de&v \ΐΓ€ΐΓθίησο']^ καϊ hePiav 86ς, ίνα φέρωμεν 
καϊ τοις αΧΧοις τά αυτά airep &ν αύτοϊ Χάβωμεν 
iraph σου. 

^ wpo9\e6vT€s Zeune, Edd, ; wpoff€\e6vrts ζ ; vopcuO^vrcs xy. 
' [ΐΓ€ΐΓοίτίσο] Cobet, Breitenbach ; ττατοίησο ζ, Dindorf, Mar• 
chant ; ποίησαν xy. 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. ii. 3-7 

over these conditions, they decided that now was a 
good opportunity to revolt, if Cyrus and his followers 
would join them in an attack. So they sent envoys They send 
to Cyrus ; for in consequence of the battle his name cyl^^ ^^ 
had been very greatly magnified. 4. And those who 
were sent told Cyrus that they had good reason to 
hate the Assjrrians and that now, if he would proceed 
against them, they would be his allies and his guides 
as well. And at the same time they also gave him 
an account of the enemy's plight, for they wished 
above all things to incite him to push the campaign. 

5. ^'Do you really think,*'Cyrus enquired, '^that we 
could still overtake them before they reach their 
strongholds ? For yre" he added, " consider it hard 

^luck that they have run away from us when we were 
not watching." Now he said this to make them think 
as highly as possible of his troops. 

6. They answered that if Cyrus and his army They report 
would start out at daybreak in light marching order, {JjJjJ"®™^ 
he would come up with them the next day : for striking 
because their numbers were so vast and so en- <^*^***^*^® 
cumbered with baggage, the enemy were marching 
slowly. ^^ And besides," they said, ^^as they had no 

sleep last night, they have gone ahead only a little 
way and are now encamped." 

7. "Have you, then, any surety to give us," Cyrus 
asked, "to prove that what you say is true ?** 

^^Yes," they answered, "we are ready to ride 
away and bring you hostages this very night. Only 
do you also give us assurance in the name of the 
gods and give us your right hand, that we may give 
to the rest of our people, too, the same assurance 
that we receive from you." 



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XENOPHON 

8. Έ /f τούτου τά τηστίί ϋΖωσιν αίττοΐς ^ μ'ήν, 
iav €μ7Γ€Βώσωσιν cb Xeyovaiv, ώ? φίΧοις καΐ ττι- 
στοί^ γρησβσθαι αντοϊ^, ώς μητ€ ΙΙβρσων μήτ€ 
Μ-ηΒων μ€Ϊον βχβιν τταρ έαυτφ. fcal νυν ίστιν 
€τι ihelv ^Ύρκανίους καΧ τηστβυομένους καΐ άρ- 
χά9 βχοντας, ωσττβρ καΙ ΤΙβρσων καΐ ΜήΒων οΐ 
&ν Βοκώσιν αξίοί elvai, 

9. ΈτΓβΙ δ' έΒβίττνησαν, ίξη'^β το στράτβυμα ίτυ 
φάους ovTOS, fcai τους 'Ύρκανίου<ζ ττβριμένβιν ixe- 
Χευσβν, ίνα α μα coiev. οι μβν 8η ΤΙέρσαι, ωσττβρ 
elxo^j ττάντβς έξυσαν, καΐ Ύι^^ράνη^ξ βχων το 
αυτού στράτβυμα* 10. των he ΜηΒων έξυσαν ^ οι 
μεν Βια το τΓαώΙ οντι Ιίύρω iratSe^ οντβς φίΧοι 
yeveaOai, οι Be 8ΐά το iv θήραις συ^^^€ν6μ€νοι, 
ά^ασθηναι αυτού τον τροττον, οί Se Βώ, το καΧ 
χάριν elSevai οτι με^αν αύτοΐς φόβον άττέΚηλακέ- 
ναι ehoKei, οι he και eXiriSa^ βχοντε^ 8ιά το avSpa 
φαίν€σθαι ayaOov κα\ ευτυχή και μ&^αν €τι ισχυ- 
ρώς eaeaOai αυτόν, οι 8έ, οτβ έτρίφετο iv Μ17- 
δο49, €? τι αηαθον τφ hrpa^ev, άντιχαρίζεσθαι 
έβούλοντο' 7Γθλλο?9 δέ ττολλά 8ιά φΐΚανθ ρωττίαν 
iraph τού ττάτητου ά^αθα hieireirpaKTo* ττόΧΚοΧ 
Β\ iirel καΐ τους 'Ύρκανίους elBov και X6yoς Si- 
ήΧθεν ώς ήγήσοιντο iirl πολλά ayada, i^fjaav 
και τού Χαβ€Ϊν τι ίνεκα. 

11. Οιίτω 8η ίξήΧθον σχ€8ον ατταντες καΐ οι 
Μ^δοί ττΧην όσοι συν Ιίυαξάρτ} ετυχον σκηνούν- 

^ ίξγσαν Hug, Breitenbach, Marchant, GemoU ; f|« ^σαν 
MSS., Dindorf, et al. 

326 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. ii. 8-11 

8. Thereupon he gave them his solemn promise 
that, if they should make good their statements^ he 
would treat them as his true friends, so that they 
should count for no less in his esteem than the 
Persians or the Medes. And even to this day one 
may see the Hyrcanians holding positions of trust 
and authority, just like those of the Persians and 
Medes who are thought to be deserving. 

9. When they had dined, he led out his army The 
while it was still daylight, and he bade the ij;*;^?/^^" 
Hjrrcanians wait for him that they might go Cyrus 
together. Now the Persians^ as was to be expected, 

came out to a man to go with him, and Tigranes 
came with his army ; 10. while of the Medes some 
came out because as boys they had been friends of 
Cyrus wlien he was a boy, others because they liked 
his ways when they had been with him on the chase, 
others because they were grateful to him for freeing 
them, as they thought, from great impending danger, 
and still others because they cherished the hope that 
as he seemed to be a man of ability he would one 
day be exceedingly successful and exceedingly great 
besides ; others wished to requite him for some service 
he had done for them while he was growing up in 
Media ; many, too, owed to his kindness of heart 
many a favour at the hands of his grandfather ; and 
many, when they saw the Hyrcanians and when the 
report spread that these would lead them to rich 
plunder, came out (apart from other motives) for the 
sake of getting some gain. 

11. The result was that almost all came out— even 
the Medes, except those who happened to be 
feasting in the same tent with Cyaxares ; these and 



327 



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f^^7: ^Ζ-Γί? -A-T trhi." .'«1 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. ii. 11-13 

their subordinates remained behind. But all the rest 7 
hastened out cheerily and enthusiastically, for they i, 
came not from compulsion but of their own free will J 
and out of gratitude. 

12. And when they were out of the camp, he went He assiijns 
first to the Medes and praised them and prayed the ofinajrching 
gods above all things graciously to lead them and his 
own men, and he prayed also that he himself might 
be enabled to reward them for this zeal of theirs. 
In concluding, he stated that the infantiy should go 
first, and he ordered the Medes to follow with their 
cavalry. And wherever they were to rest or halt 
from their march, he enjoined it upon them that 
some of their number should always come to him, 
that they might know the need of the hour. 
13. Then he ordered the Hyrcanians to lead the 
way. 

^^What!" they exclaimed, "are you not going to 
wait until we bring the hostages, that you also may 
have a guarantee of our good faith before you 
proceed ? " 

"No," he is said to have answered; "for I 
consider that we have the guarantee in our own 
hearts and hands. For it is with these, I think, that 
we are in a position to do you a service, if you speak 
the truth ; but if you are trying to deceive us, we 
think that, as things are, we shall not be in your 
power, but rather, if the gods will, you shall be in 
ours. And hark you, men of Hyrcania," said he, " as 
you say that your people are bringing up the enemy's 
rear, inform us, as soon as you see them, that they 
are yours, that we may do them no harm." 



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XENOPHON 

14. ^Ακονσαντ€<ί Se ταύτα oi "Τρκάνιοι την μβν 
oiov fffovvTO ωστΓβρ CKekeve, την Se ρώμην της 
ψνχτ^ς έθαύμαζον καΐ οΰτβ ^Ασσνρίους οΰτβ 
ΑνΒούς οΰτ€ τους συμμάχους αυτών ίτι ^ βφο- 
βονντο, aWcb μη τταντάπασνν 6 Κύρος μικράν 
τίνα αύτων οϊοντο ροττην €Ϊναι καΐ ττροσοντων καϊ 
απόντων. 

15. ΤΙορβυομβνων Sk iirel νύξ iireyeveTOtXeyeTac 
φως τφ Κ,ύρφ καϊ τφ στρατβύματί €Κ του ουρανού 
ΤΓοοφαν^ς yeveaOai, ωστ€ ττασι μ^ν φρίκην iy- 
yiyveaOai ττρος το θείον, θάρρος he ττρος τους 
πολεμίους, ώς δ' εΰξωνοί τ€ καΧ ταχύ εττορεύοντο, 
εΐκότως ττοΧΚην τ€ oSbv Βιηνυσαν καΐ άμα κνέφα 
ττΧησίον yiyvovTai τού των 'Ύρκανίων στρατεύ- 
ματος. 16. ώς δ' εyvωσav οί ayyeXoi, καϊ τφ 
ίίύρφ Χ&^ουσιν οτι οντοί είσιν οί σφετεροί' τφ τε 
yap ύστατους είναι yιyvώσίceιv εφασαν καϊ τφ 
πΧηθει των ττυρων. 17. εκ τούτου ιτέμιτει τον έτε- 
ρον αύτων ττρος αυτούς, ιτροστάξας Χ&γείν, εΐ 
φίΧοι είσίν, ώς τάχιστα ύτταντάν τάς Βεξιας 
άνατείναντας' συμπεμττει Βε τίνα ^ καϊ των συν 
έαυτω καΐ Χετ^ειν εκέΧευσε τοις 'Ύρκανίοις οτι ώς 
&ν ορωσιν αυτούς ιτροσάερο μένους, οΰτω καΐ 
αύτοΙ τΓΟίησουσιν. ούτω οη 6 μεν μένει των arf- 
yεXωv παρά τφ Κύρφ, 6 δέ προσεΧαύνει προς τους 
'Ύρκανίους, 

18. Έι/ φ δ' εσ κοπεί τους 'Ύρκανίους 6 Κ,ύρος 
δ τι ποιήσουσιν, επέστησε το στράτευμα' παρε- 
Χάύνουσι δέ προς αύτον οι των Μι^δωι/ προεστη- 

^ ίτι xy, Dindorf, GemoU ; omitted in ζ, Hug, Breitenbach, 
Marchant. 
2 τίνα Zeune, Edd. ; rtvks MSS. 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. ii. 14-18 

14. When the Hyreanians heard this, they led 
the way, as he ordered. They wondered at his' 
magnanimity ; and they no longer had any fear of 
either the Ass3nrians or the Lydians or their allies, 
but they feared only lest he should think that it was 
not of the slightest moment whether they joined 
him or not. 

15. As they proceeded, night came on, and it is He comes 
said that a light from heaven shone forth upon C3rrus j^rcaniane 
and his army, so that they were all filled with awe at 

the miracle but with courage to meet the enemy. 
And as they were proceeang in light marching 
order with all dispatch, they naturally covered a 
great distance, and in the morning twilight they drew 
near to the army of the Hyreanians. 16. And when 
the messengers recognized the fact, they reported to 
Cyrus that these were their own people ; for they 
said that they recognized them both by the fact that 
they were in the rear and by the number of their fires. 
17. Upon hearing this report he sent one of the two 
messengers to them with orders to say that if they 
were friends, they should come to meet him with 
their right hands raised. And he sent along also one 
of his own men and ordered him to tell the 
H3rrcanians that he and his army would govern their 
conduct according to the way in which they should 
see the Hyreanians behave. And thus it came to 
pass that one of the messengers remained with C3rrus, 
while the other rode away to the H3rrcanians. 

18. While Cjrrus was watching to see what the 
H3nrcanians were going to do, he halted his army. 
And Tigranes and the officers of the Medes rode up 



331 



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XENOPHON 

κ6τ€<ί κ<ύ 6 Ύι-γράνη^ καΙ €7Γ€ρωτωσι τι Sec ττοιβΐν. 
6 δέ \4yei αύτοΐ<ζ οτι τουτ €στι το τζΚησίον 
^Ύρκανίων στράτβυμα καΐ οΙγεται ο erepo^ των 
ά/γτγέλων προς αυτούς καΐ των ημετέρων τις συν 
αύτφ, €ροΰντ€ς, ei φίΧοί eiaiv, χηταντιάζβιν τά? 
δε^^άς ανατείναντας ιτάντας. ην μβν οΰν οΰτω 
ποιωσι, Βεξωΰσθέ τ€ αυτούς καθ* ον αν ^ βκαστος, 
καΐ αμα θαρρύνβτβ' 'ήν Be oirXa αϊρωνται η φευ- 
yeiv €7Γίχ€ΐρωσι, τούτων, βφη, ευθύς Bet ττρώτων 
7Γ€ΐράσθαι μηΒένα Χιττβΐν, 

19. Ό μεν τοιαύτα TraprjyyeCKev, οι Bk'TpKavioc 
άκούσαντες των άψγεΚων ησθησάν τ ε καΧ άνα- 
ττηΒήσαντες εττΧ τους ΐτητους παρήσαν τάς Βεξιάς, 
ωσττερ εϊρητο, προτείνοντες' οι Βε ΜήΒοι καΐ 
ΤΙέρσαι άντεΒεξιοΰντο τε αυτούς καΐ εθάρρυνον. 

20. 'Ek: τούτου Βη 6 Κύρος \eyει, 'ϊΐμεΐς μεν Βή, 
& 'Ύρκάνιοι, ήΒη ύμΐν τηστεύομεν καί ύμας Βε 
χρη προς ημάς ούτως ίχειν. τούτο Β\ εφη, πρώ- 
τον ήμΐν είπατε πόσον απέχει ενθένΒε ένθα αί 
άρχαί είσι των πολεμίων και το άθροον αύτων. 

οι δ' άπεκρίναντο οτι ολ/γ^ π\έον ή πάρα- 
σά^^ην. 

2 1 . ^Έίνταΰθα Βη Xέyει 6 Κ.ΰρος, *Άγ€Τ€ Βή, εφη, 
ω άνΒρες ΤΙέρσαι καϊ ΜήΒοι και ύμεΐς, ω 'Ύρκάνιοι, 
ήΒη yhp καΐ προς υμάς ως προς συμμάχους και 
κοινωνούς BiaTUyopui, εύ χρή εΙΒέναι νυν οτι εν 
τοιούτφ εσμεν ένθα Βή μαλακισάμενοι phf πάντων 
αν των χαΧεπωτάτων τύχοιμεν ϊσασι yhp οι 
ποΧέμιοι εφ' α ήκομεν* ην Βε το καρτερον εμβα- 
Χόμενοι ϊωμεν ρώμτ) καϊ θυμφ επΙ τού^ ποΧεμίους, 
αύτίκα μάΧ^ δψεσθε ωσπερ ΒούΧων άποΒιΒρασκόν- 

332 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. ii. 18-21 

to him and asked what they should do. And he said 
to them : ^^ What you see there not far away is the 
Hyreanian army ; and one of their envoys has gone 
to them, and one of our men with him, to tell them 
all, if they are our friends, to come to meet us with 
their right hands upraised. Now, if they do so, give 
to them the right hand of fellowship, each of you to 
the man opposite himself, and at the same time bid 
them welcome. But if they raise a weapon or 
attempt to run away, we must lose no time in trying 
not to leave a single one of these first alive." 

19. Such were his commands. And the H3nrcanians They all 
were delighted when they heard the report of the army**^ 
envoys, and leaping upon their horses they came at 
once with right hands upraised, as directed, and the 
Medes and Persians gave the right hand of fellowship 

and bade them welcome. 

20. "Men of H3rrcania," Cyrus said presently, ^^we 
trust you now, as you see ; and you also ought to 
feel the same way toward us. But tell us first how 
far it is from here to the headquarters of the enemy 
and the main body of their army." 

^' Not much more than a parasang," they 
answered. 

21. " Come on, then, Persians and Medes," Cyrus 
cried ; " and you Hjrrcanians — for now I speak with 
you also as confederates and allies — ^you must 'know 
that we are in a position where we shall meet with 
nothing but disaster if we betray a lack of courage ; 

for the enemy know what we have come for. But if Cyrus 
we go into the attack upon the enemy with fnight pil^*"for 
and main and with stout hearts, you will see right soon ^2®?"^ 
that, just like a lot of slaves caught in an attempt to 
run away, some of them will beg for mercy, others 

333 



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XENOPHON 

των ηύρημέρων τους μ€ν ίκ€Τ€νοντα<ζ αυτών, τους 
Bk φεύγοντας, του<; δ' oihe ταύτα φρονβΐν δυναμέ- 
νους, ηττημένοι τ€ ^hp οψονται ημάς καΐ οΰτ€ 
οίόμβνοι ήξβιν ούτε συvτ€τayμέvoι οΰτ€ μάγβσθαν 
ΊταρβσκευασυΑνοί κατειλημμένοι έσονται. 22, εΐ οΰν 
ηΒεως βουΧομεθα καϊ Βειττνησαι καΐ νυκτερεΰσαι 
καΐ βιοτεύειν το άττο τοΰΒε, μη Βωμεν αύτοΐς 
σχοΧην μ'ήτε βουΧεύσασθαι μήτε τταρασκευάσα- 
σθαι αγαθόν αύτοΐς μηΒέν, μηΒέ yv&vai ττάμΊταν οτι 
άνθρωτΓοί εσμεν, άΧλΑ γβρρα και κοττίΒας καϊ 
σα^άρεις ατταντα καϊ ττλι/γάς ηκειν νομιζόντων, 

23. Καϊ ύμεΐς μέν, εφη, ω 'Ύρκάνιοι, υ μας 
αυτούς ητροττετάσαντες ημών ττορεύεσθε εμττρο- 
σθεν, όπως των υμετέρων οττΧων ορωμένων Χαν- 
θάνωμεν οτι ττΧεΐστον γρονον, εττειΒαν δ' βγω 
Ίτρος τφ στρατεύματι ^γένωμαι των ποΧεμίων, τταρ 
έαοϊ μλν καταΧίττετε έκαστοι τάξιν ίτητέων, ^, 
αν τι Βέτ}, γρωμαι μένων iraph το στρατόττεΒον. 
24. ύμων δέ οι μλν άρχοντες καϊ οι πρεσβύτεροι εν 
τάξει αθρόοι εΧαύνετε, ει σωφρονεΐτε, ΐνα μήττοτε 
άθρόφ τινϊ εντυχόντες άποβιασθήτε, τους Βε νεω- 
τέρους έψίετε Βιώκειν* οΰτοι Bk κα^νόντων τούτο 
γάρ άσφαΧέστατον, νύν ως εΧαχίστους των 
ΤΓοΧεμίων Χιττεΐν. 

25. *Ηι/ Βε νικωμεν, (ίφη, h ττο^Χοΐς Βη κρα- 
τούσι την τύχην ανέτρεψε, φυΧάξασθαι Βεΐ το 
εφ* άρττα^ην τραττέσθαι* ως 6 τούτο ποιων ούκέτ 
άνηρ εστίν, αΧΧλ σκευοφορος* καϊ εξεστι τφ 
βουΧομένφ χρησθαι ήΒη τούτφ ως ανΒραποΒφ. 

26, ^Έ^κεΙνο Bk χρη yv&vai Βτι ούΒέν εστί 
κερΒαΧεώτερον τού νικαν 6 yhp κρατών αμα 
πάντα συνηρπακε, καϊ τους ανΒρας καϊ τίις 

334 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. ii 21-26 

will try to escape, others still will not even have 
presence of mind to do either. For they will see us 
before they have recovered from their first defeat, and 
they will find themselves caught neither thinking of 
our coming, nor drawn up in line, nor prepared to 
fight. 22. If, therefore, we wish from this time forth 
to eat well, to sleep soundly, and to live comfortably, 
let us not give them time either to take counsel or 
to provide any defence for themselves, or even to 
recognize at all that we are human beings ; but let 
them think that nothing but shields, swords, bills, 
and blows have descended upon them. 

23. "And you, Hyrcanians," said he, ^' spread 
yourselves out in the van and march before us, in 
order that only your arms may be seen and that our 
presence here may be concealed as long as possible. 
And when I come up with the enemy's army, then 
leave with me, each of you, a division of cavalry for 
me to use while I remain near their camp. 24. But 
you, officers and men of years, march together in close 
order, if you are wise, so that if you fall in with any 
compact body you may never be forced back; and 
leave the pursuit to the younger men, and let them 
kill all they can ; for this is the safest measure — to 
leave now as few of the enemy alive as possible. 

25. " And if we win the battle," he continued. How to 

" we must be on our guard against an error which Se resuite 
has lost the day for many in the hour of victory — of victory 
turning aside to plunder. For the man who does 
this is no longer a soldier but a camp-follower ; and 
any one who will is free to treat him as a slave. 

26. ^' You should realize this also, that nothing is 
more enriching than victory. For the victor has 
swept together all the spoil at once, the men and 

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'^1 



XENOPHON 

^γυναίκας καϊ τα χρήματα καΐ ιτασαν την χώραν. 
προς ταύτα τοΰτο μόνον ορατβ οττως t)jv vLktjv 
Βιασωζώμβθα- ihv yhp κρατηθ^, καΐ αντος 6 
άρττάζων €χ€ται>. καΐ τοΰτο αμα 8ιώκοντ€ς μέ- 
μνησθβ, ήκ€ΐν ττάΧιν ω<; έμ^ ίτι φάον<ζ οντος* ώς 
σκότους y€vop4vov ovSeva €τι ιτροσί^ξομβθα. 

27. Ύαΐη βίττων α'ΐΓίτΓ€μτΓ€ν eh τάς τάξ€ΐς 
€κάστονς καϊ βκέλβνβν αμα ττορβνομένους τοις 
ίαυτου Ικαστον ΒβκαΒάρχοις ταύτα σήμαιναν 
iv μετώττφ yhp ^σαν οΐ ΒβκάΒαρχρι, ωστ€ 
άκονβιν τους Sk ΒβκαΒάρχονς ττ} ScKaSi βκαστον 
κέλενβιν irapayyeWeiv. 

*Έικ τούτον irporjyovvTO μ^ν οι 'Ύρκάνωι, αύτος 
δέ το μέσον ίχων σνν τοις ΤΙέρσαις hropevero* 
τους δέ ίτητέας βκατέρωθβν, ωσττβρ εικός, παρ- 
έταξε. 

28. Ύων Be ποΧεμίων, eirel ώως iyeveTO, οι μ^ν 
ίθαύμαζον τά όρώμενα} οι Β eyiy νωσκον ήΒη, 
οι δ* ^γγελλοι^, οι δ* έβόων, οι δ' ΐΚυον 'ίππους, 
οι Be σννεσκευάζοντο, οι δ' έρρίπτουν τά οπΧα 
απο των υποζχτ/ιων, οι ο ωπΑΐζοντο, οι ο 
ανετΓ'ήΒων έπΧ τους ίππους, οι δ' έγαΚίνουν, οι Be 
Τ€ίς yυvaΐκaς άνεβίβαζον 4πΙ τά οχήματα, οι δέ 
τά πΧείστον άξια ΙΚάμβανον ως Βιασωσόμενοι, 
οι Bk κατορύττοντες τά τοιαύτα ηΚίσ κοντό, οι Bk 
πΧεΐστοι εις φχτ/ην ωρμων οϊεσθαι Bk Bei κ<ά 
αΧΚα τΓολλα τ€ καΐ παντοΒαπά, ποΐ€Ϊν αυτούς, 
πΧην έμάχετο ούΒείς, αλλ' αμαχητί άπώλΧυντο. 

29. Κροίσος δέ ο ΑυΒών βασιΚεύς, ως θέρος 

^ δρώμενα χγ, most Edd. ; Ζρώμ^να ζ, Dindorf (the doings). 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. ϋ. 26-29 

the women, the wealth and all the lands. Therefore 
have an eye to this alone — ^that we may conserve om* 
victory; for even the plunderer himself is in the 
enemy's power if he is conquered. And remember 
even in the heat of pursuit to come back to me while 
it is yet daylight; for after nightfall we shall not 
admit another man." 

27. When he had said this he sent them away to 
their several companies with orders to issue, as they 
marched, the same directions each to his own corporals 
(for the corporals were in the front so as to hear) ; 
and they were to bid the corporals each one to 
announce it to his squad. 

Then the Hyrcanians led the way while he himself 
with his Persians occupied the centre as they marched. 
The cavalry he arranged, as was natural, on either 
flank. 

28. And when daylight came, some of the enemy The panic 
wondered at what they saw, some realized at once ^yriau*^® 
what it meant, some began to spread the news, army 
some to cry out, some proceeded to untie the horses, 

some to pack up, others to toss the armour off the 
pack-animals, still others to arm themselves, while 
some were leaping upon their horses, some bridling 
them, others helping the women into the wagons, and 
others were snatching up their most valuable posses- 
sions to save them ; still others were caught in the 
act of burying theirs, while the most of them sought 
refuge in precipitate flight. We may imagine that 
they were doing many other things also— all sorts of 
other things — except that no one offered to resist, 
but they perished without striking a blow. 

29. As it was summer, Croesus, the king of Lydia, 

337 

VOL. I. Ζ 



yGooQle 



gl 



XENOPHON 

liv, τάς τ€ ηυναΧκα^ iv ταΐς άρμαμαξαις προαττ- 
€7Γέμψατο της νυκτός, ώς &ν ραον wopevocpTo 
κατά ψΰχος, καΐ αύτος ^χων τους ιτητέας iirr)• 
KoKovOeL. 30. καΐ τον Φ/ονγα τά αύτίυ ττοιήσαί 
φασι τον της τταρ Έλλι/σττοι/τοί' άρχοντα Φρυ- 
γίας, ώς δέ irapT^aOovTb των φ€υ^6ντων καϊ 
καταΧαμβανοντων αυτούς, ττυθόμενοι το yiyvo- 
μβνον ίφβυ^ον 8η καϊ αύτοΙ avh κράτος• 

31. Ύον he των ΊίαππαΒοκων βασιλέα καϊ τον 
των ^Αραβίων €Τί iyyύς 6ντας καϊ ύττοστάντας 
άθωρακίστους κατακαίνουσιν οι 'Τρκάνωι. το 
δέ irXeiaTOv ^ν των αποθανόντων ^ Κσσυρίων καϊ 
^Αραβίων* iv yap tjj αυτών οντβς χώρα άσυντο- 
νώτατα ιτρος την iropeiav βίχον, 

32. Οί μβν Βη MrjSot καϊ 'Ύρκάνιοι, οϊα 8η 
€ίκος κρατοΰντας,^ τοιαύτα έιτοίουν Βιώκοντ€ς, 6 
δέ Κΰρος τους τταρ* ίαυτφ ίτητέας καταΧβιφθέντας 
irepteXaoveiv βκέλευβ το στρατόπβΒον, καϊ €Ϊ τινας 
συν δττλοις iSoiev βξιόντας, κατακαίνβιν τοις δ' 
ύτΓομένουσιν έκηρυξβν, οττοσοι των ττοΧβμίων 
στρατιωτών ^σαν ίτητβΐς ή ττβλτασταΐ ή τοξοται, 
άτΓ οφέρβιν τά όπλα συνΒβΒβμένα, τους δέ ίππους 
€πΙ ταΐς σκηναΐς κατάλβίπβιν όστις δέ ταΰτα μη 
ποιησοι, αυτίκα της κβφαλής στβρησβσθαΐ' τάν 
δέ κοπίΒας προχείρους έχοντες εν τάξει περιέ- 
στασανΡ' 33. οι μλν Βη τά όπλα έχοντες ερρί- 
πτουν, αποφέροντες εις ^ χωρίον οποί εκέλευε* 
και ταΰτα μλν οίς επέταξεν εκαον. 

34. Ό δέ Κβ/}09 ενενοησεν οτι ηλθον μ^ν ούτε 



333 



' Kpaxovvras Castalio, Edd. ; Kparovvr^s MSS. 
' Μ^ριίστασαν Fischer, Edd. ; ΊΤ€ριίστασαν MSS. 



yGooQle 



gl 



CYROPAEDIA, IV. ii. 29-34 

had had his women sent on by night in carriages, 
that they might proceed more comfortably in the 
cool of the night, and he himself was following after 
with his cavalry. 30. And the Phrygian king, the 
ruler of Phrygia on the Hellespont, they say, did the 
same. And when they saw the fugitives who were 
overtaking them, they enquired of them what was 
happening,• and then they also took to flight as fast 
as they could go. 

31. But the king of Cappadocia and the Arabian 
king, as they were still near by and stood their ground 
though unarme4, were cut down by the Hyrcanians. 
But the majority of the slain were Assyrians and 
Arabians. For as these were in their own country, 
they were very leisurely about getting away. 

32. Now the Medes and Hyrcanians, as they pur- How tho 
sued, committed such acts as men might be expected ^^"^ 
to commit in the hour of victory. But C3rrus ordered 

the horsemen who had been left with him to ride 
around the camp and to kill any that they saw com- 
ing out under arms ; while to those who remained 
inside he issued a proclamation that as many of the 
enemy's soldiers as were cavalrymen or targeteers 
or bowmen should bring out their weapons tied in 
bundles and deliver them up, but should leave their 
horses at their tents. Whoever failed to do so 
should soon lose his head. Now Cyrus's men stood 
in line around them, sabre in hand. 33. Accordingly, 
those who had the weapons carried them to one 
place, where he directed, and threw them down, and 
men whom he had appointed for the purpose burned 
them. 

34. Now Cyrus recollected that they had come 

339 
ζ 2 



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XENOPHON 

σΐτα οΰτ€ ttotcL βχοντβς, ayev ίέ τούτων οΰτ€ 
στρατ€ύ€σθαί hvvarov οΰτ αΧΚο iroieiv ovSiv. 
σκοττων δ' οττω? άι; κάΧΚιστα καί τάγιστα ταύτα 
γένοιτο, €νθυμ€Ϊται οτι ανάγκη ττασι τοί? στρα- 
τβυομένοις είναι τίνα οτφ καϊ σκηνής μέλήσβι καΐ 
δπως τάττιτήΒβια τταρεσκενασμΑνα το?9 στρατιώ- 
ταις είσιοΰσιν βσται. 35. καΧ τοίνυν έγι/ω οτι 
τούτους βίκος μάλιστα πάντων iv τφ στρατοττεΒφ 
νυν κατειλήφθαι ^ν Βιίί το άμφΐ συσκευασίαν 
εχειν εκήρνξε 8η τταρεΐναι τους εττιτροττονς 
ττάντας* el he που μη εϊη βττίτροττος. Τον irpea- 
βύτατον άπο σκηνής* τφ δέ άττειθοΰντι πάντα 
τά χαλεπά άνεΐπεν, οι δέ ορώντες καϊ τους 
Βεσπότας πειθομένους ταχύ επείθοντο. επεϊ δέ 
παρετ/ένοντο, πρώτον μεν εκέλευε καθίζεσθαι 
αυτών οσοις εστί πΧεον ij 8υοΐν μηνοΐν εν τ^ 
σκην^ τάπιτήΒεια, 36. επεϊ δέ τούτους εΙΒεν, 
αίθις εκέλευεν οσοις μηνός ήν εν τούτφ σγεΒον 
πάντες ίκαθίζοντο. 37. επεί δέ ταύτα ίμαθεν, 
είπεν ώδβ αύτοΐς* 

"AyeTi νυν} εφη, ω ανΒρες, οι τίνες ύμων τά 
μλν κακίυ μισείτε, μαΧακοΰ 8έ τίνος παρ" ημών 
βούΧοισθ^ αν τυγχάνειν, , επιμεΚήθητε προθύμως 
όπως ΒιπΧάσια εν τ§ σκην^ εκάσττ) σΐτα και 
ποτά παρεσκευασμενα jj ή τοις ίεσποταις καϊ 
τοίς οίκεταις καθ* ήμεραν εποιεΐτε' και ταλλα 
δέ πάντα οπόσα κάΧην 8αϊτα παρέξει έτοιμα 
ποιείτε, ώς αύτίκα μαΧα παρίσονται οποτεροι &ν 
κρατωσι, και άξιώσουσιν εκπΧεω εγειν πάντα 

^ 'Άγ€τ4 ννν £dcU ; ά7«τ€ νυν ζ ; ^.y^n τοίνυν xD. 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. ϋ. 34-37 

with neither food nor drink^ and without these it 
was not possible to prosecute a campaign or to do 
an3^hing else. And as he was considering how to Cyrus 
procure the best possible supplies with the greatest hif^ora^ 
possible dispatch, it occurred to him that all those mieeariat 
who take the field must have some one to take care 
of the tent and to have food prepared for the soldiers 
when they came in. 35. So he concluded that of 
all people these were the ones most likely to have 
been caught in the camp, because they would have 
been busy packing up. Accordingly, he issued a 
proclamation for all the commissaries to come to 
him; but if a commissary officer should be lacking 
anywhere, the oldest man from that tent should 
come. And to any one who should dare to disobey 
he threatened direst punishment. But when they 
saw their masters obeying, they also obeyed at once. 
And when they had come, he first ordered those of 
them to sit down who had more than two months' 
supply of provisions in their tents. 36. And when 
he had noted them, he gave the same order to those 
who had one month's supply. Hereupon nearly all 
sat down. 37. And when he had this information 
he addressed them as follows : 

" Now then, my men," said he, ^^ if any of you 
have a dislike for trouble and wish that you might 
receive kind treatment at our hands, be siure to see 
to it that there be twice as much food and drink pre- 
pared in each tent as you used to get ready every day 
for your masters and their servants ; and get every- 
thing else ready that belongs to a good meal; for 
whichever side is victorious, they will very soon be 
here and they will expect to find plenty of every 



341 



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XENOPHON 

τάτητηΒβια, ei ohv ϊστ€ οτι σνμφίροι iiv ύμΐν 
άρ£μ7Γτω<} Βέχβσθαι τους αρΒρας. 

38. Οι μβν Βη ταντ άκούσαντες ττολλ^ σττουΒτ} 
τά ττα/ο^γγελ/Αβι/α βττραττον* 6 δέ συ^καΧίσας 
τους ταξιάρχους €\£ξ€ τοιάΒβ' ^ΑρΒρβς φί\οι, 
'^ιηνώσκω μίν^ οτι νυν βξεστιν ήμΐν ττροτίροις 
των απόντων συμμάχων άριστου τυγείν teal τοις 
μάλιστα ίσιτουΒασμΙνοις σίτοις καΐ ττοτοΐς χρη- 
σθαι* αλλ* ου μοι Soxei τοδτ* άν το άριστον 
irXeov ωφέλήσαι ημάς fj το των συμμάχων iiri- 
μέλεΐς φανηναι, ούΒ* &ν αυτή η ευωχία Ισχυρό- 
τερους τοσούτον ποιήσαι όσον €ΐ Βυναίμεθα τους 
συμμάχους ττροθύμους ττοιεΐσθαι. 39. el Bk των 
νυνί Βιωκόντων καΧ κατακαινοντων τους ημετέρους 
τΓοΧεμίους και μαχόμενων, βϊ τις έναντιοΰται, 
τούτων Βόξομεν ούτως άμεΚεΐν ώστε καΐ ιτριν 
εΙΒεναι ττως ττράττουσιν ηριστηκοτες φαίνεσθαι, 
οττως μη αισχροί μ^ν φανούμεθα, ασθενείς δ* 
εσομεθα συμμάχων άττοροΰντες. το Bk των 
κινΒυνευοντων καΧ ττονούντων εττιμεΧηθήναι οττως 
είσιοντες τάττιτηΒεια εξουσιν, αΰτη αν ημάς ή 
θοίνη ττΧείω εύφράνειεν, ώς iya φημι, ή το 
τταραχρημα ττ} ^γαστρί χαρίσασθαι, 40. εννοή- 
σατε Β*, εφη, ώς εΐ μη^ εκείνους αίσχυντέον ffv, 
ουΒ^ ως ήμΐν νυν προσήκει οΰτε πΧησμονης πω 
ούτε μέθης' ου yap πω Βιαπεπ•ρακται ήμΐν & 
βουΧόμεθα, άλλ* αδ τά πάντα νυν ακμάζει hri- 
μεΧείας Βεόμενα. εχομεν yap εν τφ στρατοπέΒφ 
ποΧεμίους ποΧΧαπΧασίους ήμων αυτών, καΧ 

1 yiyviiffKo» μ\ν an otherwise unknown MS. of Valckenaer 
(cited as by Dindorf ), Breitenbach, Cremoll ; γιγνώσκομ^ν 
xyz, Marchant. 

342 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. ϋ. 37-40 

sort of provisions. Let me assure you, then, that it 
would be to your advantage to entertain those men 
hands(Mnely." 

38. When they heard this, they proceeded with 
great alacrity to carry out his directions, while he 
called together his captains and spoke as follows : ^^I Gyrus 
realize, friends, that it is possible for us now to take Persians to 
luncheon first, while our comrades are away, and to self-denial 

and con- 

enjoy the choicest food and drink. But I do not sideration 
tbink' that it would be of more advantage to us to °^ ^^^^^^ 
eat this luncheon than it would to show ourselves 
thoughtful for our comrades ; neither do I think that 
this feasting would add as much to our strength as 
we should gain if we could make our allies devoted 
to us. 39. But if we show ourselves to be so neglect- 
ful of them that we are found to have broken our 
fast even before we know how they are faring, while 
they are pursuing and slajdng our enemies and• fight- 
ing any one that opposes them, let us beware lest we 
be disgraced in their eyes and lest we find ourselves 
crippled by the loss of our allies. If, on the other 
hand, we };ake care that those who are bearing the 
danger and the toil shall have what they need when 
they come back, a banquet of this sort would, in my 
opinion, give us more pleasure than any immediate 
gratification of our appetites. 40. And remember," 
said he, ^^ that even if we were under no obligation 
to show them every consideration, even so it is not 
proper for us as yet to sate ourselves with food or 
drink ; for not yet have we accomplished what we 
wish, but, on the contrary, everything is now at a 
crisis and requires care. For we have enemies in 
camp many times our own number, and that, too, 



343 



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XENOPHON 

τούτους Χέλυμένον^;' ον<ζ καΐ φύλαττβσθαι eri 
7Γροσηκ€ΐ καΧ φν\άττ€ίν, δττως ωσι καΐ οι ττονη- 
σοντες ημΖν τάτητη^βια' €τι δ' oi Ιτητβΐς ήμΐν 
αττβισι, φροντίδα τταρέχ^οντες οττον ^ elar καν 
βΧθωσίΡ, ei τΓαραμενοΰσιν. 

41. "ίΐστ', ώ avhp€<iy νυν μοι Βοκβΐ τοιούτον 
σΐτον ήμα<ζ ττροσφέρβσθαί Setv καΙ τοιούτον ττοτον 
ότΓοϊον αν TC<: oXerai μάΧνστα σύμφορον elvav 
ττρος το μητ€ ΰττνου μητ€ αφροσύνης βμττίμ" 
ΤΓΚασθαι, 

42. "Ετί he fcal γρήματα ττολλα ίστιν iv τφ 
στρατοττέΒφ, &ν ουκ α^νοώ οτι Βυνατον ήμΐν 
κοινών όντων τοις σιτ/κατ€ΐ\ηφ6σι νοσφίσασθαι 
ΟΊΓοσα civ βουΧωμεθα' αλλ' ου μοι Βοκβΐ το Χαββίν 
κερΒαλβώτβρον elvai του δικαίους φαινομένους 
εκείνοις JToύτφ ττρίασθαι ετι μαΧΧον αυτούς η 
νυν άσττάξεσθαι ή μας, 43. Βοκεΐ Be μοι, εφη, 
καΐ το νεΐμαι τά χρήματα, εττειΒ^ν ελθωσι, 
ΜήΒοις και ^Ύρκανίοις καΐ Tiypavrf εττιτρέψαΐ' 
καΐ ην Tfr μείον ήμΐν Βάσωνταχ, κερΒος ή^εΐσθαι* 
Bik yctp τά κέρΒη ήΒιον ήμΐν τταραμενουσι. 44. το 
μ^ν yctp νυν ττΧεονεκτήσαι οΧι^ογρονιον αν ήμΐν 
τον ττΧοΰτον ΊταρόΙ&χοι• το δέ ταύτα ττροε μένους 
εκείνα κτήσασθαι όθεν 6 ττΧοΰτος φύεται, τούτο, 
ώς βγω Βοκω, άεναώτερον ήμΐν Βύναιτ αν τον 
οΧβον καΐ τΓοσι τοις ήμετέροις τταρέχειν, 

45. Οιμαι Β\ εφη, και οϊκοι ή μας τούτου ένεκα 
άσκεΐν καϊ ^αστρος κρείττους είναι καΧ κερΒέων 

1 δπον xD, mdst Edd. * νου AH, Dindorf, Hug. 
344 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. ii. 40-45 

under no confinement. We not only must keep 
watch against them but we must keep watch over 
them, so that we may have people to look after our 
provisions. Besides, our cavalry are gone, making us 
anxious to know where they are and whether they 
will stay with us if they do come back. 

41. "And so, my men,*' said he, "it seems to me 
that we should take only such meat and such drink 
as one would suppose to be least likely to overcome 
us with sleep and foolishness. 

42. "Besides, there is also a vast amount of 
treasure in the camp, and I am not ignorant of the 
fact that it is possible for us to appropriate to our- 
selves as much of it as we please, though it belongs 
just as much to those who helped us to get it. But 
I do not think it would bring us greater gain to take 
it than it would to show that we mean to be fair and 
square, and by such dealing to secure greater affection 
from them than we have already. 43. And so it 
seems best to me to entrust the division of the 
treasure to the Medes and Hyrcanians and Tigranes 
when they come ; and if they apportion to us the 
smaller share, I think we should account it our 
gain ; for because of what they gain, they will be the 
more glad to stay with us. 44. For to secure a 
present advantage would give us but short-lived 
riches. But to sacrifice this and obtain the source 
from which real wealth flows, that, as I see it, could 
put us and all of ours in possession of a perennial 
fountain of wealth. 

45. " And if I am not mistaken, we used to train 
ourselves at home, too, to control our appetites and to 
abstain from unseasonable gain with this in view, that. 



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XENOPHON 

άκαιρων, ϊν , €Ϊ irore 8έοι, Βυναίμεθα αντοΐς 
συμφόρων γρησθαι* πού δ' civ iv μβίζοσι των 
νυν τταρόντων βτηΒβίξαίμεθ^ &ν την iratZeiav έγω 
μ^ν ούχ ορω, 

46. Ό μ^ν όντως etTre. cvveVrre δ' αντφ 
'Τστάσττα? άνηρ Τΐ€ρση<ζ των ομότιμων ώδβ• 
Aetvov yap τ&ν €Ϊη, ω Kvp€, el iv θήρα μβν 
7Γθ\\άκι<ζ ασιτοι καρτβρονμβν, οττω^; θηρίον τν 
υτΓογβίριον ττοιησώμεθα καΐ μάΚα μικρόν ϊσως 
άξιον ολβον δέ οΧον ΤΓβφώμβνοί θηραν el έμπο- 
ρων τι ΤΓοιησαίμεθα yeveaOcu ημίν h των μβν 
κακών άνθρώττων αρχβι, τοΙς δ' aya£oi<; ττείθβται, 
ονκ civ Ίτρίποντα ήμΖν Βοκονμεν ^ iroieiv, 

47. Ό μ^ν οΰν 'Τστασττα? όντως βίττβν οι δ* 
α\\οι ττάντβς ταντα σνντινονν. ο he Κνρος elirev, 
^Άγβ δ^, βφη, €7Γ€ΐΒη ομονοονμβν ταντα, ττέμψατβ 
άτΓΟ Χόχον έκαστος ττεντβ άνδρας των σττονοαιο- 
τατωϊ/' οΐηοι δέ ττβριιοντβς, οϋς μ^ν civ ορωσι 
ΊΓορσννοντας τάττιτηοβια, βτταινονντων ονς ο &ν 
άμέλονντας, κοΧαζόντων άφειΒέστβρον ή ώς Se- 
σιτόται, 

Οντοι μ^ν 8η ταντα iiroiovv. 



III 

1. Ύών Be ΜηΒων τίνες ήΒη, οί μεν άμαξας 
ττροωρμημενας καταΧαβόντες καΐ άττοστρέψαντες 
ττροσηλαννον μεστάς &ν Βεϊται στρατιά, οί Bk 

^ Ζοκουμ^ν Dindorf ^, Marchant, Hug ; ίοκοίημ^ρ ζΕ^, Din- 
dorf ', Breitenbach ; doKoUy W ; Βοκοΐμ^ρ CD. 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. ii. 45-111. i 

if occasion should ever demand it, we might be able 
to employ our powers of self-control to our advantage. 
And I fail to see where we could give proof of our The 
training on a more important -occasion than the ]^^to 
present." put their 

46. Thus he spoke ; and Hystaspas, one of the the prwf ^ 
Persian peers, supported him in the following speech : 

^* Why, yes, Cyrus ; on the chase we often hold out 
without a thing to eat, in order to get our hands on 
some beast, perhaps one worth very little; and it 
would be strange indeed now, when the quarry we 
are tr3dng to secure is a world of wealth, if we should 
for a moment allow those passions to stand in our 
way which are bad men's masters but good men's 
servants. I think, if we did so, we should be doing 
what does not befit us." 

47. Such was Hystaspas's speech, and all the rest 
agreed with it. Then Cyrus said : ^' Come then, 
since we are of one mind on this point, send each of 
you five of the most reliable men from his . platoon. 
Let them go about and praise all those whom they 
see preparing provisions ; and let them punish more 
unsparingly than if they were their masters those 
whom they see neglectful." 

Accordingly, they set about doing so. 



Ill 

1. Now a part of the Medes were already bringing The cavalry 
in the wagons which had been hurried forward and spoUe 
which they had overtaken and turned back packed 



347 



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XENOPHON 

χαϊ άρβίαμάξας γνναικ&ρ των βέλτιστων των μεν 
γνησίων, των Se χαΐ ττάΧΧαχίΒων &ια το χάΧΚος 
σνμτΓβριατγομένων, ταύτας €ΪΚηφ6τ€ς προσηγον. 
2. πάντβς yhp €Τί χαΐ νυν οι κατά την *Ασίαν 
στρατευόμενοι ίχοντες τά ττΧείστου άξια στρα- 
τεύονται, Χεγοντες οτι μαΧΚον μάγριντ αν ει 
τά φίΚτατα τταρείη' τούτοις yap φασιν άνα/γχην 
είναι Ίτροθύμως άΧεξειν, ΐσως μεν ουν ούτως 
ίχ€ΐ. Ισως Βε χαΐ ττοιούσιν αύτα tJ ή8ον§ 
'χαριζομενοι. 

3. Ό δέ Ιίύρος θβωρων τα των ΜηΒων έργα 
καΐ "Τρκανίων ωσττερ χατβμεμφετο και αύτον 
καΐ τους συν αύτφ, ει οΐ αΧλοι τούτον τον γρονον 
ακμάζειν τε μαΧΚον εαυτών ϋοκουν κσΧ ττροσκτά- 
σθαί τι, αύτοι δ' εν apyoTcpa χώρα ύττομενειν, 
καΙ yhp S)f οι άττάγοντες καΐ άττοΒεικνύντες Κύρφ 
& ijyov ττάΧιν άττ'ήΧαυνον, μεταΒιώκοντβς τους 
αΧΧους' ταύτα ycip σφίσιν εφασαν ττροστετάχθαι 
ΊΓΟίεϊν ύτΓο των αρχόντων. 

Αακνόμενος 8η ο Κύρος iirl τούτοις ταύτα μ^ν 
6μως κατεχώριζβ* συνεκόΧει δέ ττάΧιν τους τα- 
ξιάρχους, καΐ στίίς οττου εμελΧον ιτάντες άκόύ- 
σβσθαι τά βουΧευόμενα Xeyei τάδβ• 4. ^'Οτι μέν, 
& αν8ρες φίλοι, el κατάσχοιμεν τά νύν ττροφαινό- 
μενα, μεγάλα μίν άν αττασι ΤΙβρσαις ά/γαθά, 
yivoiTO, μέγιστα δ' άν βΐκότως ημΐν hi &ν ττράτ- 
Τ€ται, 'ΐτάντβς οΐμαι γιγνώσκομεν οττως δ* &ν 
348 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. iii. 1-4 

fiill of what an army needs ; others were bringing 
in the carriages that conveyed the most high-bom 
women, not only wedded wives but also concubines, 
who on accoimt of their beauty had been brought 
along ; these also they captured and brought in. 
2. For even unto this day all who go to war in. Asia 
take with them to the field what they prize most 
highly ; for they say that they would do battle the 
more valiantly, if all that they hold dearest were 
there ; for these, they say, they must do their best 
to j)rotect. This may, perhaps, be true ; but perhaps 
also they follow this custom for their own sensual 
gratification. 

3. When Cjrrus saw what the Medes and Hyrca- 
nians were doing, he poured reproach, asit were, upon 
himself and his men, because during this time the 
others seemed to be surpassing them in strenuous 
activity and gaining something by it, too, while he 
and his men remained in a position where there was 
little or nothing to do. And it did seem so ; for when 
the horsemen brought in and showed to Cyrus what 
they brought, they rode away again in pursuit of 
the others ; for, they said, they had been instructed 
by their officers so to do. 

Though Cyrus was naturally nettled at this, still 
he assigned a place to the spoil. And again he 
called his captains together and standing where they 
would all be sure to hear his words of counsel, he 
spoke as follows : 4. ^^ Friends, we all appreciate, I 
am sure, that if we could but make our own the good 
fortune that is now dawning upon us, great blessings 
would come to all the Persians and above all, 
as is reasonable, to us by whom they are secured. 
But I fail to see how we are to establish a 

349 



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XENOPHON 

αύτων ήμ€Ϊ<: Kvpiot ^ι^νοίμβθα, μη αυτάρκβίίζ 
δντ€ζ κτήσασθαι αυτά, el μη βσται οίκεΐον Ιτητι- 
κον Ώέρσαις τούτο βγω ούκέτι ορω. 5. ίννοβΐτβ 
yhp Sif, ίφη* βχομβν ήμ€Ϊ<ζ οΐ Ilipaac οττλα oh 
οοκοΰμβν τρέττεσθαι τους ττολεμίον^ ομοσε Ιόντβν 
καί Βη τρβτΓομβνοί ττω? ^ tj^ imrea^ rj τοξότας 
ή τΓβλταστά? avev ΐττττων δντ€<: Βνναίμβθ^ &ρ 
φεύ^οντα^ η ΧαβεΙν fj κατακανεΐν; τίνε^ δ' &ν 
φοβοΐντο ημα^ ττροσιοντες κακονν ή τοξοται η 
ακοντ ιστοί ή ίτητεΐς, εΰ εΙΒότες δτι ούδεΙ<ζ αντοΐ<: 
κίνδυνος ύφ* ημών κακόν τα τταθεΐν μάΧΚον ή 
υίΓο των ττεφυκοτων δένδρων; 6. et δ' οΰτω ταΰτ 
ίχει, ουκ εΰδηλον ^ δτι οί νυν τταρόντες ημΖν 
Ιτητεΐς νομίζουσι πτάντα τά υττογείρνα '^ι^νομενα 
εαυτών είναι ουχ ήττον ή ημέτερα, ϊσως δέ νη 
Αία καΐ μαΚΚον; 7. νυν μ^ν oiv οΰτω ταντ 
έχει κατ ανάγκην, εΐ δ' ήμεΐς ίτηηκον κτησαΐ- 
μεθα μη χείρον τούτων, ου ττασιν ημΐν καταφανές 
δτι τους τ civ ττοΧεμίους δυναίμεθα κα\ άνευ 
τούτων ττοιείν δσαττερ νυν συν τούτοις, τούτους 
τε (ίχοιμεν &ν τότε μετριώτερον προς ημάς φρο- 
νουντας; οττότε yap τταρεΐναι ή άττεΐναι βού- 
Χοιντο, ^ιττον &ν ημΖν μεΚοι, ει αύτοΙ άνευ τούτων 
άρκοΐμεν ημΐν αύτοΐς, εΐεν, 8. ταύτα μεν δη 
οιμαι ουδείς αν άντιγνωμονησειε μη ουχί το 
ττάν διαφερειν ΤΙερσων γενέσθαι οίκεΐον ίτητικον 
αλλ' εκείνο ϊσως εννοείτε ττως &ν τοΰτο γένοιτο, 
αρ οΖν σκεψώμεθα, εΐ βουΧοίμεθα καθιστάναι 
Ιτητικον, τι ημΐν ύττάρχει καΐ τίνος ενδεΐ; 9. ούκ- 

^ νώ5 Jacob, Gemoll ; voiovs MSS., most Edd. 

^ fl z; not in xy or most Edd. 

^ ίϋδηλορ yzE, most Edd. ; ίνΰηλον C, Hug. 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. iii. 4-9 

valid claim to the spoil if we cannot gain it by The 
our own strength ; and this we cannot do, unless hai^"^ 
the Persians have cavalry of their own. 5. Just °^?F*^. 
think of it," he went on ; " we Persians have arms cavalry of 
with which, it seems, we go jnto close quarters and ^^^ °^" 
put the enemy to flight ; and then when we 
have routed them, how could we without horses 
capture or kill horsemen or l^owmen or targeteers in 
their flight? And what bowmen or spearmen or 
horsemen would be afraid to come up and inflict loss 
upon us, when they are perfectly sure that they are 
in no more danger of being harmed by us than by 
the trees growing yonder ? 6. And if this is so, is 
it not evident that the horsemen who are now with 
us consider that everything that has fallen into our 
hands is theirs no less than ours, and perhaps, by 
Zeus, even more so ? 7. As things are now, there- 
fore, this is necessarily the case. But suppose we 
acquired a body of cavalry not inferior to theirs, 
is it not patent to us all that we should be able even 
without them to do to the enemy what we are now 
doing with their aid, and that we should find them 
then less presumptuous toward us ? For whenever 
they chose to remain or to go away, we should care 
less, if we were sufficient unto ourselves without 
them. Well and good. 8. No one, I think, would gain- Cyrue 
say me in this statement, that it makes all the differ- ^S^* 
ence in the world whether the Persians have their Peraian 
own cavalry or not. But perhaps you are wondering *^^* ^^ 
how this may be accomplished. Well then, suppos- 
ing that we wished to organize a division of cavalry, 
had we not better consider our resources and our 
deficiencies ? 9. Here, then, in camp are numbers 



351 



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XENOPHON 

ovv ΐττΊΓΟί μ€ν ουτοί ττόλΧοϊ iv τω στρατοττέδφ 
κατ€ί\ημμ€νοι καΙ 'χαΧινοί 61^ ΐΓβίθονται καΧ 
ταλλα δσα hel ΐτητοι^ ίχουσι γ^ρησθαι, αλλά 
μην καΧ oh ye Sel avSpa iinrea χρησθαι βχομβν, 
θώρακας μ€ν βρύματα των σωμάτων, τταλτά Se 
οΐζ καΐ μ€θΐ€ντ€^ καΧ €χοντ€<ζ γρφμεθ* αν, 10. τι 
Βη το XoLTTOv; hifKov otc άνΒρων Sel. ονκοΰν 
τοντο μάλιστα βχομεν ovBev γά/ο οΰτω<ζ ημέτβρόν 
ίστιν ώ? ημ^ΐ^ ημίν αύτοΐς, 

'Αλλ' ipcL Τ49 ϊσω<ζ otc ουκ ίτηστάμβθα. μα 
Δ/' ουδέ yap τούτων των iir ισταμένων νυν ττρϊν 
μαθβΐν oiSeU ηττίστατο. αλλ' etiroi αν τι<ζ οτι 
7Γαΐ8€<ζ 6ντ€ς €μάνθανον, 11. καΐ ττότερα τταίδΙ? 
είσί φρονιμώτεροι ώστε μαθεΐν τά φραξ6μ€να καΐ 
Ββίκνύμβνα ή avhpe<;; ττοτβροι Se αν μάΒωσιν 
Ικανώτβροι τφ σώματι exTroveiv, οι τταίδβ? η οι 
avBpe^; 12. αλλά μην σχοΧή ye ήμΐν μανθάνβιν 
οση οΰτ€ ΊταισΙν οΰτ€ αΧΧοις άνΒράσιν οΰτ€ 
yap τοξεύβιν ήμΐν μαθητέον ωσττερ τοΐ<; τταισί• 
7Γρο€7Γΐστάμ€θα yhp τούτο' οΰτβ μην ακοντίζειν 
βτΓίστάμβθα yhp κάϊ τοΰτο' αλλ' ούΒβ μην, ωσττερ 
το?9 άλλο^9 άνΒράσι Toh μβν y€ωpyίaι άσχοΧίαν 
τταρέχουσι, το?9 δέ τέχναι, τοις oe άΧΧα οικεία' 
ήμΐν he στρατεύεσθαι ου μόνον σχοΧή, αλλά 
καΐ ανάγκη, 13. αλλά μην ούγ ωσιτερ αΧΧα 
τΓολλά των ΤΓοΧεμικων χαΧεπα μεν, χρήσιμα δβ• 
ιΤΓτηκη 0€ ουκ εν οόφ μεν ηόιων η αυτοιν τοιν 
7Γθ8οΐν τΓορεύεσθαι; εν 8ε σττουΒτ} ούχ ήΒύ ταχύ 
μεν φίΧφ παρω^ενεσθαι, ει Βέοι, ταχύ 8έ, εϊτε 
avSpa εϊτε θήρα 8έοι Βιώκεσθαι, καταΧαβεΐν; 

352 • 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. iii. 9-13 

of horses which we have taken and reins which they 
obey, and everything else that horses must have before 
you can use them. Yes, and more, all that a horse- 
man must use we have — breastplates as defensive 
armour for the body and spears which we may use 
either to hurl or to thrust. 10. What then remains ? 
Obviously we must have men. Now these above all 
other things we have ; for nothing is so fully ours as 
we ourselves are our own. 

^^But perhaps some one will say that we do not 
know how to ride. No, by Zeus ; and no one of 
these who now know how to ride did know before he 
learned. But, some one may siiy, they learned when 
they were boys. 11. And are boys more clever in 
learning what is explained to them and what is 
shown them than are men } And which are better 
able with bodily strength to put into practice what 
they have learned, boys or men.^ 12. Again, we 
have more time for learning than either boys or other 
men ; for we have not, like boys, to learn to shoot, 
for we know how already ; or to throw the spear, for 
we understand that, too. No ; nor yet again are we 
so situated as other men, some of whom are kept 
busy with their farming, some with their trades, and 
some with other domestic labours, while we not only 
have time for military operations, but they are forced 
upon us. 13. And this is not like many other 
branches of military discipline, useful but laborious ; 
nay, when it comes to marching, is not riding more 
pleasant than tramping along on one's own two feet ? 
And when speed is required, is it not delightful 
quickly to reach a friend's side, if need be, and 
quickly to overtake a man or an animal, if occasion 
should require one to give chase ? And is this not 

353 

VOL. I. A A 



yGooQle 



gl 



XENOPHON 

eKeivg Se ονχΐ einrere^ ,το ο τι &v Sijf οττλον 
φέρειν τον ΐττΊΓον τοΰτο σνμφ4ρ€ΐν; οΰκουν ταντο 
y €στϊν βγειν τ€ καΧ φέρβιν. 

14. 'Ό ye μην μάΚιστ αν τ*9 φοβηθείη, μη 
€1 Ββησβι €ψ' ΐτητον fCLvSvvevecv ή μας ττρότβρον 
ΊτρΙν άκρφοΰν το Ipyov τούτο, καττβιτα μητ€ 
ΤΓβξοϊ (ίτι ω μεν μήτε ιτω Ιτητεΐς Ικανοί, aX)C oihe 
τοΰτο αμηγανον οττον yap &ν ,βονΚωμεθα, ί^εσται 
ήμΐν τΓβζοΐς ενθνς μάχεσθαί* ovSkv yhp των 
Ίτεζικων άττομαθησόμβθα iinreveiv μανθάνοντ€<ζ, 

15. Κνρο<ζ μεν οντω<ζ είττε* Ιίρνσάντας Βε συν- 
ayopεvωv αύτφ &8ε ελεξεν Άλλ' εγώ μ^ν, εφη, 
όντως ετΓίθυμω ίτητεύειν μαθεΐν ώ? νομίζω, ήν 
Ιτητευς yεvωμaL, ανθρωττος τττηνος εσεσθαι, 16, 
νυν μ^ν yhp εrfωyε άγαττώ ην y εξ ϊσου τφ θεΐν 
ορμηθείς ανθρώιτων μόνον ttj κεφαΧτι ττροσγω, ichv 
θηρίον τταραθέον ΙΒων Βννασθω 8ίατεινάμενος φθά- 
σαι ώστε άκοντίσαι ή τοξευσαι ττρίν ττάνυ ττροσω 
αντο yεvεσθaι, ην δ' ίτητενς yέvωμac, Βννησομαι 
μ^ν avSpa εξ όψεως μήκους καθαιρεΐν Βυνήσομαι 
Bk θηρία Βίώκων τα μεν εκ χειρός τταίειν καταΧαμ- 
βάνων, τά Βε άκοντίζειν ωσιτερ εστηκότα* [καΐ 
ycLp εαν αμφότερα ταχέα ^, όμως εάν ττΧησίον 
yίyvητaι άΧΚήΧων, ωσττερ τά εστηκοτα εστίν,^ ^ 
17. h Βε Βη μάΚιστα Βοκω ζωών, εφη, εζηΧωκέναι 
ΙττΊΓΟ κενταύρους, εΐ iyivovTO, ώστε ττροβουΧεύε- 

^ καΧ ... iariv MSS., Dindorf, Breitenbach, et al. ; 
bracketed by Hug, Marchant, Gemoll. 

354 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. iii. 13-17 

convenient, that the horse should help you to 
carry whatever accoutrement you must take along ? 
Surely, to have and to carry are not quite the same 
thing. 

14. ^^What one might have most of all to fear, 
however, is that in case it is necessary for us to go 
into action on horseback before we have thoroughly 
mastered this task, we shall then be no longer 
infantrymen and not yet competent cavalrymen. 
But not even this is an insurmountable difficulty ; for 
whenever we wish, we may at once fight on foot ; for 
in learning to ride we shall not be urJeaming any of 
our infantry tactics." 

15. Thus Cyrus spoke ; and Chrysantas seconded ^^hryeautas 
him in the following speech: "I, for one, am so eager p^J^a{?ion°' 
to learn horsemanship, that I think that if I become 

a horseman I shall be a man on wings. 16. For as 
we are now, I, at least, am satisfied, when I have an 
even start in running a race with any man, if I can 
beat him only by a head; and when I see an 
animal running along, I am satisfied if I can get a 
good aim quickly enough to shoot him or spear him 
before he gets very far away. But if I become a 
horseman I shall be able to overtake a man though 
he is as far off as I can see him ; and I shall be able 
to pursue animals and overtake them and either 
strike them down from close at hand or spear them 
as if they were standing still ; [and they seem so, for 
titfugh both be moving rapidly, yet, if they are near 
to one another, they are as if standing still.] 
17. Now the creature that I have envied most is^ I 
think, the Centaur (if any such being ever existed), 
able to reason with a man's intelligence and to 



355 

A Λ 2 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ΧΕΝΌΡΗΟΝ 

σθαι βΐ€ν ανθρώπου φρονήσω, ταΐς Be χερσί το Seov 
ΊταΧαμασθαι, ϊτητον Se τάχος εχαρ καΙ ίσχύν, 
ωστ€ το βΐ€Ρ φβΐτγον cupeiv, το δ* ίητομβρον ανα- 
Tpeireiv, ούκουν τίάιηα κίυ^ίύ ταύτα iirirev^ yevo- 
μ€ί/ος συγκομίζομαι ττρος ίμαντόν. 18. irpovoelv 
μέρ ye €ξω ττάντα τ§ άνθρωττίντι γμώμτι, ταΐς δέ 
χβρσίρ όττΧοφορησω, ΒιώξομοΛ Be τω ϊττττφ, τον δ' 
εναντίον ανατρέψω τ§ του ΐτπτου ρύμτ/,^ αλλ' ου 
συμ7Γ€φυκω<ζ ΒβΒησομαι Soirep οί Ιτητοκένταυροι. 
19. ούκουν τούτο ye κρεΐττον ή συμττεφυκβναί' 
τους μ€ν yap Ιτητοκενταύρους οΐμαι σyωye ττολλοΓ? 
phf avopeiv των ανθρώττοις ηύρημένων άτγαθων 
δττως Bel γρησθαι, ττοΧΚοΐς Be των ϊτητοις ^Γeφυκ6' 
των ηΒέων πως αύτων χρη άπο\αύ€ίν. 20. εγώ 
δέ fjv ίππeύeιv μάθω, όταν μεν €πΙ του Ίππου 
y€vωμaι, τα του ίπποκενταύρου Βηπου Βιαπρά- 
ζομαΐ' όταν Be καταβώ, Beίπvησω καΐ άμφιΑσο- 
μαι καΐ κaθeυBήσω ωσπ€ρ οί aWoi άνθρωποι• 
ωστ€ τι αΚΚο tj Βιαιρ€τος ίπττοκενταυρος καΐ 
πάΧιν σύνθ€τος yi /γνομαι; 

21. "Ert δ', €φη, καΐ ToloBe π\eoveκτήσω του 
Ιπποκ€νταύρου• 6 μ€ν yap Βυοΐν οφθαΧμοϊν ίώρα 
τ€ ^ καΐ Βυοΐν ωτοιν ήκου€ν• βγω Be τέτταρσι μεν 
οφθαλμοΐς TeKpupoipxu, τέτταρσι Be ωσΧν αίσθη- 
σομαι• ττολλά yap φασι και ΐππον άνθρώ%φ ^ 
τοις οφθαΧμοΐς προορώντα ΒηΧοΰν, ττολλά Be τοΐς 

1 βύμγ Β (Dindorf ), Edd. ; (κίμ-ρ xyz. 

^ ίώρα τ€ Hug, Marchant, Gemoll ; Ίτρο{-σ Τ>)€ωρατο MSS., 
Dindorf, Breitenbach. 

* ίνθρώττφ Pantazides, Marchant, Gemoll ; άνθρωπου MSS. , 
Dindorf, Breitenbach. 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. iii. 17-21 

manufacture with his hands what he needed, while 
he possessed the fleetness and strength of a horse so 
as to overtake whateve%ran before him and to knock 
down whatever stood in his way. Well, all his 
advantages I combine in myself by becoming a 
horseman. 18. At any rate, I shall be able to take 
forethought for ever3rthing with my human mind, I 
shall carry my weapons with my hands, I shall 
pursue with my horse and overthrow my opponent by 
the rush of my steed, but I shall not be bound fast 
to him in one growth, like the Centaurs. 19. Indeed, 
my state will be better than being grown together in 
one piece ; for, in my opinion at least, the Centaurs 
must have had difficulty in making use of many of 
the good things invented for man ; and how could 
they have enjoyed many of the comforts natural to 
the horse ? 20. But if I learn to ride, I shall, when 
I am on horseback, do everything as the Centaur 
does, of course ; but when I dismount, I shall dine and 
dress myself and sleep like other human beings ; and 
so what else shall I be than a Centaur that can be 
taken apart and put together again ? 

21. ^'And then," he added, *^I shall have the 
advantage of the Centaur in this, too, that he used to 
see with but two eyes and hear with but two ears, 
w^j i e I shall gather evidence with four eyes and 
learn through four ears ; for they say that a horse 
actually sees many things with his eyes before his 
rider does and makes them known to him, and that 
he hears many things with his ears before his rider 



357 



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XENOPHON 

ώσΐ ττροακονοντα σημαίν€ΐν. βμε μεν οΐτν, €φη, 
^ράή>€ των InrireveLV υιτβρβτηθυ μουντών, 

Νή τον ΔΓ, βφασαν οΐ αΐύ^οι ττάντε^^ καΧ ήμας 

22, ^Εκ τούτου 8η 6 ΚΟρο•? Xeyei, Ύί οΰν, βφη, 
iirel σφ68ρα ήμΐν 8οκ€Ϊ ταύτα, ei καϊ νομον ημΐν 
αύτοΐ<ζ τΓοιησαίμβθα αίσχρον elvat, 0Ι9 civ ΐτητονς 
iyo) τΓορίσω, ήν τι<ζ φαντ} ττβζτ} ημών ττορευόμβνος, 
ην τ€ τΓοΧΚην ην Τ€ οΚίγην oSbv herj hieXBelv; ίνα 
κα\ Ίταντάπασιν ίττιτοκενταύρου^ζ ημα<ζ οίωνται 
άνθρωττοι elvai, 

23. Ό μβν οΰτω<ζ ίττηρβτο, οΐ δέ ττάντβς συνήνε- 
σαν ωστ βτι καΧ νυν €ξ βκβίνου χρώνταί 
υέρσαί οΰτω, καϊ ούί€ί<ζ αν των καΧών κακαβών 
€κων οφθβίη ΥΙβρσών ονΒαμ^ ττβ^ό? Ιών. 

Οί μβν Βη iv τούτοί<ζ τοις λόγθ49 ήσαν. 



IV 

1. 'ϊΐνίκα S* fjv ίξω μέσου ήμίρας,ττροσηΚαυνον 
μβν οι yirfZoi ίτητβΐς και ^Ύρκάνιοι, ΐτητους τ€ 
άηοντβς αίχμαΧώτονς καΐ avSpa^* όσοι yhp τα 
δττλα παρβΒίΒοσαν, ου κατβκαινον*^ 2. iirel Se 
ττροσηΧασαν, πρώτον' μβν αυτών βττυνθάνβτο ό 
Κ.ϋρος βΐ σωθβιβν ττάντβς αύτώ* βττβι Bk τοΰτ* 
βφασαν, β κ τούτου ή ρώτα τι βιτραξαν. οί^β 
Βιη^ουντο α τ*' βττοίησαν καϊ ώς άνΖρβίως βκαατα 
βμβ^αΧη^όρουν. 3, ό δέ Βιηκουβ τβ^ ήΒέως ττάν- 

^ κατ4καινυν HG, Marchant, GemoU ; κατίκανον Diudorf, 
Breitenbach, Hug ; κατάκαιαν A ; aviicrtivov xD. 

' hiiiKovi T€ Schneider, Dindorf, Breitenbach, Marchant ; 
διηκο^€το ζ ; BffiKovc Gemoll. 

358 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. iii. 21-iv. 3 

does and gives him intimation of them. Put me 
down, therefore/' said he, ^^ as one of those who are 
more than eager to become cavalrymen." 

"Aye, by Zeus," said all the rest, "and us too." 

22. " How would it do, then," Cyrus asked, " since The 

we are all so very well agreed upon this matter, if we ^Μη^κ>υΓ 
should make a rule for ourselves that it be considered 
improper for any one of us whom I provide with a 
horse to be seen going anywrhere on foot, whether 
the distance he has to go be long or short, so that 
people may think that we are really Centaurs } ** 

23. He put the question thus and they all voted 
aye. And so from that time even to this day, the 
Persians follow» that practice, and no Persian 
gentleman would be seen going anywhere on foot, if 
he could help it. 

Such were their discussions on this occasion. 



IV 

1. And when it was past midday, the Median and The allies 
Hyrcanian horsemen came in, bringing both horses prf^ere**^ 
and men that they had taken. For they had spared of war 
the lives of all who had surrendered their arms. 

2. And when they had ridden up, C3rrus asked them 
first whether his men were all safe. And when 
they answered this in the affirmative, he asked how 
they had fared. And they narrated to him what 
they had accomplished and proudly told how 
gallantly they had behaved in every particular. 

3. And he listened with pleasure to all they wished 



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XENOPHON 

των a €βον\οντο Xiyeiv hreira Se xal hripveaev 
αυτούς όντως' 

Άλλα Kcu 8ή\οί τοι, ίφη, €στ€ οτι άνΒρες 
ατ/αθοί iy€P€a0€' fccu yap μείζονς φαΧν€σθ€ καΐ 
καΧΧίονς καΧ yopyoTepoi rj irpoaOev iScir. 

4. ^Εκ δέ τούτον €7Γννθάν€το ηΒη αντων tccu 
ΟΊΓοσην oSov ίνηΚασαν καΧ el οίκοίτο η χώρα, οι 
δ' eXeyov ojt καΐ ιτοΧΚην hieKaaeiav καΧ ττάσα 
οΙκοΐτο και μεστή €Ϊη καΧ οίων και aly&v και 
βοών και ΐτητων και σίτον καΧ ττάντων ατ^αθών. 

5. Ανοΐν αν, ίφη, έττιμέΚητέον ημΖν €Ϊη, οττως Τ€ 
κρείττονα ίσόμεθα των ταύτα ^ εχόντων καΧ οττως 
αντοι μβνονσιν οίκονμένη μλν yap χώρα ττολλοΟ 
άξιον κτήμα' €ρημη δ' ανθρώπων ονσα έρημη καϊ 
των ayaQSnv yiyveTai. 6. τονς μεν ονν αμννο- 
μένονς, ίφη, oiSa οτι κατ€κάν€Τ€,^ ορθώς ιτοιονντες• 
τοντο yap μάΧιστα σώζει την νίκην τονς Be 
τταραΒώόντας αΙχμαΧώτονς riyarfeTe* 0^9 el άφείη- 
μεν, τοντ αδ σνμφορον αν, ώ? €yώ φημι, ιτοιήσαι- 
μεν* 7. ττρώτον μεν yap ννν ονκ &ν φνΧάττεσθοΛ 
ονΒε φνΧάττειν ημάς τοντονς Βεοι, ούδ' αδ' 
σιτοτΓΟίεΐν τούτοις* ον yap Χιμώ ye Βηιτον κατά- 
κανονμεν^ αυτούς• εττειτα δέ τούτονς αφέντες 
ττΧβίοσιν αΙχμαΧώτοις χρησόμεθα, 8. ήν yap 
κρατώ μεν της χώρας, ττάντες ήμΐν οι εν αύτη 
οίκονντες αΙχμάΧωτοι έσονται' μαΧΧον 8ε τούτονς 
ζώντας ΙΒοντες καΧ άφεθέντας μενονσιν οι αΧΧοι 

* ταύτα Hug, Marchant, GemoU ; οντά MSS., earlier Edd. 

'^ κατ^κάν^τΐ Dindorf , later £dd. ; κατ€καίν€τ€ ζ ; άΐΓ€κτ€ίϊ/€Τ€ 
XD. 8 ad Castalio, Edd. ; &v MSS. 

** κατ ακανονμ€ν Zeune, Kdd.; κατακαινονμ^ν ζ ; ί^τοκτ^νοΰμ^μ 
xD. 

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CYROPAEDlA, IV. iv. 3-8 

to tell him, and then he praised them in these 
words : 

" It is quite evident that you have conducted your- 
selves as brave men ; and apy one can see it, for you 
appear taller and handsomer and more terrible to look 
upon than heretofore." 

4. Then he enquired of them further how far 
they had ridden and whether the country was 
inhabited. And they replied, first, that they had 
ridden a long way, and second, that all the country 
was inhabited and that it was full of sheep and goats, 
cattle and horses, grain and all sorts of produce. 

5. " There are two things, - said he, '' that it were what to do 
well for us to look out for : that we make ourselves Zxim^y^^ 
masters of those who own this property, and that 

they stay where they are. For an inhabited country 
is a very valuable possession, but a land destitute 
of people becomes likewise destitute of produce. 

6. Those, therefore, who tried to keep you off, you 
slew, I know ; and you did right. For this is the 
best way to conserve the fruits of victory. But 
those who surrendered you have brought as prisoners 
of war. Now, if we should let them go, we should, I 
think, do what would be in itself an advantage. 

7. For, in the first place, we should not have to keep 
watch against them nor should we have to keep 
watch over them, nor yet to furnish them with food ; 
for, of course, we do not mean to let them starve ta 
death ; and in the second place, if we let them 
go, we shall have more prisoners of war than if 
we do not. 8. For, if we are masters of the country, 
all they that dwell therein will be our prisoners of 
war; and the rest, when they see these alive and set 
at liberty, will stay in their places and choose to 

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XENOPHON 

fcal ΊΓβίθβσθαι αίρήσονται μαΧΚον η μά'χβσθαι, 
iyob μβν ουν οΰτω ^ιηνωσκω* el δ' α\Χο τί9 ορα 
αμβινον, λβγβτω. 

Οί he άκούσαντε^ σνν^νονν ταντα iroielv* 
9. Οΰτω Srj 6 Κνρο<ζ καΧέσα^ τονς αίχμαΧω- 
τονς \ey6L• ToiaSc 10. *Άι/δρ€9, ίφη, νυν τ€ 
οτι €7Γ€ίθ€σθ€ τά9 ψνχά^ζ τΓ€ρΐ€ΤΓθΐησασθ€, του 
τ€ ΧοιτΓοϋ, ην οΰτω ττοιήτβ, ovS* οτιουν καινον^ 
βσται ύμΖν αλλ' η ονχ 6 αντος ap^et υμών oairep 
και 7Γρ6τ€ρον οΙκησ€Τ€ Sk τας αύτά,ς οικίας και 
χώραν την αύτην ipyaaeade καϊ γυναιξί τα?9 
αύταΐς συνοικησ€Τ€ καϊ τταίΒων των υμετέρων 
αρξετε ωσττερ νυν, 1 1 . ήμΐν μέντοι ου μαχεΐσθε 
ουθ€ αΧλφ ουοενΐ' ηνυκα ο αν Tt9 υμάς αοικτ^, 
ημ€Ϊ<ζ iirkp υμών μαχούμεθα. οττω^ζ δε μηΒ' ετταγ- 
γ^λλι; μηΒεϊς υμίν στρατεύειν, τα οττλα ττρος ήμας 
κομίσατε' καΐ τοις μεν κομίζουσιν εσται εΙρήνη 
καΐ α λ€70/χ€ΐ/ άδόλω9. οττόσοι δ' civ τα ττοΧεμικα 
μη άτΓοφέρωσιν δττλα, εττΐ τούτους ημείς καΐ 8η 
στρατευσομεθα, 12. ihv 8έ τις υμών καΐ Ιά)ν ώς 
ήμας εύνοΐκώς καϊ ττράττων τι και ΒιΒάσκων 
φαίνηται, τούτον ημείς ως εύερ^ετην καϊ φίΧον, 
ούχ ώς Βοΰλον ιτεριέψομεν. ταύτα ουν, εφη, αυτοί 
τε ϊστε καϊ τοις αΧΧοις 8ιayyέXXετε. 13. ήν δ' 
αρα, εφη, υμών βουΧομένων ταύτα μη ιτείθωνταί 
τίνες, εττϊ τούτους ημάς ayετε, οττως ύμεΐς εκείνων, 
μη εκείνοι υμών αρχωσιν. 

Ό μεν 8η ταϋτ είττεν οί δέ ττροσεκύνουν τε καϊ 
υττισχνοΰντο ταύτα ττοιησειν. 

^ Kaiyhy xD, later Edd. ; KUKhv ζ, Dindorf {harm). 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. iv. 8-13 

submit rather than to fight. This, then, is my 
proposition ; but if any one else sees a better plan, 
let him speak." 

But when they heard his proposal they agreed 
to adopt it. 

9. Accordingly, Cyrus called the prisoners to- 
gether and spoke as follows: 10. ^^ My men," said Cyrus oflfers 
he, " you have now saved your lives by your submis- fn^rty^^^*^ 
sion ; and in the future also, if you continue to be 
obedient, no change whatever shall come to you 
except that you shall not have the same ruler over 
you as before ; but you shall dwell in the same houses 
and work the same farms ; you shall live with the 
same wives and have control of your children just as 
now. 11. But you shall not have to fight either us 
or any one else ; but when any one injures you, we 
will fight for you ; and that no one may even ask 
military service of you, bring your arms to us. And 
those that bring them shall have peace, and what we 
promise shall be done "without guile. But as many 
as fail to deliver up their weapons of war, against 
these we ourselves shall take the field immediately. 
1 2. But if any one of you comes to us in a friendly 
way and shows that he is dealing fairly with us and 
giving us information, we shall treat him as our bene- 
factor and friend and not as a slave. Accept these 
assurances for yourselves, and convey them to the rest 
also. 13. But if," said he "while, you are willing to 
accept these terms of submission, some others are 
not, do you lead us against them that you may be 
their masters and not they yours." 

Thus he spoke and they did obeisance and pro- 
mised to do what he directed. 



363 



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XENOPHON 



1. Έ7Γ€ΐ δ' €Κ€Ϊνοί φγρντο, 6 Κί)/)09 βΙτΓβν,^Ω,ρα 
Βη, ω ΜήΒοί καί * Αρμένιοι, Benrveiv ττάσιν ημΖν 
τταρβσκεύασται he νμΐν τάτητήΖβία ώ<? ημ^ΐ^ 
βέΧτιστα εΒνράμβθα. αλλ' ϊτ€ καϊ ημΐν ττέμττετε 
του τΓβτΓΟίημβνου^ σίτου τον ημισυν ικανοί he 
αμφότεροι^; ττεττοίητα^ οψον he μη ττέμιτετε μηh€ 
irieiv ίκανα ycip βχομεν trap ήμϊν αύτοΐς irape- 
σκ€υασμενα. 

2. Κ.αΙ υμ€Ϊ<; he, ω ^Ύρκάνιοί, βφη, hιάyeτe 
αυτούς eirl τα? σκηνά<ζ, τους μεν αργρντας επΙ τας 
μξ,^ίστα^;, ηνγνώσκετε he, τους h αΧλους ως αν 
hoKy κάΧΚιστα ίγειν* κα\ αυτοί he heiirveiTe οττου- 
ire ρ ήhιστov υμίν* σφ μεν yap ύμΐν καϊ ακέραιοι 
αϊ σκηναί* τταρεσ κεύασται hk καϊ ενθαΖβ ωσττερ 
καϊ τούτοις. 

3. ΚαΙ τούτο hε ϊστε αμφότεροι οτι τά μεν 
εξω ύμΐν ημείς νυκτοφυΧακησομεν, τα δ' εν ταΐς 
σκηναΐς αύτοϊ οράτε καΐ τά οττΧα ευ τίθεσθε' 
οι yap εν ταΐς σκηναΐς οΰττω φίΧοι ημΐν. 

4. οι μεν hi) Mrjhoi και οι άμφΐ Ύιypάvηv 
ελοΰντο, και, ^ν yap τταρεσκευασμενα. Ιμάτια 
μεταΧαβόντες έhεί'πvoυv, καΐ οί ΐτητοι αύτοΐς εΐχον 
τaτΓlτήhειa. 

ΚαΙ τοις Τίερσαις δβ εττεμττον των άρτων τους 
ήμίσεις, οψον δβ ουκ εττεμττον oih^ οινον, οΐόμενοι 
εχειν τους άμφι Κνρον ετι άφθονα ταΰτα.^ ό hk 

^ Ίτ^τίοΐΎΐμίνου Zeune, Edd. ; Ίπνονημίνου MSS. 

2 in άφθονα ravra Dindorf *, Hug, Marchant, GemoU ; tn 
^ψ•η &<ρθυνα ταύτα ίχ€ΐν xD, Dindorf^, Breitenbach {for he said 
they hxd an ahu7uiaiice of that) ; βτί άφθονα ταντα ζ. 

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CYROPAEDIA, IV. v. 1-4 



1. When they were gone, Cyrus said : " Medes General 
and Armenians, it is now high time for us all to go dinner " 
to dinner ; and everything necessary has been pre- 
pared for you to the best of our ability. Go, then, 

and send to us half of the bread that has b€;en baked 
— enough has been made for all ; but do not send us 
any meat nor anything to drink ; for enough has 
been provided for us at our own quarters. 

2. " And you, Hyrcanians,*' he said to these, " lead 
them to their several tents — ^the officers to the 
largest (you know which they are), and the rest as 
you think best. And you yourselves also may dine 
where it best pleases you. For your own tents also 
are safe and sound, and there also the same provision 
has been made as for these. 

3. " And all of you may be assured of this, that 
we shall keep the night-watches for you outside the 
camp, but do you look out for what may happen in 
the tents a^d have your arms stacked conveniently ; 
for the men in the tents are not yet our friends." 

4. Then the Medes and Tigranes and his men 
bathed, changed their clothes (for they were pro- 
vided with a change), and went to dinner. Their 
horses also were provided for. 

Of the bread, half was sent to the Persians ; but 
neither meat for relish nor wine was sent, for they 
thought that Cyrus and his men had those articles 
left in abundance. But what Cyrus meant was that 

365 



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XENOPHON 

Κί)ρο9 ταύτα IXeyev, 6ψον μεν τον Χιμόν, irceiv 
S* άτΓΟ του τταραρρίοντο^ ττοταμον. 

5. Ό μ€ν ονν Κ.ΰρο<ζ SecTrviaa^ του? Πβ/οσα?, 
eirel συνεσκοτασε, κατά ττεμιτάΒα^ καΐ κατά 
Β€κάΒα<ζ woWov^ αυτών Βίέττεμψε καΐ έκίΧβυσε 
κύκΧφ του στρατοττβ^ου κρυτττβύειν, νομίζων αμα 
μ^ν φυΧακην βσβσθαί, αν τ^9 ίξωθεν wpoairj, αμα 
Si, αν Tt9 βξω φέρων ρήματα awohihpaaKrj, 
άΧωσεσθαι αυτόν* καΐ iyevcTO οΰτω' ττοΧΧοΙ μ^ν 
yap άτΓβΒίΒρασκον, ττοΧΧοΙ Se εάΧωσαν. 6. ό δβ 
ίίΰρος τά μεν χρήματα τού^ Τρίβοντας εϊα eyeiv, 
του? δέ ανθρώπους αποσφάξαι εκέΧευσεν ωστ€ 
του ΧοίΤΓοΰ ούΒε βουΧόμενος &ν ηύρες ραΒίως τον 
νύκτωρ τΓορευόμενον. 

7. Οι μεν 8η ΤΙέρσαί οΰτω SiTJyov οι Β^^ΜήΒοι 
καΐ ευωγρυντο καί ετηνον και ηυΧοΰντο καΙ πάσης 
ευθυμίας ενεττίμπΧαντο* ττολλά yap κα\ τά τοί- 
αυτα ηΧω, ώστε μη άιτορείν εpyωv τους εypη- 
yop6τaς. 

8. Ό 8ε Κναξάρης 6 των ΜηΒων βασίΧεύς 
την μεν νύκτα εν η εξήΧθεν 6 ίίΰρος αυτός τε 
έμεθύσκετο μεθ^ ώνττερ εσκηνου ώς εττ ευτυχία, 
καΐ τους αΧΧους 8ε ^ηΒους ωετο ιταρεΐναι εν 
τφ στρατοττέδω ττΧην 6Xίyωv, άκούων θορυβον 
ΊΓοΧύν οι ycLp οίκεταί των Μη8ων, ατε των 
ΒεστΓΟτών άττεΧηΧυθότων, άνειμένως hnvov καΐ 
εθορύβουν, αΧΧως τε κάΙ εκ του ^Ασσυρίου 
στρατεύματος καΐ οίνον καΐ αΧΧα ττολΧά εΙΧη- 
φοτες. 

9. ΈτΓβΙ δέ ή μύρα iy ενετό, καΐ εττΐ θύρας ούΒεΙς 
ήκε ττΧην οΐττερ καΐ συνεΒείττνουν, καΙ το στρα- 
366 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. v. 4-9 

hunger was their relish and that they could drink 
from the river that flowed by. 

5. Accordingly, when Cyrus had seen that the How the 
Persians had their dinner, he sent many of themg^^Jj^^e 
out, when it was dark, in squads of five and ten, with Persians 
orders to lie in hiding round about the camp ; for he 
thought that they would serve as sentinels, in case 
any one should come to attack from the outside, and 
at the same time that they would catch any one who 
tried to run away with his possessions. And it 
turned out so; for many did try to run away, and 
many were caught. 6. And Cyrus permitted those 
who effected the capture to keep the spoil, but the 
men he bade them slay ; and so after that you could 
not easily have found, had you tried, any one 
attempting to get away by night. 

7. Thus, then, the Persians employed their time ; by the 
but the Medes drank and revelled and listened to the ^®^®^ 
music of the flute and indulged themselves to the full 
with all sorts of merry-making. For many things 
that contribute to pleasure had been captured, so 
that those who stayed awake were at no loss for 
something to do. 

8. Now the night in which Cyrus had marched out, byCyaxarcs 
Cyaxares, the king of the Medes, and his messmates 

got drunk in celebration of their success ; and he 
supposed that the rest of the Medes were all in 
camp except a few, for he heard a great racket. 
For inasmuch as their masters had gone off, the 
servants of the Medes were drinking and carousing 
without restraint, especially as they had taken from 
the Assyrian army wine and many other supplies. 

9. But when it was day and no one came to his 
headquarters except those who had been dining with 

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XENOPHON 

TOTreBov fjKOve Kevov elvat των ΜηΒων καϊ των 
ίτητέων, καί ίώρα, έττειΒη βξηΧθβν, οΰτως βγρντα, 
βντανθα Βη ίβριμουτό τ€ τφ Κυρ ω καΙ τοις 
Μ.ήΒοι<ζ τφ καταΧητόντας αύτον βρημυν οϊχβσθαι, 
καϊ €νθύς, ωσττβρ TUycTai ώμο<ζ elvai καΧ ay νώμων, 
των Ίταρόντων /ceXevei tivcl Χαβοντα τους ίαυτον 
ίττΊτέας TTOpeveaOai ώς τάχιστα iirl το άμφΐ 
Κ,νρον στράτ€νμα καΐ Xeyeiv ταδβ* 

10. "Πιμην μβν &γω^€, ovS* αν σε, ω Κυρβ, 
7Γ€ρΙ ίμού οΰτως αττρονοητως βονΧβΰσαί, el Be 
Ιίΰρος οΰτω ηιηνώσκοι, ουκ αν υμάς, ω Μτ^δοί, 
iOeXrjaai οΰτως €ρημον €μ^ καταΧιΐΓ€Ϊν. καϊ νυν, 
&ν μ^ν Κύρος βούΧηται, el Be μη, ύμ€Ϊς ye την 
ταχίστην irapeaTC. 

11. Ύαυτα Βη eireaTeCXev. ο Bk ταττ6μ€νος 
TTopeieaOaL ίφη, ΚαΙ πως, ω Βέσττοτα, iyo) 
eυpησω €Κ€ίνους; 

ΤΙως Be Κύρος, €φη, και οΐ συν αύτφ €φ* οΰς 
€'7Γορ€ύοντο ; 

'Ότι νη Αι, €φη, ακούω άφ€στηκ6τας των 
ΊΓοΧεμίων ^Ύρκανίους τινάς και έΧθοντας Β€ύρο 
οϊχ€σθαι Tjy ου μένους αύτφ, 

12. ^Ακουσας Be ταύτα ό Κυαξάρης ττοΧύ 
μάΧΧον €τι τφ Κύρφ ώpyίζeτo τφ μηΒ* elirelv 
αύτφ ταύτα, καϊ ttoXXtj σττουΒ^ μαΧΧον eπ^€μ7Γev 
€τγΪ τους ΜηΒους, ώς ψιΧώσων αυτόν, καϊ Ισχυ- 
poTepov €τι ή 'πτρ6σθ€ν τοις ΜηΒοις aireiX&v 
aireKoXer καϊ τφ lΓeμ'πoμevφ Be rJTreiXei, el μη 
ισχυρώς ταύτα airayyeXXoi* 

13. Ό μ^ν Βη weμlΓ6μ€Voς elΓOpeύeτo ίχων 

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CYROPAEDIA, IV. v. 9-13 

him, and when he heard that the camp was forsaken 
by the Medes and the cavalry, and when he 
discovered on going out that such was really the 
case, then he fumed and raged against both Cyrus 
and the Medes because they had gone off and left 
him deserted. And straightway, in keeping with 
his reputation for being Λάolent and unreasonable, he 
ordered one of those present to take his own cavalry 
corps and proceed at topmost speed to Cyrus's army 
and deliver the following message : 

10. ^^ I should think that even you, Cyrus, The kingn 
would not have shown such want of consideration cyr^*^ 
toward me ; and if Cyrus were so minded, I should 

think that at least you Medes would not have 
consented to leave me thus deserted. And now, 
if C3rrus will, let him come with you ; if not, do you 
at least return to me as speedily as possible." 

11. Such was his message. But he to whom he 
gave the marching order said : " And how shall I 
find them, your majesty } " 

" How," he answered, ^^ did Cyrus and those with 
him find those against whom they went? " 

" Why," said the man, " by Zeus, I am told that 
some Hyrcanians who had deserted from the enemy 
came hither and went away as his guides." 

12. Upon hearing this, Cyaxares was much more 
angry than ever with Cyrus ibr not even having told 
him that, and he sent off in greater haste to recall 
the Medes, for he hoped to strip him of his forces ; 
and "With even more violent threats than before, he 
ordered the Medes to return. And he threatened 
the messenger also if he did not deliver his message 
in all its emphasis. 

13. Accordingly, the officer assigned to this duty 

369 
yoL. I. Β Η 



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XENOPHON 

τους iavTov ΙτΓττέας ώ? ίκατόν, άνιώμβνος οτι 
ου καΐ αντος τότ€ βιτορένθη μβτά τον Κνρου. 
iv δέ Τ7) οΒφ TTopevo^evoL Βίασχισθβντβς τρίβφ 
τινϊ ίττΚανωντο, καΐ ου ττροσθβν άφι,κοντο €7γΙ 
το φίλων στράτ€νμα ιτρϊν βντυχόντβς άττοχω- 
ρουσί τισι των ^Ασ συρίων ηνώγκασαν αυτούς 
η'^βίσθαΐ' καΙ οΰτως άφικνούνται τά ττυρά κάτι- 
86ντ€ς άμφΐ μέσας ττως νύκτας. 14. βττβΐ δ' 
iyevovTo ττρος τω στρατοττέΒφ, οι φνΧακβς, ωσπβρ 
βίρημένον fjv ύπο Ιίύρου, ουκ €ΐσ€φρηκαν ^ αύτσνς 
Ίτρο ημέρας, 

ΈτΓβΙ δέ ημέρα νΐΓ€φαίν€, ττρωτον μλν τους 
μάηους καΧέσας 6 Τίΰρος τά τοις θβοΐς νομιζομβνα 
iirX τοις τοιούτοις άτγαθοΐς €ξαφ€Ϊσθαι eKcXeve. 
15. καΐ οι μέν άμφΐ ταύτα βίχον* 6 δέ σιτ/καΧέσας 
τους ομότιμους ehrevy 'ΆνΒρ€ς, 6 μίν θ€ος ττρο- 
φαίνει τΓολλά καηαθά* ημείς δέ οί ^ ΤΙέρσαι iv 
τφ παροντι, oXiyot έσμεν ως β^κρατβΐς etvai 
αύτων. €Ϊτ€ yap οττοσα^ αν 7Γpoσ€pyaσώμ€θa, 
μη φυΧάξομβν, ττάΧιν ταύτα άΧΧότρια €σται• 
€ίΤ€ καταΧείψομέν τ ίνας ημών αύτων φύΧ/ικας 
€7γΙ τοις €φ' ήμΐν ycyvoμ6voις, αύτίκα ονΒβμυαν 
Ισχύν €χοντ€ς άναφανούμεθα. 16. Βοκ€Ϊ ούν μοι 
ώς τάχιστα Uvav τίνα υμών €ΐς Ώέρσας καΐ 
Βι8άσκ€ίν airep iyo) X€yω, καΐ KeXeietv ως τά- 
χιστα έτΓίττέμτΓβιν στράτ€υμα, elirep έττιθυμονσι 
Τΐέρσαί την άρχην της * Ασίας αυτοΐς^ καΐ την 
κάριτωσιν y€V€σθaι. 17. ϊθι μλν ούν συ, βφη, 

^ ίΐσίψρηκαν Cobet, later Edd. ; €Ϊσαφηκαν MSS., Dindorf, 
et al. 2 qI Bothe, Edd. ; δ MSS. 

^ όνόσα Poppo, Edd. ; δνοΐα xz ; 5σα D. 
"* avrois GemoU ; avrois MSS., earlier Edd. 

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CYROPAEDIA, IV. v. 13-17 

set out with his cavalry, about a hundred in number, 
vexed with himself for not having gone along with 
Cyrus when he went. And as they proceeded on 
their journey, they were misled by a certain by-path 
and so lost their way and did not reach the army of 
their friends, imtil they fell in λΙ ith some deserters 
from the Assyrians and compelled them to act as 
their guides. And so they came in sight of the 
camp-fires sometime about midnight. 14. And 
when they jcame up to the camp, the sentinels, 
following the instructions of Cyrus, refused to admit 
them before daylight. 

Now at peep of day the first thing that Cyrus did 
was to call the magi and bid them select the gifts 
ordained for the gods in acknowledgment of such 
success ; 15. and they proceeded to attend to this, 
while he called the peers together and said : 
^' Friends, God holds out before us many blessings. 
But we Persians are, under the present circumstances, 
too few to avail ourselves of them. For if we fail to 
guard what we win, it will again become the 
property of others ; and if we leave some of our own 
men to guard what falls into our possession, it will 
very soon be found out that we have no strength. 
16. Accordingly, I have decided that one of you should Cyrus sends 
go with all speed to Persia, present my message and for rein- 
ask them to send reinforcements with the utmost ^**^°®"^®'^** 
dispatch, if the Persians desire to have control of 
Asia and the revenues accruing therefrom. 17. Do 
you, therefore, go, for you are the senior officer, and 

37-1 

Β Β 2 



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XENOPHON 

6 7Γρ€σβύτατο<ζ, καϊ ιών ταύτα Xeye, καϊ οτι otf^ 
αν ττβμττωσν στρατιώτα^, βττεώαν ίΧθωσι τταρ 
€/χ€, Ιμοί μ€Κησβι irepl τροφής αύτοΐς, α S* 
€χομ€ν ημ€Ϊς, οράς μβν αύτ6<ζ} κρύτττε δβ τούτων 
μηΒέν, ο τν Se τούτων €γώ ττέμιτων €ίς ΤΙέρσας 
καΧώς καΧ νομίμως ττοιοίην αν τα μεν ττρος τους 
θεούς τον ττατέρα ερώτα, τά Se ττρος το κοινον 
τας αρχάς, ττβμψάντων Se καϊ οπτήρας ων 
ττράττομεν kcu φραστήρας ων ίρωτώμεν, καϊ σν 
μέν, ίφη, σνσκβνάξου καϊ τον Χόγρν ΊτροίΓομΊΓον 
αγβ. 

18. Έ /c τούτου δβ^ καϊ τους Μι;δον9 €κά\€ΐ, 
καϊ άμα ο τταρα του Ιίυαξάρου άγγεΧος τταρίστα- 
ται, καϊ iv ττάσι την τε ιτρος Κϋρον opyrjv καϊ 
τά? ττρος Μ-ήΒους άττβιλας αύτοΰ eXeye* καϊ τέΧος 
βΐπβν οτι άττύναι Μ.ήΒους κελεύει, καϊ ei Κυράς 
μένειν βούΧεται, 

19. Οι μεν οΰν MrjSoi άκούσαντες του ayyiXou 
εσίyησav, άττορουντες μεν ττώς χρη καΧονντος 
άπειθεΐν, φοβούμενοι δέ ττως χρη άττειΧοΰντι 
υττακουσαι^ αΧΧως τε καϊ εΙΒότες την ωμότητα 
αύτοΰ. 20. ό Βε Κΰρος εΐττεν, 'Αλλ' εyώ, ω 
ayyεXέ τε καϊ ΜήΒοι, ούΒεν, εφη, θαυμάζω ει 
Κ,υαξάρης, ττοΧΧούς μεν ττοΧεμίους τότ ΙΒών, 
ημάς Βε ουκ εΙΒώς ο τι ττράττομεν, οκνεΐ ττερί 
τε ημών καϊ ττερϊ αυτού* εττειΒαν Βε αισθητοί, 
ΤΓοΧΧούς μεν των ττοΧεμίων άττοΧωΧότας, ττάντας 
Βε άττεΧηΧαμενους, πρώτον μεν τταύσεται φοβού- 
μένος, έπειτα yvώσετaι, οτι ου νυν έρημος γ^γζ/β- 

' auros Cobet, most Edd. ; αυτά MSS., Dindorf. 
2 δ€ D, most Edd.; d^ xz, Gemoll. 

372 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. v. 17-20 

when you arrive tell them this ; and say also that for 
whatever soldiers they send 1 will provide main- 
tenance after they come. Conceal from them 
nothing in regard to what we have, and you see for 
yourself what there is. And what portion of these 
spoils honour and the law require that I should send 
to Persia — in regard to what is due the gods, ask my 
father ; in regard to what is due to the State, ask 
the authorities. And let them send men also to 
observe what we do and to answer our questions. 
And you," said he, " make ready and take your own 
platoon to escort you." 

18. After this he called in the H^des also and The king's 
at the same moment the messenger from Cyaxares ™®βΐνΙι ^^ 
presented himself and in the presence of all reported 

his kiiig's anger against Cjnrus and his threats against 
the Medes ; and at the last he said that Cyaxares 
ordered the Medes to return, even if Cyrus wished to 
stay. 

19. On hearing the messenger, therefore, the 
Medes were silent, for they were at a loss how they 
could disobey him when he summoned them, and 
they asked themselves in fear how they could obey 
him when he threatened so, especially as they had 
had experience of his fury. 20. But Cyrus said : 
" Well, Sir Messenger and you Medes, inasmuch as 
Cyaxares saw in our first encounter that the enemy 
were numerous and as he does not know how we 
have been faring, I am not at all surprised that he is 
concerned for us and for himself. But when he 
discovers that many of the enemy have been slain 
and all have been routed, in the first place he will 
banish his fears and in the second place he will 



373 



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ΧΕΝΌΡΗΟΝ 

τοί, ηνίκα οί φίλοι αύτου τους € κείνου €χθρον^ 
άτΓοΧΚνασιν. 

21. Άλλα μην μίμ'^βώς ye ττάς €<τμ€ν αζιοι, 
€v τ€ ΊΓοιονντες €Κ€Ϊνον καΙ oifhe ταύτα αύτοβία- 
τίσαντες; αλλ* iyw μλν €Κ€Ϊνον hreura ίασαί 
μ€ Χαβοντα ύβΐάς έξέλθβΐν^ ύμεΐς Be ονχ^ ώ? 
hnOv μουντές τη^ζ €ξ68ου ήρωτησατ€ el έξίοιτε 
καΐ νυν Bevpo ff/cere, αλλ' υττ' ίκείνου /ceXev- 
aOevre^ i^Uvai δτφ νμων μη άχθομένφ εϊη. καΐ 
ή opytf οΐτν αύτη σάή> ο18α ίητό re των ατ/αθων 
irewavericeTai κα\ συν τφ φόβφ Χψγοντί aireiai. 

22. Νδι/ μίν οΐτν, €φη, συ τ€, ω arfyeXe, 
άνάπαυσαι, iirel καΧ ττ^ττόι^/τας, ημεΐ^ζ τβ, ώ 
ΤΙύρσαι, iirel ττροσΒεχόμεσα 'ττοΧεμίους ήτοι μα- 
χρυμενους ye ή ιτεισομένους 7Γap€σeσθaί, ταχθώ- 
μεν ώ? Λαλλ^στα• οΰτω yhp ορωμένους eifco^ 
ττΚΑον irpoavineiv ων χρ^ζομβν. συ δ', εψη, ο 
των 'Ύρκανίων άρχων, υττόμεινον ττροστάζα^ τοί^ 
ήyeμ6σι των σων στρατιωτών έξοττΧίζειν αύτον<ζ. 

23. Έ•7Γ€ΐ Sk ταύτα ιτοιησας 6 ^Τρκάνιο^ ιτροσ- 
ήλθε, Xiyei 6 Κδ/)09, 'Εγώ Se, εφη, ω 'Ύρκάνιε, 
ήΒομαι αίσθανόμενο^ζ οτι ου μόνον φιλίαν ίττι- 
Βεικνύμενο<ξ irapei, άΧλα καΐ σύνεσιν φαίνει μοι 
(χειν, καΧ νυν οτι συμφέρει ήμΐν ταύτα Βήλον* 
ίμοί τε yhp πολέμιοι ^Ασσύριοι, σοι τ€ νυν ετι ^ 
ίχθίονέ^ εισιν ή έμοί' 24. οΰτως otv ήμΐν άμφο- 
τεροι<ζ βουλευτεον οττως των μλν νυν τταρόντων 
μηΒβΧ^ αποστατήσει ήμΐν συμμάχων, άλλοις? Βε, 

^ twfiaa . . . ^|eA0<(v D, Breitenbach, Marchant, GemoU ; 
irei<raf . . . 4ξ€\θ€Ϊρ rdSt ττοιω xz, Dindorf, Sauppe. 
* in D, Marchant, GemoU ; not in xz, other Edd. 

374 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV v. 20-24 

realize that he is not deserted now, when his friends 
are annihilating his enemies. 

21. " But further, how do we deserve any blame, 
since we have been doing him good service and have 
not been doing even that on our own motion ? But I, 
for my part, first got his consent to march out and 
take you with me ; while you did not ask whether 
you might join the expedition and you are not here 
now because you desired to make such an expedition, 
but because you were ordered by him to make it — 
whoever of you was not averse to it. This wrath, 
therefore, I am quite sure, will be assuaged by our 
successes and will be gone with the passing of his 
fear. 

22. '^ Now, therefore. Sir Messenger,** said he, Cyrus's 
^^ take some rest, for you must be fatigued, and since meet Uie 
we are expecting the enemy to come either to sur- crisis 
render, or possibly to fight, let us, fellow-Persians, 

get into line in as good order as possible ; for if we 
present such an appearance, it is likely that we shall 
better promote the accomplishment of what we 
desire. And you, king of Hyrcania, be pleased to 
order the commanders of your forces to get them 
under arms, and then attend me here.'* 

23. And when the Hyrcanian had done so and 
returned, C3rrus said : " I am delighted, king of 
Hyrcania, to see that you not only show me your 
friendship by your presence, but also that you 
evidently possess good judgment. And now it is 
evident that our interests are identical. For the 
Assyrians are enemies to me, and now they are still 
more hostile to you than to me. 24. Under these 
circumstances, we must both take counsel that none 
of the allies now present shall desert us, and also 

375 



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XENOPHON 

ihv Βννώμεθα, ττροσΧηψομβθα. τον δβ Μη8ον 
ήκου€<$ άτΓοκάλονντος τους ίτητίας* el δ' οίίτοι 
άττίασΰν, ήμεΙς μόνοι οί ιτεζοί μενοΰμεν. 25. ού- 
τω 9 oifv Set iroielv έμβ καΙ σέ δττω? ό αττοκαΧων 
οντος καΐ αντος μ€ν€ΐν τταρ* ήμΐν βον\ησ€ταί. 
συ μβν ουν εύρων σκηνην δό? αύτφ οττου καΚ- 
Χιστα Βίάξ€ΐ ττάντα τΛ δέοντα έχων iyco δ* 
α5 7Γ€φάσομαί αύτφ epyov τι ιτροστάξαί δπ€ρ 
αύτος ήΒων ττράξεί η aireiai' καΐ ΒιαΧέ^ου Be 
αύτφ οττόσα βλττΐ? yeviaOai ayadci ττάσι toIs 
φίΧοίς, ήν TavT.ei γένηται* ττοιησας μέντοι αυτά 
flKe ττάΚιν τταρ €μέ, 

26. Ό μ€ν Βη 'Ύρκάνίος τον Μ.ήΒον φχετο ay ων 
€7γΙ σκηνην ό δ' εΙς Ώέρσας Ιών τταρην συι/β- 
σκ€νασμ€νος• 6 8k Κνρο^ζ αύτφ €7Γέστ€\\€ 'Π'ρος 
μ^ν ΤΙέρσας \eyeiv & καϊ ττροσθεν iv τφ \&γφ 
δβδ^λωταΑ, Κυαξάρ'^ Be άττοΒοΰναί τα γράμματα, 
avayv&vai Be σοί καΐ τά €7ηστε\\6μενα, €φη, 
βούΧομαι, ϊνα εΙΒώς αυτά ό/ιολογ^ς, eav τί σβ 
•7Γ/0Ο9 ταύτα €ρωτ^, ^ 

^Έινήν Be ev τη εττιστοΧη ταδβ* 

27. Κνρος Κυαξάρη xaipetv. ημείς σε ούτε 
ερημον κατεΧίττομεν ούΒεΙς yap, όταν έχθρων 
κραττ}, τότε φίΧων έρημος yiyvcTai, ουδέ μην 
άίΓογωρούντές yi σε οΐόμεθα εν κινΒύνφ καθί- 
στάναι* άΧΚα οσφ ττΧεον αττίγρμεν, τοσοντφ 
ττΧειονά σοι την άσφάΧειαν ττοιεΐν νομίζομεν 
28. ού yap οί iyyvTOTa των φίΧων καθήμενοι 
37θ 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. v. 24-28 

that, if we can, we may secure other allies besides. 
Now you heard the Mede recalling the cavalry ; and 
if they go away, we only, the infantry, shall be left. 
25. Accordingly, it is necessary for you and for me to 
do all we can to make this man also who is recalling 
them desire to remain with us himself. Do you, 
therefore, find and assign to him a tent where he 
will have the best kind of a time, with ever3rthing 
he wants ; while I, for my part, will try to assign him 
some post that he himself would rather fill than go 
away. And do you have a talk with him and tell 
him what wealth we have hopes that all our friends 
will obtain, if we are successful in this ; and when you 
have done this, come back again to me." 

26. Accordingly, the Hyrcanian took the Mede 
and went away to a tent. And then the officer who 
was going to leave for Persia presented himself ready 
to start. And Cyrus commissioned him to tell the 
Persians what has been set forth in the foregoing 
narrative and also to deliver a letter to Cyaxares. 
" Now,*' said he, " I wish to read my message to you 
also, that you may understand its contents and 
confirm the facts, if he asks you anything in 
reference to them." 

Now the contents of the letter ran as follows : 

27. " My Dear Cyaxares : Cyrus's 

answer to 

We have not left you deserted ; for no one Cyaxares 
is deserted by his friends at a time when he is con- 
quering his enemies. We do not even think that 
we have brought you into any danger through our 
departure ; but we maintain that the farther away 
we are, the greater the security we provide for you. 
28. For it is not those who sit down nearest to their 

377 



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XENOPHON 

μάΧιστα τοις φίΧοις την άσφάΚβιαν τταρίγρυσιν, 
αλλ' οί τους βχθρονς μηκιστον άττελαννοντβς 
μαΧΚον τους φίλους iv ακινΖύνω καθιστάσι, 

29. Χκέψαι Se οΐφ οντί μοί irepX σέ οϊος ων 
irepl €μ^ €ΤΓ€ίτά μοι μέμφβί. iyo) μύν ye σον 
ijyayov συμμάχους, ούχ όσους συ €7Γ€ΐσας, αλλ* 
ότΓ όσους βγω ττλβίστους ε^υνάμην συ Be μοί 
βΒωκας μλν iv Ty φίΧία οντι όσους 7Γ€Ϊσαί Βυνα- 
σθείην* νυν S* iv TJj 'ΐτοΧεμία οντος ου τον θέλοντα 
άΧΧΛ Ίτάντας άττοκαλβΐς, 30. τοι^αροΰν τότε μβν 
ω μην αμφοτίροις υμΐν χάριν οφβίλβιν νυν Bk συ 
μ άνα^κάζβίς σου μ€ν βττιλαθέσθαι, τοις Be άκο- 
Χουθησασι ττεφάσθαί ττάσαν την χάριν άποΒι- 
Βοναι, 

31. Ου μέντοί Ιγωγε σο\ όμοιος Βύναμαι yevi- 
σθαι, άΧΧλ και νυν πέμπων erri στράτευμα 
€ΐς ΤΙέρσας βττΑστελλω, οττοσοι αν ϊωσιν ώς ipA, 
ην τι συ αύτων Bijf ττρίν ημάς iXdeiv, σοι 
ύττάρχβιν, ούχ οττως αν ίθίΧωσιν, αλλ' δ7Γω9 
&ν συ βούΧτι χρησθαι αύτοΐς. 

32. ΧυμβουΧβύω Βέ σοι καίττερ νεώτερος ων 
μη άφαιρεΐσθαι hv Βφς, ίνα μη σοι αντϊ χαρίτων 
εχθραι οφείΧωνται, μηΒ^ οντινα βούΚει ττρος σε 
ταχύ iXjSeiv, άττειΚουντα μεταπέμττεσθαι, μηΒ^ 
378 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. v. 28-32 

friends that provide them with the greatest security ; 
but it is those who drive the enemy farthest away 
that help their friends most effectually out of 
danger. 

29. "And consider how I have acted toward you 
and how you have acted toward me, and yet in 
spite of all, you are finding fault with me. At all 
events, I brought you allies — ^not merely as many as 
you persuaded to come, but as many as ever I had it 
in my power to bring ; whereas you gave to me, 
when 1 was on friendly soil, as many as I could 
persuade to join me, and now when I am in the 
enemy's territory you are recalling not merely those 
who may be willing to leave me, but all my men. 
30. Indeed, I thought at that time that I was under 
obligation both to you and to your men ; but now 
you are acting so as to force me to leave you out of 
consideration and to try to devote all my gratitude 
to those who have followed me. 

31. " However,. I cannot on my part treat you in 
the same spirit as you treat me, but at this very 
moment I am sending to Persia for reinforcements, 
with directions that as many as shall come to join 
me shall l>e at your service, if you need them for 
an3rthing before we return, not as they may be 
pleased to serve, but as you may wish to employ 
them. 

32. "Furthermore, although I am a younger 
man than you, let me advise you not to take back 
what you have once given, lest ill-will be your 
due instead of gratitude, nor to summon with threats 
those whom you would have come to you quickly ; 
and again let me advise you not to employ threats 
against large numbers, while at the same time you 

379 



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XENOPHON 

φάσ κοντά βρημον etvai &μα ττοΧΚοΐς άττειΧβΐν, 
ίνα μ,η 8ι8άσκ7]ς αυτούς σον μη φροντίζβιν. 

33. Ήμεΐς Bk ττβιρασομεθα irapeivai, όταν 
τάχιστα Βιαττραξώμβθα α σοι τ αν καΐ ήμΐν 
νομίζομεν πραχθέντα Koivh γενέσθαι άηαθά, 
€ρρωσο, 

34. Ύαντην αντφ αττόδο? καϊ ο tl αν σε τούτων 
βρωτα, y ηίηραττται σύμφαθι. καϊ yap βγω irri- 
στβλλω σοί irepl ΤΙβρσων fjirep yeypairTai, 

Ύούτψ μεν οΰτως εΐττε, καϊ Βούς την εττιστοΧην 
άττέττεμιτε, ιτροσεντειΧάμενος οντω σττενΒειν ωσττερ 
olSev OTL συμφέρει ταχύ τταρεΐναι. 

35. 'El/c τούτου 8ε εώρα μεν ε ξωττΧισ μένους η8η 
ττάντας καϊ τους ΜηΒονς καΐ τους 'Ύρκανίονς καΧ 
τους άμφΐ Ύι^ράνην καΐ οι ΤΙέρσαι Sk εξωτΓΧι- 
σμενοι ^σαν ή8η Βέ τίνες των ττροσχώρων καϊ 
ΐττπους awrjyov καϊ δττΧα απέφεραν. 36. ό Sk τά 
μίν ΊταΧτα οττουπερ τους προσθεν καταβάΧΧειν 
εκέΧευσε, καϊ ίκαον οΐς τοντο έργον ην οττοσων μη 
αύτοϊ εΒέοντο' τους δ' ΐττττους εκέΧευε φυΧάττειν 
μένοντας τους ανάγοντας ίως αν τι σημανθτί 
αντοΐς' τους δ^ άρχοντας των ίτητέων καϊ *Ύρκα- 
νιων καΧέσας τοιάΒε εΧεξεν' 

37. "ΑνΒρες φίΧοι τε καϊ σύμμαχοι, μη θαυ- 
μάζετε ΟΤΙ ΤΓοΧΧάκις υμάς συγκαΧω* καινά yap 
380 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. v. 32-37 

assert that you are deserted, for fear you teach 
them to pay no attention to you. 

33. " We shall try, however, to come to you just 
as soon as we have accomplished what we think it 
would be a common benefit to you and to us to have 
done. 

Farewell. 

Cyrus." 



34. " Deliver this to him and whatever he asks Final 

i 
envoy 



you in regard to these matters, answer him • in ti'hte***"^ 
keeping with what is written. And you can do this 
with perfect truth, for my instructions to you in 
regard to the Persians correspond exactly with what 
is written in my letter." 

Thus he spoke to him and giving him the letter 
sent him away, adding the injunction that he should 
make haste as one wno knows that it is important to 
be back again promptly. 

35. At this moment he observed that all — both 
the Medes and the Hyrcanians and Tigranes's men — 
were already under arms, and the Persians also 
stood under arms. And some of the natives from 
near by were already delivering up horses and arms. 
36. And the javelins he conmaanded them to throw 
down in the same place as in the former instance, iv. ii. 33 
and they whose task this was burned all that they 
did not themselves need. But 4s for the horses, he 
commanded those who brought them to keep them 
and wait until he sent them word. Then he called 
in the officers of the cavalry and of the Hyrcanians 
and spoke as follows : 

37. " Friends and allies, do not wonder that I call 
you together so often. For our present situation is 

381 



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XENOPHON 

ημΧν οντά τά παρόντα ττολλά αύτων εστίν 
ασνντακτα* h δ' hv άσύντακτα rj, ανά/^κΎ) ταντα 
άβΐ πράγματα τταρέχβίν, &)9 αν χώραν Χάβτ}, 

38. ΚαΙ νυν βστι μεν ήμΐν πολλά τά αίχμάΧωτα 
χρήματα, καΐ avBpe^ iir αύτοΐς• Sect Se το μήτε 
ήμας εΙΒέναι ττοΐα τούτων εκάστου εστίν ήμων, 
μήτε τούτους εΙΖέναι όστις εκάστφ αύτων Se- 
στΓοτης, περαίνοντας μεν 8ή τά S^ov ταού πάνυ 
εστίν οράν αύτων ποΧΚούς, άπορουντας 8ε ο τι 
χρη ποιεΐν σχεΒον πάντας, 39. ώς οΰν μη οΰτως 
εχτ}, Βίορίσατε αυτά' /cat όστις μ^ν εΧαβε σκη- 
νην εχουσαν ικανά καΐ σΐτα και ττοτά καΐ τού^ 
ύπηρετήσοντας καΙ στρωμνην και εσθητα και 
ταλλα οίς οικείται σκηνή κμλως στρατιωτική» 
ενταύθα μεν ούΒεν ά\\ο Βεΐ προσ^ενεσθαι η τον 
Χαβόντα ειΒέναι οτι τούτων ώς οικείων επιμέλε- 
σθαι Βεΐ* δστις 8' εΙς ενΒεόμενά του κατεσκη- 
νωσε, τούτοις ύμεϊς σκεψάμενοι το ελΧεΐπον 
εκπΧηρώσατε* 40. ττολλά δέ καΐ τά περιττά οίδ 
οτι εσταΐ' πΧείω yap άπαντα ή κατά το ήμέτερον 
πΧήθος ειχον οι ποΧέμιοι. ηΧθον 8ε προς εμε και 
χρημάτων ταμίαι, οι τε του *Κσ συρίων βασιΧεως 
και αΧΧων Βυναστων, οΐ εΧε^ον οτι χρυσίον ειη 
τταρα σφίσιν επίσημον, Βασμούς τ ίνας Χε^οντες* 
41. καΐ ταντα ουν κηρύττετε πάντα 
προς υμάς οπού αν καθίζησθε' KCik 
θεσθε τω μη ποιούντι το παραγγά 
Be ΒίάΒοτε Χαβοντες Ιππεΐ μεν τύ 
382 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. v. 37-41 

novel, and many things about it are in an un- 
organized condition ; and whatever lacks organization 
must necessarily always cause us trouble until it is 
reduced to order. 

38 " We now have much spoil that we have taken, The Medes 
and men besides. But, as we do not know how much Hyrcanians 
of it belongs to each one of us, and as the captives Jj'"'55'*?J 
do not know who are their several masters, it is the spoils 
consequently impossible to see very many of them 
attending to their duty, for almost all are in doubt 
as to what they are expected to do. 39. In order, 
therefore, that this may not go on so, divide the 
spoil ; and whoever has been assigned a tent with 
plenty of food and drink and people to serve him, 
and bedding and clothing and other things with 
which a soldier s tent should be furnished so as to be 
comfortable — in such a case nothing more need be 
added, except that he who has received it should be 
given to understand that he must take care of it as 
his own. But if any one has got into quarters that 
lack something, do you make a note of it and supply 
the want. 40. And I am sure that what is left over 
will be considerable, for the enemy had more of 
everything than is required by our numbers. 
Furthermore, the treasurers, both of the Ass3nian 
king and of the other monarch s, have come to me to 
report that they have gold coin in their possession, by 
which they referred to certain payments of tribute. 
41. Notify them, therefore, to deliver all this also to 
you, wherever you have your headquarters. And 
give that man reason to fear who shall not do as 
you command. And do you take the money and 
pay it out to the cavalry and infantry in the pro- 
portion of two to one, in order that you may all 

383 



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XENOPHON 

το άττλονν, ίνα εχητβ, ην τίνος ττροσΒέησθβ, καΧ 
ότου ωνησεσθε. 

42. Την δ' α/γοραν την οΰσαν iv τφ στρατοττέΒω 
κηρυξάτω /χέι/ ή8η, βφη, μη aStfceiv μηΒένα, ττωΧβΐν 
Sk τους καττηΧους δ τι €χ€ί ίκαστος ττράσιμον^ καΧ 
ταύτα 8ίαθ€μ€νους άΧΧα ayevv, οττως οίκήται ήμΐν 
το στρατοΊτεΖον, 

43. Ύαΰτα μ^ν έκηρυττον €ύθύς. οι δέ M^jSot 
κα\ *Ύρκάνιοι elirov ώ䀕 ΚαΙ ττάς αϊ/, ίφασαν^ 
ήμ€Ϊς άνευ σου και των σων 8ιαν€μοιμ€ν ταύτα; 

44. Ό δ' αδ ΚΟρο? προς τούτον τον Xoyov ώδβ 
ττροσηνέχθη' *Η yap ούτως, βφη, ω ανΒρες, γ^γι/ώ- 
σκβτ€ ως ο tl &ν Serj ττραχθήναι, iiri ττασι ττάντας 
ημάς 8€ησ€ί παρεΐναί, καΧ oire^iyio άρκβσω ττράτ- 
των τι ττρο υμών 6 τι αν Sirj, ούτε ύμεΐς ττρο 
ημών; και πως &ν αΧΧως ττΧύω μεν πράγματα 
εχοιμεν, μείω δέ Βιαττραττοίμεθα η ούτως; 
45. άΧΧ\ οράτε, εφη• ημείς μεν yhp ίιεφυΧάξαμεν 
τε ύμΐν τά8ε, καΐ ύμεΐς ήμΐν πιστεύετε καΧως Sia- 
πεφυΧάχθαι* ύμεΐς δ' αύ διανείματε, κάί ημείς 
πιστεύσομεν ύμΐν καΧώς Βιανενεμηκέναι, 46. καΐ 
αΧΧο Βε τι αύ ήμεΐς πειρασομεθα κοινον ayaOov 
πράττει ν. οράτε yap 8η, εφη, νυνί πρώτον ΐπποι 
όσοι ήμΐν πάρεισιν, οΐ Βε πpoσάyovτaι^ τούτους 
ούν ει μ^ν εάσομεν άναμβάτους, ώφεΧήσουσι μεν 
ούΒεν ή μας, πράηματα δέ παρέζουσιν επιμεΧεσθαΐ' 
ήν δ' ιππέας βττ' αυτούς καταστήσωμεν, αμα ττ/οαγ- 
μάτων τε απαΧΧαξόμεθα καΐ ίσχύν ήμΐν αύτοΐς 
προσθησόμεθα, 47. ει μ^ν ούν άΧΧους έχετε 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. v. 41-47 ^ 

have the wherewithal to buy whatever you still may 
need. 

42. «Further/* he added, "let the herald 
proclaim that no one shall interfere with the market 
in the camp, but that the hucksters may sell what 
each of them has for sale and, when they have 
disposed of that, get in a new stock, that our camp 
may be supplied." 

43. And they proceeded at once to issue the 
proclamation. But the Medes and Hyrcanians 
a^ked : " How could we divide this spoil without help 
from you and your men ? " 

44. And Cyrus in turn answered their question as 
follows : " Why, my good men, do you really suppose 
that we must all be present to oversee everything 
that has to be done, and that I shall not be 
competent in case of need to do anything on your 
behalf, nor you again on ours ? How else could we 
make more trouble and accomplish less than in this 
way } 45. No," said he ; " you must look to it ; 
for we have kept it for you and you must have 
confidence in us that we have kept it well ; now for 
your part, do you divide it, and we shall have the 
same confidence in your dividing it fairly. 46. And 
there is something more that we, on our part, shall 

try to gain for the common advantage. For here, Cyrue asks 
you observe, first of all, how ipany horses we horses^for 
have right now, and more are being brought We Persians 
in. If we leave them without riders, they will 
be of no use to us but will only give us the 
trouble^ of looking after them ; but if we put riders 
upon them, we shall at the same time be rid of the 
trouble and add strength to ourselves. 47. If, 
therefore, you have others to whom you would rather 

385 

VOL. I. C C 



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XENOPHON 

οίστίσ^ν &v Βοίητ€ αυτούς, μ^θ* &ν &ν καΐ kivSv^- 
vevoire ήΒων, €Ϊ τι Beot, tj μβθ^ ημών, ifceivoi^ 
8ί8οτ€* el μέντοί ήμας βούλβσθβ τταραστάτας &ν 
μάΧιστα εχβιν ημΐν αύτού<ζ Β6τ€, 48, καΐ γάρ 
νυν δτ€ avev ημών ττροσέλΛσαντβς iKtvBvvevere, 
ττόΚύν μβν φόβον ημΖν irapeixcTC μη τι ττάϋητ^, 
μά\α Bk αΙσχνν€σθαι ημάς €*ΐΓ0ΐησατ€ οτι ου 
τταρήμβν δττονττβρ ύμ€Ϊς* tjv Bk Χάβωμεν τους 
ΐττίΓονς, ίψόμβθα νμΐν, 49. κάν fiev Βοκωμβν 
ώφέΚεΐν ττΧίον αττ αντων ^ συνα^γωνιζομενοι, ούτω 
ττροθνμίας ovBkv €\\€ίψομ£ν' ην δέ πεζοί yevo- 
μβνοι Βοκωμβν καφιωτέρως &ν τταρεΐνοΛ, το τ€ 
καταβηναι iv μέσφ καϊ ευθύς ττεζοϊ υμΖν ηταρεσο- 
μέθα* τους S' ϊτητονς μηχανησόμεθα οίς αν 
τταραΒοίημεν, 

50. Ό μεν όντως ΐΚεξβν οί δέ άττβκρίναντο' 
'Αλλ' ήμβΐς μέν, & Kvpe, οΰτ ανΒρας βγρμεν οί>ς 
άναβιβάσαιμεν &ν €7γΙ τούτους τους ΐτητους, οΰτ el 
€Ϊχο/ιεν, σου ταύτα βουΧομένου αΧΚο αν άι/τΙ τού- 
των 'ηρούμεθα, καΧ νυν, εφασαν, τούτους Χαβων 
ποίει οττως άριστον σοι Βοκεΐ είναι. 

51. 'Αλλά Βεχομαί τε, εφη, καϊ ayaOfj τύχτ) 
ημείς τε Ιτητεΐς ^ενοίμεθα καΧ νμεΐς ΒιέΧοιτε τίί 
κοινά, ττρωτον pkv οΰν τοις θεοΐς, ^φη, εξαιρείτε 
ο τι &ν οί μώγοι εζηγωνται* εττειτα Βε και Κυα- 
ζάρτί εκΧΪξασθε οττοΐ &ν οϊεσθε αύτφ μάΧιστα 
χαρίζεσθαι. 

52. Καϊ οΐ ^εΧάσαντες εΐττον οτι ψ)ναικας 
εξαιρετέον εΐη. 

Τνναΐκάς τε τοίνυν εξαιρείτε, εφη, καϊ αΧΧο ο 
^ dir*^abr&p Cobet, Edd. ; ^ir* αύτων xz ; Μ των ίτητωρ D. 
386 ; 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. v. 47-52 

give them and with whom you would rather go into 
danger, if need should be, than with us, offer them 
the horses. If, however, you should wish to have us 
as your ccmirades in preference to others, give them 
to us. 48. And I have good reasons for asking ; for 
just now when you rode on into danger without us, 
you filled us with apprehension lest something should 
happen to you and made us very much ashamed 
because we were not at your side. But if we get the 
horses, we shall follow you next time. 49. And if 
it seems that we are of more use to you by 
fighting with you on horseback, in that case we shall 
not fail for want of courage. But if it seems that by 
turning footmen again we could assist to better 
advantage, it will be qpen to us to dismount and at 
once stand by you^ as foot soldiers ; and as for the 
horses, we shall manage to find some one to whom we 
may entrust them." 

50. Thus he spoke, and they made answer: 
*' Well, Cyrus, we have no men whom we could 
mount upon these horses ; and if we had, we should 
not choose to make any other disposition of them, 
since this is what you desire. So now," they added, 
'^ take them and do as you think best." 

51. ^^Well," said he, "I accept them; may good He suggests 
fortune attend our turning into horsemen and your ^tfu for 
dividing the common spoils. In the first place, set others 
apart for the gods whatever the magi direct, as they 
interpret the will of the gods. Next select for 
Cyaxares also whatever you think would be most 
acceptable to him." 

52. They laughed and said that they would have 
to choose women for him. 

"Choose women then," said he, "and whatever 

387 
c c 2 



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XENOPHPN 

Tt αν hoKTJ νμΐν. hreiZav δ' έχείνφ έξβΚητε, τους 
€βΐοί, & 'Ύρκάνιοί, εθελουσίους τούτους ίτησιτο- 
μένους ιτάντας άμέμτττους 7Γ0ΐ€Ϊτ€ eh Βύραμιν. 

53. 'Ύμ€Ϊς δ' αδ, & MrjSoi, τους ττρωτους 
συμμάγρυς yevo μένους τιμάτε τούτους, δττως €υ 
βεβουΧεΰσθαι η'γησωνται ημΖν φίλοι 'γ€νόμ€νοί. 
ν€ίματ€ Se ιτάντων το μέρος καΧ τω τταρα Κ,υαξά- 
ρου ήκοντι αύτω τ€ καΧ τοις μετ αυτού' καΐ συν- 
8ιαμέν€ΐν δέ τταρακαΧεΐτε, ως έμοί τούτο συνΒοκούν, 
ίνα κα\ Κυαζάρτ) μάλλον βΙΒως irepX έκαστου 
(ΐΊταγ^βίλτι τά οντά. 54. ΥΙέρσαις δ', έφη, τοις μ€τ' 
εμού, δσα &ν TreptTTct ^γένηται υμών καλώς κατε- 
σκ€υασ μένων, ταύτα αρκέσει• καΐ yap, εφη, μάλα 
νως ημείς ουκ εν χλιΒΎ} τείψάμμεθα άΧλα χωρι- 
τικως, ώστε ϊσως αν ημών καταηέλάσαιτε, ει τι 
σεμνον ήμΐν νεριτεθείη, ωσττερ, εφη, olS" οτι 
ΤΓολύν υμΐν γέλωτα τταρέξομεν καί εττΐ των ΐτητων 
καθήμενοι, οΐμαι δ', εφη, και εττΐ της Ύης κατά- 
ττίτΓτοντες. 

55. Έλτ τούτου οι μεν γσαν εττΐ την Βιαίρεσιν, 
μάλα ετΓΐ τφ ίτητικφ 'γελωντες' 6 Βε τους ταξιάρ- 
χους καλέσας εκέλευσε τους ίππους λαμβάνειν 
καΧ τα των ίππων σκεύη και τους ίπποκόμους, 
καΐ άριθμησαντας Βιαλαβεΐν ^ κληρωσαμένους εις 
τάξιν ϊσους εκάστοις. 

56. Αύθις δέ ό Κύρος άνειπεΐν εκέλευσεν, ει τις 
εϊη εν τφ ^ Ασσυρίων ή %ύρων fj ^Αραβίων στρα- 
τεύματι άνηρ Βούλος ή Μ,ήΒων η ΤΙερσων ή Βα- 
κτρίων ή Κάρων ή Κιλίκων ή ^Έΐλλήνων η αλλοθέν 
πόθεν βεβιασμένος, εκφαίνεσθαι, 57. οι hk άκού- 

^ Ζια\αβ€ΐν Hug, Marchant, GemoU ; Καβΰν MSS., earlier 
Edd. 

388 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. ν 52-57 

else you please. And when you have made your 
choice for him, then do you Hyrcanians do all you 
can to see that all those who volunteered to follow 
me have no cause to complain. 

53. *^ And do you Medes, in your turn, show honour 
to those who first became our allies, that they may 
think that they have been well advised in becoming 
our friends. And allot his proper share of every- 
thing to the envoy who came from Cyaxares and to 
those who attended him ; and invite him also to stay 
on with us (and give him to understand that this is my 
pleasure also), so that he may know better the true 
state of things and report the facts to Cyaxares con- 
. ceming each particular. 54. As for the Persians with The 
me," he said, "what is left after you are amply pro- wiifbe^con- 
vided for will suffice for us ; for we have not been tent with 
reared in any sort of luxury, but altogether in rustic ^ ^ 
fashion, so that you would perhaps laugh at us, if 
anything gorgeous were to be put upon us, even as we 
shall, I know, furnish you no little cause for laughter 
when we are seated upon our horses, and, I presume,'* 
he added, " when we fall off upon the ground." 

55. Hereupon they proceeded to the division of ThespoUs 
the spoil, laughing heartily at his joke about the ^^^ divided 
Persian horsemanship, while he called his captains 

and ordered them to take the horses and the grooms 
and the trappings of the horses, and to count them 
off and divide them by lot so that they should each 
have an equal share for each company. 

56. And again Cyrus ordered proclamation to be Cyrus finds 
made that if there were any one from Media or Persia Ss^Pera^ann 
or Bactria or Caria or Greece or anj^where else forced 

into service as a slave in the army of the Assyrians or 
Syrians or Arabians, he should show himself. 57. And 

389 



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XENOPHON 

σαντ€<ζ του κήρυκος άσμενοί ττόλΧοϊ ιτρουφάρησαν^ 
6 S* έκΧεξάμβνος αύτων τους τά €ΪΒη βέλτιστους 
eXeyev οτι ελβυθέρους αυτούς οντάς Ββησα οττλα 
υτΓοφέρβιν hv αύτοΐς 8ι8ωσΐ' τά δ' βττίτήΒβια οττως 
άν ίχωσιν ίφη αύτφ μ€\ήσ€ΐν, 

58. ΚαΙ βύθύς ay ων ττρος τους ταξιάρχους 
συνέστησβν αυτούς, καΧ βκέλβυσβ τά τβ yippa κα\ 
τας ψιΧά,ς μαχαίρα^ς τούτοις Βοΰναι, οττως έχοντες 
συν τοις ΐτητοις &πωνται, κα\ τάττιτηΖβια τούτοις 
ωσττερ καΐ τοις μ€Ί αυτού ΙΙέρσαις Χαμβάνβιν, 
αυτούς Be τους θώρακας καΧ τά ξυστά, έχοντας ael 
iiri των ΐτητων οχεΐσθαι, καΐ αύτος οΰτω ττοιων ' 
κατηρχεν, βττΐ δέ τους ττεζούς των ομότιμων ανθ* 
αυτού €καστον καθιστάναι αΧΚον άρχοντα των 
ομότιμων. 



VI 



1. ΟΓ μέν Βη άμφϊ ταΰτα €Ϊχον. Γωβρύας δ' iv 
τούτφ τταρήν ^Ασσύριος ττρβσβύτης ανηρ βφ' ίπ- 
ποι; συν ίτητικτ} θερατΓβία* είχον Be ^ττάντες τά 
έφίτητων ΟΊτλα, καΧ οι μεν ewl τφ τα οττΧα τταρα- 
Χαμβάνβιν TeTaypAvoi €Χ€λευον τταραΒιΒόναι τά 
ξυστά, δπως κατακάοιεν ωσττερ ταλλα. ό δέ 
Τωβρύας elirev οτι Κΰρον ττρωτον βούλοιτο iBeiv 
καΐ οι ύπηρέται τους μ^ν αΧΚους ίτητέας αυτού 

^ Ίτρουφάνησαν Edd. ; ιτρο(•σ 1))€ψάίτησαν MSS. 

390 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. v. 57-vi. i 

when they heard the herald's proclamation^ many 
came forward gladly. And he selected the finest 
looking of them and told them that they should be 
made free, but that they would have to act as 
carriers of any arms given them to carry ; and for 
their sustenance he himself, he said, would make 
provision. 

58. And so he led them at once to his captains 
and presented them, bidding his men give them 
their shields and swords without belts, that they 
might carry them and follow after the horses. 
Furthermore, he bade his captains draw rations for 
them just as for the Persians under him. The 
Persians, moreover, he bade always ride on horseback 
with their corselets and lances, and he himself set 
the example of doing so. He also instructed each 
one of the newly-mounted officers to appoint some 
other peer to take his place of command over the 
infantry of the peers. 



VI 

1. Thus, then, they were occupied. Meanwhile The arrival 
Gobryas, an Assyrian, a man well advanced in years, ^^ Q^bryas 
came up on horseback with a cavalry escort ; and they 
all carried cavalry weapons. And those who were 
assigned to the duty of receiving the weapons 
ordered them to surrender their spears, that they 
might bum them as they had done with the rest. 
But Gobryas said that he wished to see Cyrus first. 
Then the officers left the rest of the horsemen there. 



39 ί 



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XENOPHON 

κατέΧιΤΓον, τον Be Τωβρύαν ayovai ττ/οο? top 
ΈΛρον. 6 δ' ώ9 elhe τον Κνρον, €\€ξ€ν ώδβ• 

2. *Ω δβστΓΟτα, εγώ εΙμι το μ€Ρ y€vo^*Aaavpio<i• 
€χω Bk καΧ τβίχο? Ισγυρον καϊ χώρα<; βττάρ'χω 
7Γθλλ^9' καΧ ΐτητον Ιχω et9 χΟύαν, fjv τω των 
^Ασσνρίων βασιΚεΐ τταρειχομην και φιλο<; f^v 
έκβίνφ ώ9 μάλιστα* iirei Se €Κ€Ϊνος τέθνηκβν νή> 
νμων άνηρ άγα^09 ων, 6 Se παις ixeivov την 
αρχήν €χ€ΐ βχθιστος ων βμοί, ήκω ιτρος σε καΧ 
ικέτης προσπίπτω κα\ 8ί8ωμί σοι έμαντον SovXov 
καϊ σνμμαχον, σε δέ τιμωρον αιτούμαι €μοΙ 
γενέσθαι* και παιΖα όντως ως 8υνατόν σε ποι- 
ούμαι* απαις S* eipX αρρένων παίΒων. 3. ος yap 
^ν μοι μονός καΐ καΧος κayaβoς, ω Βέσποτα, καϊ 
έμ^ φίλων και τιμών ωσπερ &ν εύΒαίμονα πάτερα 
παις τιμών τιθείη, τούτον 6 νυν βασιλεύς οΰτος 
καλεσαντος του τότε βασιλέως, πατρός Βε τον 
νυν, ως Βώσοντος την dvyaTepa τφ εμω παιΒί, βγω 
μεν άπεπεμψάμην μέτγα φρονών οτι Βηθεν της 
βασιλέως θvyaτpoς οψοίμην τον εμον νιον yapA- 
την 6 Bk νυν βασιλεύς εις θηραν αντον πάρα- 
καλέσας καϊ άνεις αντφ θηραν avh κράτος, ώς 
πολύ κρείττων αντον ίππεύς ήyovμεvoς είναι, 6 
μέν ώς φίλφ σννεθηρα, φανείσης Bk αρκτον Βιώ- 
κοντές αμφότεροι, ό μλν ννν άρχων οντος άκοντί- 
σας ήμαρτεν, ώς μηποτε ώφελεν, ό δ* εμος παις 
βαλών, ονΒεν Βέον, καταβάλλει τί/ν αρκτον. 



392 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. vi. 1-3 

but Gobiyas they conducted to Cyrus. 2. And when 
he safw Cyius, he spoke as follows : 

" Sire, I am by birth an Ass3nrian ; I have also/ His story 
a castle, and wide are the domains which I govern. 
I have also about a thousand horse which I used 
to put at the disposal of the Assyrian king, and I 
used to be his most devoted friend. But since he 
has been slain by you, excellent man that he was, 
and since his son, who is my worst enemy, has 
succeeded to his crown, I have come to you and fallj 
a suppliant at your feet. I offer myself to be your 
vassal and ally and ask that you will be my avenger ; 
and thus, in the only way I may, I make you my 
son, for I have no male child more. 3. For he 
who was my son, my only son, a beautiful and 
brave young man. Sire, and one who loved me and 
paid me the filial reverence that would make a 
father happy — ^ him this present king — ^ when 
the old king, the father of the present ruler, invited 
my son to his court purposing to give him his 
daughter in marriage — and I let him go ; for I was 
proud that, as I flattered myself, I should see my 
son wedded to the king's daughter— then, I say, 
the man who is now king invited him to go hunting 
with him and gave him permission to do his best in 
the chase, for he thought that he himself was a 
much better rider than my son. And my boy went 
hunting with him as his friend, and when a bear 
came out, they both gave chase and the present 
ruler let fly his javelin but missed.• Oh ! would to 
God he had not ! Then my son threw (as he should 
not have done) and brought down the bear. 

^ The grief-stricken father's recital is broken with sobs ; 
the sentences begun are never finished. 

393 



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XENOPHON 

4. xal t6t€ μλν Βη avLaOeh ap OVT09 κατ€σχ€ν viro 
σκοτου τον φθόνον ώ<ζ Sk ιτάΚιν Χέοντος ΤΓαρα- 
τυχόντος 6 μ^ν ai ημαρτ€ν, ovSev θαυμαστον 
όΐμαι Ίταθών, 6 δ' αΰ €μος παις αΰθις τυχών 
fcuTeipyaaaTO τ€ τον Χέοντα καΧ elirev, *Α/οα β4^ 
βληκα SU ίφζξης καΧ καταβέβληκα θήρα βκα- 
τβράκίς, €v τούτφ Stf ούκέτι κατίσχει 6 ανόσιος 
τον φθόνον, αλλ' αίχμην ναρά τίνος των ίττομένων 
άρπάσας, παίσας βίς τα στέρνα τον μόνον μοι καΐ 
φίλον παΐ^α άφζίλετο την ψιτχην. 5. κάτγω μβν 
ο τάΧας νβκρον άντΙ νυμφίου εκομ^σάμην καΐ 
έθαψα τηλιχοΰτος tbv άρτι ^ενειάσκοντα τον 
άριστον iraiha τον ά^απητόν* ο ik κατακανων 
ωστΓ€ρ εχθρον αττοΧέσας οΰτ€ μεταμεΧόμενος 
ττώποτε φανερός ε^ενετο ούτε άντΙ του κάκου 
ερ^ου τιμής τίνος ήξίωσε τον κατά, γης. ο γε μην 
ττατηρ αυτού καΐ συνφκτισέ με καϊ ΖήΧος ήν συν- 
αχθόμενός μοι Trj συμφορφ. 6. εγώ oiv, el μ^ν 
εζη εκείνος, ουκ αν νότε ήΧθον προς σέ επΙ τφ 
εκείνου κακψ ττολλά γάρ φιΧικίί irroBov tnr 
εκείνου καΐ υπηρέτησα εκείνφ• 4πεΙ δ' €^9 τον του 
ίμοΰ παιΒος φονέα ή άρχη περιήκει, ουκ αν ποτέ 
τούτφ βγω Βυναίμην εΰνους γενέσθαι, ονδέ ούτος 
εμε εΰ oiS* οτι φίΧον αν ποτέ ήγησαιτο, ο18ε yap 
ως εγω προς αύτον εχω καϊ ως πρόσθεν φαιΒρως 
βιοτευων νυν Βιάκειμαι, Ιρημος ων και Sui πένθους 
το γήρας Βιώγων. 

7. Ει οΰν συ με Βεχει καϊ εΧπίΒα τινά Χάβοιμι 
τφ φίΧφ παώΐ τιμωρίας αν τίνος μετά σου τυχεΐν, 
καϊ άνηβήσαι &ν πάΧιν Βοκω μοι καΐ ούτε ζων &ν 

394 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV, vi. 4-7 

4. And then that man was vexed, to be sure, as 
it proved, but covered his jealousy in darkness. 
But when again a lion appeared, he missed again. 
There was nothing remarkable in that, so far as 
I can see ; but again a second time my son hit 
his mark and killed the lion and cried, ^Have 
I not thrown twice in succession and brought an 
animal down each time ! * Then that villain no The murder 
longer restrained his jealous wrath but, snatching ®^ ^^ ^^ 
a spear from one of the attendants, smote him in 
the breast — my son, my only, well-loved son — and 
took away his life. 5. And I, unhappy I, received 
back a corpse instead of a bridegroom, and, old man 
that I am, I buried with the first down upon his cheeks 
my best, my well-beloved son. But the murderer, as if 
he had slain an enemy, has never shown any repent- 
ance, nor has he, to make amends for his wicked deed, 
ever deigned to show any honour to him beneath the 
earth. His father, however, expressed his sorrow for 
me and showed that he sympathized with me in my 
affliction. 6. And so, if he were living, I should 
never have come to you in a way to do hini harm ; 
for I have received many kindnesses at his hands 
and I have done him many services. But since the 
sceptre has passed on to the murderer of my son, I 
could never be loyal to him and I am sure that he 
would never regard me as a friend. For he knows 
how I feel toward him and how dark my life now is, 
though once it was so bright ; for now I am forsaken 
and am spending my old age in sorrow. 

7. ^^ If, therefore, you will receive me and I may 
find some hope of getting with your help some _ * 
vengeance for my dear son, I think that I should 
find my youth again. and, if I live, I should no longer 

395 



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XENOPHON 

€Tt αίσχυνοίμ,ην ovre άττοθνήσκων άνιωμ€νος αν 
reXevrav 8οκω. 

8. Ό μίρ οΰτως elire• Κΰρος δ' άττεκρίνατο, 
'Αλλ* ηντΓβρ, ω Τωβρνα, καί φρονων φαίντ) οσα- 
7Γ€ρ λβγβ^ς 7Γ/0Ο9 ΐ7/Αα9, Βέχομαί re ίκέτηρ σ€ καΐ 
τιμωρήσειν σοι του σταώο^ σύν deois υττισγνονμαι. 
Χέξον Si μοι, ίφη, iav σοι ταύτα ττοιωμβν καΐ τά 
τβίχη σ€ βχειν i&p£v κα\ την γώραν και τα oifKa 
καΧ την Βύναμιν ηντΓ€ρ ττρόσθβν βΖχες, συ ήμΖν τί 
άντΙ τούτων ύπηρβτήσεις; 

9. Ό Sk €ΪΐΓ€, Τά μίν τ€ίχη, όταν Ιλ^ι/^, οΙκόν 
σοι παρέξω' Βα^μον δέ της χώρας ovirep ίφερον 
ίκ€ίνφ σοΙ άτΓΟίσω χαΐ οττοι &ν στρατζύτι, συστρα- 
τβύσομαι την ifc της χώρας Βύναμιν έχων, ίστι Βέ 
μοι, ίώη, καϊ θυ^άτηρ τταρθίνος άτγαττητη άγαμου 
ήΒη ωραία, ήν iyo^ ττροσθ^ν pkv φμην τφ νυν 
βασιλβνοντι ^γυναίκα τρέφβιν νυν Bk αύτη τέ μοι 
ή θυ^άτηρ iroXkh 'γοωμβνη ίκέτ€υσ€ μη Βοΰναι 
αύτί^ν τφ του άΒεΚφοϋ ώονεΐ, εγώ τ€ ωσαύτως 
ηνγνώσκω. νυν Be σοι Βίοωμι βουΧξύσασθαι καΐ 
irepX ταύτης ούτως ωσιτερ &ν και βγω βουΧβύων 
irepl σέ φαίνωμαι. 

10. Οιίτω Βη 6 Κνρος elirev, ΈττΙ τούτοις, ίφη, 
iyo) άΧηθβυομένοις ΒίΒωμί σοι την €μ}}ν καΐ "λαμ- 
βάνω την σην Β€ξιάν* θεοί δ' ημΐν μάρτυρ€ς 
ίστων» 

ΈτΓβΙ Bk ταύτα ίττράχθη, άττιέναι τ€ κέΚεύβι 
τον Τωβρύαν ίχοντα τά οττλα καΐ έττηρετο πόση 
τις οΒος ως αύτον €Ϊη, ως ήξων. 6 δ' eXeyev, *Ην 
αΰριον ϊχις ττρω, τ^ iripa &ν αύΤύζοιο τταρ ημΐν, 

1 1 . Ούτω Βη ούτος μβν φχετο ηη€μ6να καταΧι- 
39^ 



y Google 



CYROPAEDIA, IV. vi 7-1 1 

live in shame ; and if I die^ I think that I should die 
without a regret.** 

8. Thus he spoke ; and Cyrus answered : ^' Well, Cyrus and 
Gobryas, if you prove that you really mean all ^k7J® 
that you say to us, I not only receive you as a compact 
suppliant, but promise you with the help of the 

gods to avenge the murder of your son. But tell 
me,** said he, ^^ if we do this for you and let you keep 
your castle and your province and the power which 
you had before, what service will you do us in return 
for that?** 

9. "The castle,'* he answered, "I will give you 
for your quarters when you come ; the tribute of the 
province, which before I used to pay to him, I will 
pay to you ; and whithersoever you march I will march 
with you at the head of the forces of my province. Be- 
sides,* 'said he, "I have a daughter, a maiden well- 
beloved and already ripe for marriage. I used once to 
think that I was rearing her to be the bride of the 
present king. But now my daughter herself has be- 
sought me with many tears not to give her to her 
brothers murderer; and I am so resolved myself. 
And now I leave it to you to deal with her as I shall 
prove to deal with. you.** 

10. " According as what you have said is true,*' 
Cyrus then made answer, " I give you my right hand 
and take yours. The gods be our witnesses.** 

When this was done he bade Gobryas go and keep 
his arms ; he also asked him how far it was to his 
place, for he meant to go there. And he said : 
'^If you start to-morrow early in the morning, 
you would spend the night of the second day 
with us.*' 

11. With these words he was gone, leaving a guide 

397. 



y Google 



XENOPHON 

ττών. οί δέ ΜήΒοι fraprjaav, α ^ μβν οι μά'γοι 
ίφασαν τοις deoi^ efeXeii/, airohovre^i τοί<ζ μάτ/οι^^ 
Κνρφ δ* €ξ'ηρηκ6τ€^ την καΧΧίστην σκηνην καϊ 
την ΧουσίΒα ywcuxa, fj καΧλίστη 8η Xeyerai iv 
τ^ Άσ/α yvvrj ycviadai, καΐ μουσονρ^γονς Se 8ύο 
τά? κρατίστας' hetnepov he Κναξάρ^ τά BevTcpa' 
τοιαύτα δέ αΧΚα ων iSiovTO eavToU ίκττΧηρώσαν' 
Τ€9, ώ9 μηΒ€νο<; βνΒ^ομενοι στρατ€ύωνταΐ' ττάντα 
yap tiv ΤΓολλά. 

1 2. ΤΙροσέΧαβον Si seal 'Tpscavioi ων iBeovro' 
Ισομοιρον Be έττοίησαν και, τον τταρα Κναζάρου 
ayyeXov τάς Be ττβ/ΟΑΤτά? σκηνάς δσαι ήααν 
Κνρφ τταρέΒοσαν, ως τοΐς Tlepaat^ yevoiVTo, το 
Βέ νόμισμα βφασαν, irreiB^v ατταν ονΧΧβχθτ}, 
ΒιαΒώσβιν καί ΒιίΒωκαν. 

ϊ Λ Stephanus, Edd.; rk MSS. 



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CYROPAEDIA, IV. vi. 11-12 

behind. And then the Medes came in, after they How the 
had delivered to the magi what the magi had 5^,^*^"'® 
directed them to set apart for the gods. And they 
had selected for Cyrus the most splendid tent and 
the lady of Susa, who was said to be the most 
beautiful woman in Asia, and two of the most 
accomplished music-girls ; and afterward they had 
selected for Cyaxares the next best. They had also 
supplied themselves with such" other things as they 
needed, so that they might continue the campaign 
in want of nothing ; for there was an abundance of 
everything. 

12. And the Hyrcanians also took what they 
wanted ; and they made the messenger from 
Cyaxares share alike with them. And all the tents 
that were left over they delivered to Cyrus for the 
use of his Persians. The coin they said they would 
divide, as soon as it was all collected ; and this they 
did. 



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